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Psychology Exam Two

The process of retaining information in memory so that it can be used at a later time
Storage
According to the stage model of memory
memory involves the stages of sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory
As you read this question, you consciously process the meaning of the words in
short-term memory
What happens to information in short-term memory that is not further processed or rehearsed?
The information faced or decays
According to George Miller, the capacity of working memory is
about seven items at one time
Merely repeating information over and over is called ____, while focusing on the meaning of the information is called ____.
maintenance rehearsal, elaborative rehearsal
The capacity of long-term memory
seems to be limitless
Although she had not made one in years, Evelyn carefully folded a piece of paper to make a paper airplane for her grandson. Evelyn’s ability to perform this task is an example of
procedural memory
After being presented with a list of 30 random words, Jenn was asked to recall as many words as she could. In recalling the words, Jenn remember groups of related words, just as hard, flute, and piano. Jenn’s pattern of answers during recall demonstrates
clustering
The tip-of-the-tongue experience is a common example of
retrieval failure
Essay tests are to ____ as matching tests are to _____
free recall, cued recall
Which of the following is an example of the encoding specificity principle
mood congruence
How are flashbulb memories different from ordinary memories
People have a higher degree of confidence in the accuracy of flashbulb memories
Based on his research, Ebbinghaus found that
the amount of forgetting eventually levels off, and the memories that remain are stable over time
The inability to recall information that was previously available to memory is called
forgetting
If you cannot remember which US president is pictures on the $5 bill, the reason is most likely
encoding failure
People are more likely to have deja vu experiences if they
are well-educated, frequently watch movies, and travel a lot
When a new memory interferes with an old memory, ____ is said to have occured
retroactive interference
According to Freud, ____ memories remain unconscious yet are still capable of influencing behavior and personality
repressed
In a study by Elizabeth Loftus, subjects watched a film of an automobile accident, then answered a series of questions, including one asking them to estimate the speed of the cars. What factor affected the subjects’ estimate of how fast the cars in the film were traveling?
whether the word *contacted, hit, bumped, or smashed* was used in the question
The inability to remember past events is called ____, and the inability to form new memories is called ____.
retrograde amnesia, anterograde amnesia
To David Wechsler, intelligence is reflected in
effective, rational, and goal-directed behavior
Thirteen-year-old Sydney’s IQ score on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence test was 130. It is likely that her mental age is
15
Your text notes the misuse of group intelligence tests shortly after WWI. Specifically, group intelligence tests were inappropriately administered to
newly arriving immigrants to the US
A test designed to measure a person’s level of knowledge
achievement test
Amy is applying for a job at a large multinational corporation. As a part of the job application process, she is given a test to see if she is suited to work in sales. This is an
intelligence test
Wechsler’s test provided scores on 11 subtests measuring different abilities, which were grouped to provide an overall ____ and ____ for the test taker
verbal score, performance score
A new achievement test had test and retest scores that were highly correlated, but it was unclear if the test was actually measuring achievement in the content areas that it claimed to assess. This new test has
high reliability but low validity
Approximately what percentage of people will have IQ scores between 85 and 115?
68 percent
Which of the following statements regarding the determination of intelligence is FALSE?
Twin studies have helped scientists better understand the contributions of heredity and environment to intelligence
A s