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Developmental Psychology Exam 3 Essay Questions

Describe changed in gross and fine motor behavior seen in children from the age 2 until 6. How do these relate to lateralization ans myelination of the brain and to specific changes in the amygdala, hypothalamus, and hippocampus?
-Gross motors improve dramatically during childhood. 2 year old fall down and bump clumsily into each other, but some 5 year old are skilled and graceful. Brain maturation, motivation and guided practice make these skills possible.
-Fine motor skills develop allowing rotation of wrist and coordinating between the two hands.
-Brain becomes myelinated (work on Balance)
-Laterization hemisphere specialize for what is controlled.
Limbic system structures mature a little bit earlier than the prefrontal lobes.
-amygdala helps child respond to fear and anger, regulating his emotions.
-hypothalamus is regulator of the parasympathetic NS and the sympathetic NS,
-Hippocampus stores memory (emotinal memory) remembering how they felt during an event.
What four kinds of play (e.g sensory) are seen during the preschool year? Describe each and give example. Why are these important for the development of the self? What are the gender differences in kinds of play? Identify and explain why one form of play is particularly well explained by the epigenetic approach?
-Sensory: looking about the properties of materials, sand, finger painting seen both in girls and boys.
-Mastery: learning to swing, developing of motor movements. Master certain skills involves practice.
-Sociodramatic: Mostly girls playing house and real life situations. Understanding the different social roles in society.
-Play fighting: Mostly in males. Learning about dominant an submissive behaviors, Play Face seeing emotions on facial expressions. Work on social skills and different scripts
Play fighting best for epigenetic approach because it plays an environmental role in which genes you have (boy or girl)?
Explain major changes in the development of language during the preschool years. What steps do children take in going from telegraphic speech to fully developed grammar? What is over-regularization? What is meant by over-extension?
-Progression (me cookie, she cookie, she wants cookie, i want cookie)
– a major change is when vocabulary explosion takes place. Vocabulary build quickly (270) and language potential is greater. comprehension is more extensive than speech
-Fast mapping occurs when children learn new words by tentatively placing them in mental categories according to their perceiving meaning.
-over regularization is application of rules of grammar even when exceptions occur (tooths)
– Over extension applying a whole something after the whole. (dog has tail. every animal that has a tail must be a dog.)
Telegraphic speech to fully develop grammar.
3 rules
-fast mapping -categorize words together
-unfamiliar name: assigning a word to an object
-logical: understanding of the object dalmtion.
Discuss major features if 3 different theories of gender role development. What role in each does imitation an identification play? Which theory do you most adhere to? Why? Give examples from your childhood.
-Sociocultural: picking up a gender cultural differences and doing what you see around you. More, norms, taboo (painting fingernails. Imitation and identification takes place -> culture and put it in our values
-epigenetic- sex and gender behaviors, brain organization, talking about submissive and dominant.
-Psychoanalytic (Freud) sexual beings and quickly discover themselves and adjust their roles as they see fit. Self-pleasuring. Oedipus and Electra complex.
Cognitive Understanding sex differences, attitudes and beliefs.
Social earning theory- models and imitation.
Why are preschoolers particularly accident prone? Discuss their psycho-motor abilities in this regard. What do we mean by primary, secondary, and tertiary injury prevention? Give examples of child proofing and injury prevention that should be enacted outside and inside homes and day care center?
-They lack of motor development skills. Their center of gravity is their head therefore they are unbalanced. Very curious about their environment . Prefrontal cortex is not very well develop so they don’t understand risk.
Primary-Before a situation happens taking precautions.
Secondary-decreasing risk cant avoid.
tertiary- minimize harm after an accident has occurred.
Childproofing- fencing in the backyard, mulch on playground,medicine higher levels. gates on stairways.
Having emergency numbers ready, allergy prevention, sanitize toys.
Describe the dietary needs of preschoolers? Explain preschoolers “Just right” attitudes about food and how these create parental difficulties for ensuring nutritious meals. Describe specific nutritional and mineral deficiencies, over-eating and under-activity in preschoolers and their consequences for development.
-Dietary needs: nee more food cause they are growing, calcium, fruits veggies, grains.
Nutritional and mineral deficiencies like calcium, zinc rich diets because childhood calcium intake is absorb best.Just right- need to have that they usually have on a daily basis. Food has to be in a certain way or they wont eat.
Fast food i s a problems because children always want nuggets and it is bad for them.
Over eating and under activity- Leads to obesity. Motor skills are not getting fully developed. Causes to be shorter and emotional problems too.
Compare the abilities and limitations of thought in the preoperational child. Discuss egocentrism, centration, animism, irreversibility, and static reasoning and use the “recipes” from class as examples. How did Hughes study of the policeman doll (compared to Piaget’s mountain problem) challenge notions of preschool egocentrism?
Can be symbolic, can form class (colors, animal) language improvement, higher cognitive process, ability to tell lies.
Eegocentrism- focus on self, theory of mind has not yet developed so cant compare to other. mom does it because I’m too little
centration- focus on idea in particular, dad is dad.
Animism- belief that animation and objects are alive. Toys
Irreversibility- something that is broken cannot be fixed.
Static reasoning-belief that nothing changes
Compare and contrast four different parenting styles. What are parent/child interactions like for each style? Describe at least five parenting behaviors that are related to non-compliant behavior in children.
-Authoritarian: misconduct brings strict punishment, usually physical. Set clear rules and hold high standards. Very little communication seem cold and rarely show affection.
-Permissive: have high nurturance and communication with children. Little discipline, guidance, or control. Few demands.
-Authoritative: Set limits and enforce rules yet also listen to children. Consider themselves guides not authorities and not friends.
-Neglectful: Seem not care. Not involved and unaware of what is going on in their children’s life.
5 Parenting behaviors
-insecure attachment: child screams and hits, throw.
-non accepting and directive parenting
-harsh maternal/parental voice
-critical, suppressive, interfering parent
-physical control parent
Explain the differences between various forms of aggression (instrumental, reactive, relational, and bullying). Which do girls show more frequently? Boys? Children who have been physically disciplined? Are some form of aggression primarily innate behaviors? Explain.
-Instrumental is common among 2 year old who often want something and try, without thinking, to get it.
-reactive common among young children as well. Almost every child responds in some way wen attacked by another child. with specific response becoming better controlled as emotional regulation increases.
-Relational is verbal. It destroys self esteem and disrupts victims social networks. Seen more in girls.
-Bullying done to dominate someone else show in boys.
Reactive is innate to stand up for yourself .
children who are physically disciplined tend to be bullies.
Differentiate asocial, antisocial, and prosocial behavior and the characteristics of each. Does the attachment style ( secure, secure-avoidant, insecure ambivalent or disorganized) of the child matter? Which children are most likely to be rejected by peers and why?
-Asocial behavior : avoidant. may not even notice them. Children avoid social interactions, are inconsiderate and hostile towards others.
-Antisocial behavior act out physically aggression. Antipathy (dislike or hatred towards others)Characteristics include verbal insults, social exclusion and physical assaults. More rejected by peers.
-Prosocial: extended helpfulness and kindness without benefit to one self. Result of empathy than cognition more emotional understanding than theory of mind.
Insecure- asocial and antisocial.
Insecure ambivalent- antisocial
disorganized-not determined
What does Chomsky mean by universal principles in language development? Give examples. How does Chomsky’s theory of language development differ from learning theory? What specific advice would Chomsky give about parents and teachers should handle over-regularization?
Chomsky believes that there may be a universal in the development process. Everyone learns different language in the same way. proceed from babbling to one word to two word utterances.
-Children master transformations but use rules that differ somewhat from language to language.
-It will play itself out.
List 7 of 10 possible signs of maltreatment. How can we prevent further child neglect/maltreatment? What goals should be set for improved parenting skills before considering permanency planning? When should we seek foster/adoptive home placement? What are the limitations of foster and kinship care?
1. Repeated injuries (broken bones not properly tended)
2. Fantasy play (dominant themes of violence or sexual knowledge)
3.Frequent absence fro school
4. Expression of fear towards caregiver
5. No close friendship/ hostile -> bullying
6. Slow physical growth (lack of appetite)
7. Frequent change of address

See also  Chapter 6 Memory

-Prevention can be made by paying close attention to these signs and follow actions to support the child.
-Whenever a child i legally removed from an abusive home and placed in foster care Permanency planning should begin.
-foster care: children are removed from their parents custody to another entrusted family. However they average 3 placements before achieving permanence option. Can hinder the development of relationships.
-kinship which a relatively, usually grandparents, become caregivers. Could be dangerous because hostile and violence may run i the family.

Explain how emotional self regulation develops in relation to changes in the amygdala, hippocampus, and hypothalamus during the preschool years. Is stress always bad? explain. What do the studies of Romanian orphans indicate?
-Amygdala : regulates emotion, (fear) increases activity in structure-nightmares in children – overwhelms prefrontal cortex and disruptive reasoning.
-hippocampus: memories( night terrors)
Hypothalamus: Regulates fear and emotion, allowing the child to calm down
-stress makes us motivated, healthy until a certain level
-Orphans : they were very stressed and did not have caregivers to help relieve stress. They later could not form attachments, Limbic system becomes deseeded, could not recognize face.
Explain at least five steps in the development of “theory of mind” for preschoolers. What particular difficulties do preschoolers show in this development, both reflecting on their own minds and on the minds of others? Give example of each step.
Give major strengths and major weaknesses of child-centered vs teacher-center programs in early childhood development. be specific