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Ethics – good vs bad, right vs wrong, good for society, morals and values of a man (I believe…) the ethical appeal is based on the character, credibility, or reliability of the writer
Sentence of Analysis
explains why the support proves the thesis or gives the end result of the details. Explains the examples and what they mean
What discovery technique is used for generating ideas?
Major focus of revision?
A concise statement about what a writer will demonstrate or explain in an essay is called a
A writer should….
Use various sentence lengths and patterns
Editing and proofreading are usually done
to who you are writing. Factors which affect writer also affect the ________ age, social class, education
A good ______ requires concrete sensory details
A writer has achieved _______ when all ideas in a paragraph relate to the main ideas
According to Aristotle, the chief components of a compelling ethos are good will, practical wisdom, and virtue.
The emotional appeal, appeals to an audience’s needs, values, and emotional sensibilities. (I feel..)
Telling the story of a single child who has been abused may make for a more persuasive argument than simply the number of children abused each year because it would give a human face to the numbers.
Clarifies the focus of a paragraph
The appeal based on logic or reason, scientific, provable, observable, proven, duplicated, reasoned (It is…)
Documents distributed by companies or corporations are logos-driven. Scholarly documents are also often logos-driven
What are two methods of compare and contrast essays?
Point by point, subject by subject (block)
__________ reasoning moves from specific example to generalization
8 rhetorical modes
Narration, Description, Process Analysis, Illustration/Exemplification, Definition, Comparison/Contrast, Division/Classification, Casual Analysis
_________ the art of communicating effectively through writing or speaking
3 characteristics of a well formed paragraph
Unity, coherence, and completeness
Generalization “assume” to specific sample
American Psychological Association
Opposite of own’s argument
The thesis stament of the counterargument
The return or defense or the original argument (rebut or refute)
Subject, audience, purpose, strategy, design
Sketching, talking, reading, viewing
Narrowing your focus, preliminary thesis, determining main points, clustering, creating a graphic organizer, ordering ideas, outlining
“Intentionally or knowingly presenting the work of another as one’s own (i.e., without proper acknowledgment of the source). The sole exception to the requirement of acknowledging sources is when the ideas, information, etc. are common knowledge.”
category of writing . Depend on purpose and the needs of the projected audience
Examples” fiction, autobiographical story, news article, review, editorial, analysis
The audience of papers published in journals is often scholars in that field.
Five basic parts of Classical Argumentative Structure
Makes points, supplies evidence, establishes a logical chain of reasoning (sentence of analysis), refutes opposing arguments and accommodates the views of the audience
4 purposes of writing
inform, persuade, interpret, entertain, express feelings
spatially arranges information as main points (categories) and supporting details (examples) using indentations and bullets (these act as rough drafts for generally organizing ideas)
orders information by priority using an alpha numeric system and indentations (these act as final drafts for specifically organizing ideas)
Elongated sentences outlines
organize information based on the structure for the selected genre using the alphanumeric system of the formal outline. It uses complete sentences instead of short phrases
A visual presentation or drawing of an essay that portrays the depth (amount of detail) and length of an essay
The purpose or function of this type of essay is to “tell a story”“. Recount a history of something or someone. Major characteristics are details, sentence structure, clear ________ order. Rely on chronological order
your reason for writing. To express, to inform, to persuade, to educate, to call to action, to entertain, to shock
7 steps of writing process
Discovering, planning, composing, getting feedback, revising, editing, proofreading
Discovery methods (examples)
Listing, questioning, journaling, brainstorming
formal outline, informal outline, essay maps, elongated sentence outlines
from someone to help improve my writing
________ the rough draft for errors in coherence, unity,
check for sentence structure, grammar, punctuation, spelling, mechanics
________ proofread the final draft of the writing for leftovers, typos, and formatting errors
All points connect transitions are used to move from one idea to the next
are used between examples to show time changes, place. Links ideas, sentences, and paragraphs to achieve greater continuity
is investigative and documented
the bibliography on which is recorded the full citation of any source used in any way within the document
In text citations
AKA Parenthetical citations and parenthetical references. The abbreviated version of the full citation on that appears at the end of any sentence that contains researched information.
allows reader to cross reference your sources easily. Provides consistent format within a discipline. Protects yourself from plagiarism. Shows the credibility of writer
allow readers to locate the publication information of source material. This is of great value for researchers
helps reader understand your arguments and the sources there built on
APA Format references (example of a book citation)
Author, date of publication, book title, place of publication, publisher.