-Fine motor skills develop allowing rotation of wrist and coordinating between the two hands.
-Brain becomes myelinated (work on Balance)
-Laterization hemisphere specialize for what is controlled.
Limbic system structures mature a little bit earlier than the prefrontal lobes.
-amygdala helps child respond to fear and anger, regulating his emotions.
-hypothalamus is regulator of the parasympathetic NS and the sympathetic NS,
-Hippocampus stores memory (emotinal memory) remembering how they felt during an event.
-Mastery: learning to swing, developing of motor movements. Master certain skills involves practice.
-Sociodramatic: Mostly girls playing house and real life situations. Understanding the different social roles in society.
-Play fighting: Mostly in males. Learning about dominant an submissive behaviors, Play Face seeing emotions on facial expressions. Work on social skills and different scripts
Play fighting best for epigenetic approach because it plays an environmental role in which genes you have (boy or girl)?
– a major change is when vocabulary explosion takes place. Vocabulary build quickly (270) and language potential is greater. comprehension is more extensive than speech
-Fast mapping occurs when children learn new words by tentatively placing them in mental categories according to their perceiving meaning.
-over regularization is application of rules of grammar even when exceptions occur (tooths)
– Over extension applying a whole something after the whole. (dog has tail. every animal that has a tail must be a dog.)
Telegraphic speech to fully develop grammar.
-fast mapping -categorize words together
-unfamiliar name: assigning a word to an object
-logical: understanding of the object dalmtion.
-epigenetic- sex and gender behaviors, brain organization, talking about submissive and dominant.
-Psychoanalytic (Freud) sexual beings and quickly discover themselves and adjust their roles as they see fit. Self-pleasuring. Oedipus and Electra complex.
Cognitive Understanding sex differences, attitudes and beliefs.
Social earning theory- models and imitation.
Primary-Before a situation happens taking precautions.
Secondary-decreasing risk cant avoid.
tertiary- minimize harm after an accident has occurred.
Childproofing- fencing in the backyard, mulch on playground,medicine higher levels. gates on stairways.
Having emergency numbers ready, allergy prevention, sanitize toys.
Nutritional and mineral deficiencies like calcium, zinc rich diets because childhood calcium intake is absorb best.Just right- need to have that they usually have on a daily basis. Food has to be in a certain way or they wont eat.
Fast food i s a problems because children always want nuggets and it is bad for them.
Over eating and under activity- Leads to obesity. Motor skills are not getting fully developed. Causes to be shorter and emotional problems too.
Eegocentrism- focus on self, theory of mind has not yet developed so cant compare to other. mom does it because I’m too little
centration- focus on idea in particular, dad is dad.
Animism- belief that animation and objects are alive. Toys
Irreversibility- something that is broken cannot be fixed.
Static reasoning-belief that nothing changes
-Permissive: have high nurturance and communication with children. Little discipline, guidance, or control. Few demands.
-Authoritative: Set limits and enforce rules yet also listen to children. Consider themselves guides not authorities and not friends.
-Neglectful: Seem not care. Not involved and unaware of what is going on in their children’s life.
5 Parenting behaviors
-insecure attachment: child screams and hits, throw.
-non accepting and directive parenting
-harsh maternal/parental voice
-critical, suppressive, interfering parent
-physical control parent
-reactive common among young children as well. Almost every child responds in some way wen attacked by another child. with specific response becoming better controlled as emotional regulation increases.
-Relational is verbal. It destroys self esteem and disrupts victims social networks. Seen more in girls.
-Bullying done to dominate someone else show in boys.
Reactive is innate to stand up for yourself .
children who are physically disciplined tend to be bullies.
-Antisocial behavior act out physically aggression. Antipathy (dislike or hatred towards others)Characteristics include verbal insults, social exclusion and physical assaults. More rejected by peers.
-Prosocial: extended helpfulness and kindness without benefit to one self. Result of empathy than cognition more emotional understanding than theory of mind.
Insecure- asocial and antisocial.
Insecure ambivalent- antisocial
-Children master transformations but use rules that differ somewhat from language to language.
-It will play itself out.
2. Fantasy play (dominant themes of violence or sexual knowledge)
3.Frequent absence fro school
4. Expression of fear towards caregiver
5. No close friendship/ hostile -> bullying
6. Slow physical growth (lack of appetite)
7. Frequent change of address
-Prevention can be made by paying close attention to these signs and follow actions to support the child.
-Whenever a child i legally removed from an abusive home and placed in foster care Permanency planning should begin.
-foster care: children are removed from their parents custody to another entrusted family. However they average 3 placements before achieving permanence option. Can hinder the development of relationships.
-kinship which a relatively, usually grandparents, become caregivers. Could be dangerous because hostile and violence may run i the family.
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-hippocampus: memories( night terrors)
Hypothalamus: Regulates fear and emotion, allowing the child to calm down
-stress makes us motivated, healthy until a certain level
-Orphans : they were very stressed and did not have caregivers to help relieve stress. They later could not form attachments, Limbic system becomes deseeded, could not recognize face.
2. Knowing discreet processes exist (thinking outside of runner running)
3. Integration: unity of mind ((moods how you feel in the moment)
4. understand variables affecting cognition
5. cognitive monitoring affects state of mind. Recognizing what state of mind you are in (daydreaming or sleeping)
Understand oters mental state
Cant understand behaviors is affected by their own feelings.