Searching for an essay?

Browse the database of more than 4500 essays donated by our community members!

HR chapter 8

Managers need to constantly engage in a dialogue with their subordinates.
a. True
b. False
True
Most performance appraisals focus on long-term improvement, rather than short-term achievements.
a. True
b. False
False
The two most common purposes of performance management programs are administrative and developmental.
a. True
b. False
True
The federal government began evaluating employees in 1842.
a. True
b. False
True
Developmental purposes for performance appraisal include identifying strengths and weaknesses and improving communication.
a. True
b. False
True
Developmental purposes for performance appraisal include evaluating goal achievement and validating selection criteria.
a. True
b. False
False
Developmental purposes for performance appraisal include evaluating training programs and determining promotion candidates.
a. True
b. False
False
. Studies have shown that employees who earn performance-based pay are more satisfied.
a. True
b. False
True
Performance management programs can be used for many purposes, including promotions, transfers, layoffs, and pay decisions.
a. True
b. False
True
. Performance evaluations are simply a logical extension of the day-to-day performance management process.
a. True
b. False
True
Managers may deflate performance ratings to make themselves look good as managers.
a. True
b. False
False
. Criterion deficiency occurs when performance standards focus on a single criterion and exclude other important but less quantifiable performance dimensions.
True
Criterion deficiency occurs when performance standards have not been properly established and communicated to the employee.
a. True
b. False
False
Criterion contamination occurs when different supervisors have different and inconsistent ratings of an employee’s performance.
a. True
b. False
False
Criterion contamination occurs when factors outside an employee’s control influence his or her performance.
a. True
b. False
True
According to a Supreme Court ruling, performance appraisals are subject to the same validity criteria as selection procedures.
a. True
b. False
True
17. The HR department rarely has the primary responsibility for overseeing and coordinating a firm’s performance management system.
a. True
b. False
False
. Employees should be given a written copy of their job standards in advance of their performance evaluations.
a. True
b. False
True
. An appeals process is only necessary for administrative appraisals.
a. True
b. False
False
. In most instances, one person can easily observe and evaluate an employee’s performance.
a. True
b. False
False
Criterion deficiency refers to the extent to which the standards of an appraisal relate to the strategic objectives of the organization in which they are applied.
a. True
b. False
False
Self-evaluations are often best used for developmental purposes rather than for administrative decisions.
a. True
b. False
True
Self-evaluations should be used primarily for administrative purposes.
a. True
b. False
False
Subordinate evaluations are useful for rating on dimensions such as leadership ability, ability to delegate, and employee supportiveness.
a. True
b. False
True
Subordinate evaluations should be used primarily for developmental purposes.
a. True
b. False
True
. One disadvantage of peer evaluations is the belief that they contain more biases and furnish less valid information than appraisals by superiors.
a. True
b. False
False
Team evaluations are conceptually just a collection of the individual appraisals of a work unit.
a. True
b. False
False
Internal customers can provide extremely useful feedback for both developmental and administrative purposes.
a. True
b. False
True
Reliability refers to the stability or consistency of a standard.
a. True
b. False
True
A distributional rating error occurs when a single rating is skewed toward an entire group of employees.
a. True
b. False
True
An error of central tendency is a performance-rating error in which all employees are more or less rated as average.
a. True
b. False
True
Requiring raters to use a forced distribution reduces the chance of leniency or strictness errors.
a. True
b. False
True
Having appraisals reviewed by a supervisor’s supervisor creates unnecessary redundancy and may actually result in greater legal liability.
False
A recency error is an error in which the appraisal is based largely upon the employee’s most recent behavior as opposed to their behavior throughout the entire appraisal period.
True
. Contrast errors are most likely when raters are required to rank employees in order from the best to the poorest.
a. True
b. False
True
. A similar-to-me error occurs when appraisers inflate the evaluations of people with whom they have something in common.
a. True
b. False
True
. A similar-to-me error, like contrast, results in less than accurate performance ratings, but would not be considered discriminatory.
a. True
False
False
Feedback training for raters should include communicating effectively, diagnosing causes of performance problems, and setting goals.
a. True
b. False
True
. It is unrealistic to presume that one person can fully observe and evaluate an employee’s performance.
a. True
b. False
True
Results-oriented approaches have become more popular because they focus on the measurable contributions that employees make to an organization.
a. True
b. False
True
One of the potential drawbacks of a trait-oriented performance appraisal is that traits can be biased and subjective.
a. True
b. False
True
Graphic rating scales include sets of statements between which the rater must choose, such as “works hard” vs. “works quickly.”
a. True
b. False
False
The mixed-standard scale method evaluates traits according to a single scale.
a. True
b. False
False
One of the benefits of the forced-choice method is the relatively small cost of establishing and maintaining its validity.
a. True
b. False
False
The forced-choice method of appraisal is less effective as a tool for developing employees.
a. True
b. False
True
. A major drawback of the essay method is that composing an essay that attempts to cover all of an employee’s essential characteristics is very time-consuming.
a. True
b. False
True
The effectiveness of the essay method is affected by the rater’s writing skills.
a. True
b. False
True
Behavioral methods specifically describe which actions should (or should not) be exhibited on the job.
a. True
b. False
True
One major advantage of a behaviorally anchored rating scale is that it is possible to use a scale developed for one job to appraise individuals in another, unrelated job.
False
. Results evaluations often give employees responsibility for their outcomes and discretion over the way they accomplish them.
a. True
b. False
True
. Behavior observation scales have rater check statements that they believe are characteristic of the employee.
a. True
b. False
False
Measurable and quantifiable performance objectives are requirements for a successful MBO program.
a. True
b. False
True
. The Balanced Scorecard approach integrates four categories: financial, customer, process, and learning measures.
a. True
b. False
False
. The Balanced Scorecard evaluation method translates broad corporate goals into divisional, departmental, team, and individual goals in a cascading way.
a. True
b. False
True
The choice of performance evaluation method to use depends upon the purpose of the evaluation.
a. True
b. False
True
Dividing the performance evaluation meeting into two sessions, one for the performance review and the other for the employee’s growth plans, is a good strategy to improve communication between the parties.
a. True
b. False
True
The three basic types of formats for providing feedback during a performance evaluation meeting are tell-and-sell, tell-and-listen, and problem-solving.
a. True
b. False
True
The problem-solving format seeks to obtain an employee’s buy-in for a mutually agreed-upon way to overcome obstacles and improve the person’s actual performance.
a. True
b. False
False
A self-evaluation ensures that an employee knows against what criteria he or she is being evaluated, eliminating any potential surprises.
a. True
b. False
True
Because the appraisal interview is for developmental purposes, the interviewer rather than the employee should spend the majority of the time talking.
a. True
b. False
False
. Since praise is a powerful motivator, appraisers should alternate positive and negative statements during a performance appraisal interview.
a. True
b. False
False
Expressing appreciation for the work an employee has done well is likely to make the person more defensive about aspects of the job that are not going so well.
a. True
b. False
False
. Performance discussions should focus on the employee rather than on his or her behaviors.
a. True
b. False
False
. If an employee is doing something wrong, waiting for a formal evaluation later in the year to communicate that information is an example of a balanced approach to effective communication.
a. True
b. False
False
. A person’s performance is a function of ability, environment, and motivation.
a. True
b. False
True
A diagnosis of poor employee performance should focus on the three interactive elements of ability, motivation, and external conditions.
a. True
b. False
True
Self-evaluations are often best used for administrative decisions rather than developmental purposes.
a. True
b. False
False
. The “horn error” is the opposite of the “halo effect.”
a. True
b. False
True
The federal government began evaluating employees in 1842, when Congress passed a law mandating yearly performance review for:
a. departmental clerks.
b. military personnel.
c. postal employees.
d. all federal employees.
a. departmental clerks.
. A problem with performance appraisal is that it:
a. tends to be objective and consistent.
b. identifies weaknesses of employees as well as strengths.
c. tends to focus on short-term objectives rather than long-term learning.
d. tends to be a bottom-up process.
c. tends to focus on short-term objectives rather than long-term learning.
71. One study showed that organizations with strong performance management systems are ____ more likely to outperform their competitors in the areas of revenue growth, productivity, profitability, and market value
a. 10-15 percent
b. 20-30 percent
c. 40-50 percent
d. 80-90 percent
c. 40-50 percent
. The two primary purposes of performance appraisals are:
a. informative and developmental.
b. managerial and administrative.
c. managerial and informative.
d. administrative and developmental.
d. administrative and developmental.
Administrative purposes of performance appraisal include all of the following EXCEPT:
a. determining promotion candidates.
b. evaluating training programs.
c. documenting personnel decisions.
d. providing performance feedback.
d. providing performance feedback.
. Developmental purposes of performance appraisal include all of the following EXCEPT:
a. recognizing individual performance.
b. validating selection procedures.
c. improving communication.
d. identifying strengths and weaknesses.
b. validating selection procedures.
Which of the following is NOT a reason for the failure of appraisal programs?
a. They discourage teamwork by focusing on workers’ individual achievements.
b. They lay more focus on employee input into the development of the appraisal program.
c. They are not useful for the majority of employees in the middle in terms of performance.
d. They often focus on short-term achievements rather than long-term improvement and learning.
b. They lay more focus on employee input into the development of the appraisal program.
. In _____, the U.S. Supreme Court found that employees had been ranked against a vague standard, open to each supervisor’s own interpretation.
a. California Board of Regents v. Bakke
b. Griggs v. Duke Power Co.
c. Albemarle Paper Co. v. Moody
d. Brito v. Zia
c. Albemarle Paper Co. v. Moody
If a manager rates an employee higher than he or she deserves in order to look good as a manager in the eyes of his or her own superiors, this is an example of:
a. criterion deficiency.
b. organizational politics.
c. criterion contamination.
d. administrative appraisal purpose.
b. organizational politics.
Which of the following is NOT an advantage of the trait method of appraisals?
a. Inexpensive to develop
b. Uses meaningful dimensions
c. Low potential for rating errors
d. Easy to use
c. Low potential for rating errors
The strategic relevance of performance appraisals refers to the extent to which:
a. standards relate to the overall objectives of the organization.
b. standards capture the entire range of an employee’s responsibilities.
c. individuals tend to maintain a certain level of performance over time.
d. factors outside the employee’s control can influence performance.
a. standards relate to the overall objectives of the organization.
. Freedom from criterion deficiency of performance appraisals refers to the extent to which:
a. standards relate to the overall objectives of the organization.
b. standards capture the entire range of an employee’s responsibilities.
c. individuals tend to maintain a certain level of performance over time.
d. factors outside the employee’s control can influence performance.
b. standards capture the entire range of an employee’s responsibilities.
. If the performance evaluations that salespeople receive are based solely on sales revenue to the exclusion of other important factors, the performance management system suffers from:
a. criterion contamination.
b. lack of reliability.
c. criterion deficiency.
d. organizational politics.
c. criterion deficiency.
If a performance standard is found to be stable or consistent over time, it is said to be:
a. free from contamination.
b. relevant.
c. reliable.
d. valid.
c. reliable.
83. Reliability in performance appraisal is measured by:
a. correlating two sets of ratings made by a single rater or by two different raters.
b. correlating the ratings of an employee at two different points in time.
c. linking performance standards to organizational goals.
d. quantifiable performance standards.
a. correlating two sets of ratings made by a single rater or by two different raters.
. The Supreme Court ruling states that:
a. vague performance standards can be acceptable when clearly written.
b. organizations should have carefully defined and measurable performance standards.
c. while performance standards should be somewhat specific, there should be room for individual interpretation.
d. descriptions of traits such as attitude and cooperation are acceptable performance standards.
b. organizations should have carefully defined and measurable performance standards.
. In light of recent court rulings, HR managers suggest that performance evaluations should meet all of the following legal guidelines EXCEPT:
a. performance ratings must be job-related.
b. employees must be provided with clear, written job standards in advance of their evaluations.
c. performance evaluation should rarely be tied to compensation decisions.
d. supervisors should be trained to use the evaluation form correctly.
c. performance evaluation should rarely be tied to compensation decisions.
. In most instances, who is in the best position to perform the function of evaluating an employee’s performance?
a. The HR personnel
b. The employee’s supervisor
c. The employee
d. Co-workers
b. The employee’s supervisor
Performance-related behaviors such as leadership ability, ability to delegate, and employee supportiveness may best be appraised by:
a. the manager/supervisor.
b. peers.
c. subordinates.
d. the management team.
c. subordinates.
Self-appraisals are best for:
a. administrative purposes.
b. developmental purposes.
c. promotional purposes.
d. regulatory purposes.
b. developmental purposes.
One advantage of peer evaluations is that:
a. peers are less politically motivated than supervisors.
b. peers may furnish more accurate and valid information than supervisors.
c. peers may work harder to help other employees improve performance.
d. peers are often partially responsible for the performance of other co-workers.
b. peers may furnish more accurate and valid information than supervisors.
A performance rating error in which the rater is reluctant to give employees either extremely high or extremely low ratings is referred to as a(n):
a. recency error.
b. error of central tendency.
c. leniency or strictness error.
d. halo error.
b. error of central tendency
A performance rating error in which the rater tends to give employees either extremely high or extremely low ratings is referred to as a(n):
a. recency error.
b. error of central tendency.
c. leniency or strictness error.
d. halo error.
c. leniency or strictness error.
. Which method of performance appraisal requires managers to place a certain percentage of employees into various performance categories?
a. Forced distribution method
b. Checklist method
c. Percent method
d. Forced-choice method
a. Forced distribution method
If one rates an employee’s performance largely on the basis of the employee’s recent behavior, one commits a:
a. leniency error.
b. contrast error.
c. recency error.
d. central tendency error.
c. recency error.
If one rates an average employee’s performance high because they compared the employee to poor performers, one commits a:
a. leniency error.
b. contrast error.
c. recency error.
d. central tendency error.
b. contrast error.
. If one inflates the evaluation of people with whom they have something in common, one commits a:
a. leniency error.
b. similar-to-me error.
c. recency error.
d. central tendency error.
b. similar-to-me error.
A feedback training program for performance appraisal raters should cover at least all of the following areas EXCEPT:
a. effective communication techniques.
b. diagnosing the root causes of performance problems.
c. setting goals and objectives.
d. developing independent learning objectives.
d. developing independent learning objectives.
Performance appraisal methods can be broadly classified as either ____, ____, or ____ approaches.
a. trait, behavioral, judgmental
b. trait, behavioral, results
c. behavioral, judgmental, results
d. behavioral, judgmental, attitudinal
b. trait, behavioral, results
In the ____ method, each trait or characteristic to be rated is represented by a scale on which a rater indicates the degree to which an employee possesses that trait or characteristic.
a. mixed-standard scale
b. graphic rating scale
c. behaviorally anchored rating scale
d. behavior observation scale
b. graphic rating scale
Which rating format uses three specific behavioral descriptions relevant to each trait and then asks supervisors to evaluate whether an employee’s behavior is better than, equal to, or worse than the standard for each behavior?
a. Mixed-standard scale
b. Forced-choice method
c. Behaviorally anchored rating scale
d. Behavior observation scale
a. Mixed-standard scale
. A method of rating performance in which the rater chooses from statements that appear equally favorable or equally unfavorable is known as the:
a. forced-distribution method.
b. graphic rating scales.
c. behaviorally anchored rating scale
d. forced-choice method.
d. forced-choice method.
Which of the following is NOT a disadvantage of the essay method?
a. It is very time-consuming.
b. It must follow a job-specific format.
c. It’s appraisal quality could be influenced by the supervisor’s writing skills.
d. It is highly subjective and could be biased.
b. It must follow a job-specific format.
If the primary objective of a performance appraisal is to give employees developmental feedback, which of the following appraisal methods is most ideal?
a. Trait
b. Results
c. Behavioral
d. Attitudinal
c. Behavioral
What is the first step in the management by objectives (MBO) process?
a. Develop organization goals and metrics
b. Develop department goals and metrics
c. Review performance
d. Add new inputs
a. Develop organization goals and metrics
The type of scale that uses critical incidents as examples of different points along the scale is known as:
a. the mixed-standard scale.
b. the global rating.
c. the behaviorally anchored rating scale.
d. the dimensional rating.
c. the behaviorally anchored rating scale.
One major advantage of a behaviorally anchored rating scale is that:
a. it requires a great deal of employee participation which leads to greater acceptance.
b. the same rating scale can be used across all the departments of an organization.
c. it takes a relatively short time to develop.
d. the rating scale can be developed with little expertise.
a. it requires a great deal of employee participation which leads to greater acceptance.
. The procedures followed to develop a behaviorally anchored rating scale typically result in scales that:
a. have a high degree of construct validity.
b. have a high degree of content validity.
c. can be used to rate employees across different jobs.
d. cost the least to develop.
a. have a high degree of construct validity.
Which of the following is a performance appraisal approach designed to measure how frequently employees exhibit certain behaviors?
a. Management by objectives
b. Behaviorally anchored rating scale
c. Behavior observation scale
d. Trait scale
b. Behaviorally anchored rating scale
Which of the following is NOT a component of the Balanced Scorecard approach?
a. Competitor
b. Learning
c. Customer
d. Financial
Competitor
. If an appraisal focuses on a narrow set of results criteria to the exclusion of other important but less quantifiable performance dimensions, the performance management system may suffer from:
a. criterion deficiency.
b. rater bias.
c. lack of reliability.
d. criterion contamination.
a. criterion deficiency.
Requirements for a successful management by objectives (MBO) program include all of the following EXCEPT that:
a. the results must be under the control of the employee.
b. timeframes for when the goals are to be reviewed and evaluated need to be established.
c. goal statements must be accompanied by descriptions of how they will be accomplished.
d. both trait and critical incident objectives must be set.
d. both trait and critical incident objectives must be set.
An appraisal system that allows each individual to see clearly how his or her performance ties into the overall performance of the firm is:
a. the balanced scorecard approach.
b. the 360-degree evaluation.
c. the customer-oriented approach.
d. management by objectives.
a. the balanced scorecard approach.
An appraisal system that takes into account financial, customer, processes, and learning categories is called:
a. the balanced scorecard approach.
b. the 360-degree evaluation.
c. the customer-oriented approach.
d. management by objectives.
a. the balanced scorecard approach.
. The choice of an appraisal method should be largely based on:
a. the preferred technique of the personnel department.
b. the purpose of the appraisal.
c. the reaction of employees.
d. what skills the developer of the system possesses.
b. the purpose of the appraisal.
The appraisal interview should be divided into two sessions, one each for:
a. positive comments and negative comments.
b. performance review and employee’s growth plans.
c. performance review and compensation discussion.
d. establishing performance standards and reviewing performance.
b. performance review and employee’s growth plans.
The appraisal interview:
a. should take place in one session in order to give the employee a complete view of his or her performance.
b. can be divided into two sessions, though this is not advisable.
c. is most suitable for the supervisor to give feedback on past performance and should not be used for developmental purposes.
d. should be held in two segments because the rater must perform the role of both evaluator and counselor.
d. should be held in two segments because the rater must perform the role of both evaluator and counselor.
The three basic types of formats for providing feedback during a performance evaluation meeting or feedback session are:
a. tell-and-sell, tell-and-train, and developmental.
b. tell-and-sell, tell-and listen, and problem-solving.
c. tell-and-train, problem-solving, and developmental.
d. tell-and-listen, tell-and-train, and problem-solving.
b. tell-and-sell, tell-and listen, and problem-solving.
. The appraisal interview that requires interviewers to possess the ability to persuade an employee to change his or her behavior in a certain way is:
a. tell-and-develop.
b. tell-and-listen.
c. tell-and-sell.
d. problem-solving.
c. tell-and-sell.
Which of the following type of formats gives both managers and employees an opportunity to release and iron out any frustrating feelings they might have?
a. Tell-and-develop
b. Tell-and-listen
c. Tell-and-sell
d. Problem-solving
b. Tell-and-listen
In which type of appraisal interview does the interviewer communicate the strong and weak points of an employee’s performance during the first part of the interview and then explore the employee’s feelings about the appraisal in the second part?
a. Problem-solving
b. Tell-and-develop
c. Tell-and-sell
d. Tell-and-listen
d. Tell-and-listen
Listening, accepting, and responding to feelings are essential elements of the _____ performance evaluation format.
a. tell-and-develop
b. tell-and-listen
c. tell-and-sell
d. problem-solving
d. problem-solving
As an appraiser, one should try to do all of the following EXCEPT:
a. minimizing criticism.
b. changing the person, not the behavior.
c. identifying the source of ineffective performance.
d. being supportive and demonstrating that one cares.
b. changing the person, not the behavior.
122. As a rule of thumb, a supervisor should spend approximately ____ percent of the time talking during an appraisal interview.
a. 10 to 15
b. 20 to 25
c. 30 to 35
d. 40 to 45
c. 30 to 35
An inappropriate interview technique in which praise serves to cushion criticism by alternating positive statements with negative statements is known as:
a. the sandwich technique.
b. the cushioning technique.
c. the rollercoaster technique.
d. sympathetic interviewing.
a. the sandwich technique.
Tips for using criticism constructively includes all of the following EXCEPT:
a. considering whether it is really necessary.
b. not exaggerating.
c. watching one’s timing.
d. using the “sandwich technique.”
d. using the “sandwich technique.”
. It is recommended that a diagnosis of poor employee performance focus on all of the following EXCEPT:
a. skill.
b. personality.
c. effort.
d. external conditions.
b. personality.
Research suggests that when it comes to our own performance, most of us first attribute our bad performance to:
a. inadequate training.
b. poor motivation.
c. external constraints.
d. lack of ability.
c. external constraints.
Managers often first assume poor performance of subordinates to:
a. inadequate training.
b. poor motivation.
c. external constraints.
d. lack of ability.
d. lack of ability.
Some organizations believe that appraisals are useful :
a. as a warning to inexperienced employees.
b. only for highly effective or ineffective employees.
c. only for veteran employees.
d. for employees nearing retirement.
b. only for highly effective or ineffective employees.
Employees who earn performance-based pay are more _____.
a. mobile
b. satisfied
c. educated
d. cynical
b. satisfied
A process whereby managers meet to discuss the performance of individual employees to ensure that their employee evaluations are in line with one another is referred to as _____.
a. cross-referencing
b. authentication
c. mentoring
d. calibration
d. calibration
The main disadvantage of a behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS) is that it:
a. requires considerable legal “vetting” by a skilled attorney.
b. has a negative reputation among HR professionals.
c. is useful only for manual jobs.
d. requires considerable time and effort to develop.
d. requires considerable time and effort to develop.