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Homework 16

To the scientist, a “theory,” such as the theory of evolution, means an explanation of the natural world which ______.
a.
is supported by much evidence
b.
is totally untested and unproven
c.
is one scientist’s idea
d.
is completely speculative
a
Today, hospitals contain bacteria resistant to many types of antibiotics that used to be effective years ago. Using Darwin’s theory of Natural Selection, what might be a reasonable hypothesis for the existence of resistant bacteria?
a.
Doctors have stopped using the correct antibiotics, and the bacteria have thrived.
b.
Genetically resistant individuals in the bacterial population have a selective advantage over nonresistant ones and pass the trait on to their offspring.
c.
The bacteria sensed the presence of antibiotics and developed a resistance.
d.
Doctors have not used strong enough antibiotics to kill these bacteria.
b
A population of deer was threatened with overpopulation until cheetahs were imported. After a couple of years, there were fewer deer, but the average running speed of the deer had increased. This is an example of:
a.
genetic drift.
b.
natural selection.
c.
mutation.
d.
inheritance of acquired characteristics.
b
Darwin was influenced by an essay on human population and food supply written by
a.
Joshua Beagle
b.
Thomas Malthus
c.
Charles Lyell
d.
Gregor Mendel
e.
Alfred Russel Wallace
b
Which of these types of Galapagos species most influenced Darwin to develop the theory of species change by natural selection?
a.
reptiles
b.
cactus plants
c.
small birds
d.
crabs and crayfish
c
If the weather in Richmond, Virginia, changed to a very cold climate (snow on the ground 8 months of each year) over the next few years, what change might occur?
a.
The cold weather would cause a mutation in squirrels that causes their fur to be white.
b.
Evolution would definitely occur, resulting in white squirrels.
c.
If a mutation had previously occurred that caused white fur, such white squirrels would have a better chance to survive and reproduce.
d.
Genetic drift will occur at a faster rate during the cold part of the year.
c
During a class on evolution, one of your fellow students remarks, “The giraffe stretched its neck while reaching for higher leaves; its offspring inherited longer necks as a result.” To correct your fellow student’s misconception, what would be a good thing to say?
a.
Overproduction of offspring leads to a struggle for survival.
b.
The disuse of a structure may lead to its eventual disappearance.
c.
Stretching the neck causes gene mutations that then can result in an even longer neck. These genes are then passed on to the giraffe’s offspring.
d.
Characteristics acquired during an organism’s life are not passed on through genes.
d
How many years did Darwin spend on the voyage of the HMS Beagle?
a.
10
b.
15
c.
1
d.
5
e.
20
d
Even though Charles Darwin is noted for his contributions to science, he originally earned a university degree in _________.
a.
botany (the study of plants)
b.
architecture
c.
theology (divinity)
d.
palentology (the study of ancient life)
e.
medicine
c
It is known that, due to the relationship between the surface area and volume, organisms with large body size loses heat less rapidly than organisms with smaller body sizes. Based on your knowledge of natural selection, what trend in deer size might you predict?
a.
The average body size of the deer population increases as you go toward the equator.
b.
The average body size of the deer population has no relationship to geographical location.
c.
The average body size of the deer population increases as you go toward the poles.
d.
The average body size of the deer population increases as you go east.
c
For natural selection to occur, there must be some competition for resources, survival, or reproduction. Why is this so?
a.
If all individuals pass on their genes equally, the proportion of the various alleles will remain the same.
b.
The struggle of competition makes individuals stronger.
c.
Without competition, there is no pressure to mutate.
d.
Populations evolve to preserve the species and don’t change unless they must.
a
Charles Darwin is given the credit for formulating the idea of evolution through natural selection. However, another naturalist came up with the same insight at approximately the same time Darwin was writing a book about it. Who was it?
a.
Jean-baptiste de Lamark
b.
T.R. Malthus
c.
Chrales Lyell
d.
Gregor Mendel
e.
Alfred Russel Wallace
e
The theory of natural selection states that:
a.
only the largest and strongest survive.
b.
individuals that mutate in response to their environment will survive at the expense of those individuals who are genetically stable.
c.
the best-adapted individuals survive and reproduce, contributing the most genes to the next generation.
d.
individuals that live the longest are best adapted and selected for survival in the next generation.
c