Utilitarianism and libertarianism are two different theories of how society should be organized. Utilitarians believe that the greatest good for the greatest number is what determines what should happen in society, while libertarians think that each individual person has a right to do as they please as long as it doesn’t hurt anyone else. Which one you agree with depends on your values.
Libertarianism and utilitarianism are opposed. In utilitarianism, people believe that the greatest good is what one should pursue. A utilitarist does not mind if his or her actions distract someone else’s rights. In contrast, a libertarian believes that a person’s action for pleasure should not infringe on another person’s rights. Libertarians place a higher value on actions that promote equality and justice in society, whereas utilitarians seek to achieve equal outcomes at the expense of other people’s well-being (i.e., minimize pain).
Libertarianism and the Government
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The government, in libertarianism, is perceived by the libertarians as the one that endangers people’s rights. The government is considered the greatest danger to human rights by the libertarians. Governments are also opposed to enacting ethical laws, according to the libertarians.
The libertarian philosophy opposes this. It is not appropriate for the government to control an individual’s life. They also disagree with the governments’ tax system, which is used to re-distribute money. The libertarians argue that imposing a tax on an individual so that he or she may help another person is akin to compelling someone to work for another person.
Individual freedom is a central value for libertarians. They want the government to create rules that safeguard individual property, defend individuals from theft, fraud, and force, as well as contract breach. A person who contravenes societal norms has violated his or her right to self-standing and may face legal action.
The new rules also call for the government to play a vital role in protecting a peaceful individual’s rights from criminals and foreign aggressors. When the government violates these rights, it is engaging in a criminal activity, thus there is no need for a government. The libertarians’ ideal society is one in which people are not forced to obey rules that compel them to perform specific activities. In the end, libertarians propose a society where the government has little power or a society without any government.
Libertarianism encourages workers to participate in a wide range of issues that affect them at work. When employees have liberty in the workplace, they may increase their involvement. Workers and managers can collaborate to make decisions at the workplace once freedom is given. Employers can also ensure safe working conditions by allowing workers freedom at the workplace.
Employers advocate socialism by including employees in the process of decision-making. In libertarian socialism, the factors of production take control of the public domain while protecting private property. It also supports non-coercive labor relations in order to promote worker empowerment.
The public’s ownership of economic systems is also promoted by socialism, which encourages the adoption of market-oriented policies. When individuals control the economic systems, society may regulate unfair competitions among manufacturers. They believe that state capitalism is a method for the government to profit from its citizens. State capitalism is a monopoly in nature, denying consumers a free market.
Apart from being a form of government, a free market enables consumers to exercise their right to bargain. In contrast, state capitalism restricts merchants and customers from determining the price. Free market competition is less coercive than utilitarianism because to it. In conclusion, libertarianism, unlike utilitarianism, protects individuals’ rights and encourages freedom of choice.
Ideologies are a collection of ideas, ways of thinking, objectives, expectations, and actions that are prevalent inside a community. It’s produced by a society that shares the same aims, expectations, etc. Its goal is to provide transformation in a society where the group believes in the same values. It is a set of viewpoints that tells its members how to perceive things. Literally speaking, it means “the science of thoughts.” Furthermore, it is a collection of concepts that identifies a specific group.
In this essay, two well-known philosophies will be contrasted. The following subjects will be addressed in this debate: What is utilitarianism? What is libertarianism? How do utilitarianism and libertarianism evaluate public policy issues such as economic inequality, homosexual behavior, and abortion? Which of the two ideas seems more genuine to you? What is Utilitarianism, and how does it differ from Libertarianism?
Utilitarianism is a school of ethics founded on the idea that society as a whole should be benefited. It’s a form of consequentialism. The aim is frequently known as happiness or enjoyment. It may be summarized in one sentence: “The greater good for the greatest number”. But, there’s some uncertainty surrounding the phrase “greater good.”
Utilitarianism, in its most basic form, simply implies pleasure or happiness. It doesn’t imply right versus wrong; instead, it implies enjoyable and pleasurable. According to Bentham, it means only “the tendency to increase or decrease happiness or pleasure.” When it comes to the number, one equals one vote; there is no such thing as a value of two for any single identity. There are two types of Utilitarianism: Act Utilitarianism and Rule Utilitarianism. ActUtilitarism thinks that the greatest action is the one that can generate the most pleasure.
It is devoid of ethical principles. It holds that each situation must be evaluated on its own and that for each one, there exists an individual action to be justified as well as possible. Rule Utilitarianism, on the other hand, holds that in every instance there is a general act of greatest happiness to be pursued. It believes in a set of rules or laws calculated to produce the greatest amount of pleasure. Furthermore, instead of acting first, a Rule Utilitarian would consult the rules.
What is Libertarianism?
Libertarianism is the idea that individuals should be free to do as they choose. It is a set of ideas and beliefs that pushes for the maximum amount of thinking and living through the reduction or elimination of state power. It believes in a world without government, war, or poverty. They also want to rule their own lives without considering other people’s opinions. Each person has his own views; each individual has the freedom to determine his own destiny.
According to the Libertarian worldview, each individual has his own life and the freedom to create and live it. Their objective is to promote liberty throughout the globe. They reject the use of force in society. What are the public policy concerns on economic inequality, homosexual conduct, and abortion according to Utilitarianism and Libertarianism? The first is the issue of economic disparity, which the Utilitarians see as positive. The Act and Rule Utilitarians take different views on how to deal with economic inequality—human rights.
For Act Utilitarians, if torture is beneficial to the general population, regardless of its violation of human rights in general, it is still acceptable. Their objective is simply to provide pleasure for the greatest number of people possible. It’s not wrong for them if the majority of people are happy doing it. Furthermore, a Rule Utilitarian considers human rights to be a moral duty.
They stick to their principles, no matter what it takes. They will fight to the death to defend it. As a result, they think that economic inequality is wrong. In contrast, Libertarians believe that economic disparity is not acceptable. Libertarians are in favor of equality and believe that everyone has a right to a fair judgment in the legal system. They object to all forms of discrimination, including racism and prejudice.
I agree that the arguments in support of the Libertarian are more convincing. People are born free individuals with human rights. Certain regulations were subsequently imposed to establish a community or adhere to a certain code as time progressed. However, I think these established rules and codes should not infringe on an individual’s basic freedoms. As an individual, I am also committed to equality.
I believe that each individual has the right to live his or her own life. I disagree with it, however, because I think it is murder. The dot of a single cell in the mother’s womb is also alive. I feel that it has as many rights as we humans have. However, Libertarianism is a more convincing political philosophy than Utilitarianism.
I don’t believe that the Utilitarians’ concept of imposing what is right and wrong in society. I think you should avoid using words like “good” and “bad.” It’s a violation of people’s rights. In the sense that if you’re not part of the majority, you can’t do anything you want. You can’t do things that the majority thinks are bad because to doing it would be infringing on your freedom. I prefer Libertarians to Utilitarians for this reason.
In one of the courses I’m currently taking, “Social Justice,” we spent several days discussing Utilitarianism and Libertarianism. These are two key ideas that have been discussed for a long time. These are two ways to live by pleasing oneself as a citizen.
Although Utilitarianism and Libertarianism may have many things in common, they are nonetheless very distinct. The objective of the Utilitarian theory is to maximize community happiness while reducing suffering overall. Libertarianism, on the other hand, is concerned with individual liberties. They strive for liberty.
Owners of businesses or, when we talk about international trade, globe business may set the price of anything they choose. In other words, it’s just like a monopoly to a certain degree. A monopoly is defined as a situation where there is no competition in any market. For example, if Apple I-phones were the only phone available in the United States, consumers would have no alternative but to buy them.
The value of money has changed, but the necessity of goods has not. This is connected with Utilitarianism because any firm may raise the price of its goods. Sandel used this example in his novel: “Stores that had previously sold little home generators for $250 were now asking $2,000” (Sandel 2009). Companies in control of generators, hotels, or roof repairs can charge whatever they want due to a storm or hurricane.
The next two theories that will be addressed are Libertarianism and Collectivism. Libertarianism is a political theory dedicated to protecting individual freedoms, using a common currency of worth, and allowing for free market competition. The primary objective of this idea is to promote social harmony through the use of a free market economy and promoting human well-being. Individual rights, a common currency of value, free-market competition, and most importantly collective pleasure are all important aspects of this viewpoint. Libertarianism holds that there is no such thing as redistribution of wealth. It is not acceptable to resell or taunt people with their incomes, land reform, or taxation in order to achieve social justice (Sandel 2009).
Philosophy is a long-standing practice. From Ancient Greece and Rome onwards, individuals have undertaken the task of doubting the truth of their worlds and formulating theories as to what makes people act in the ways that they do. Because it explains government and the necessity for legislation and authority in terms of utility, utilitarianism has grown in popularity during recent years.
However, much of what is now discussed by Utilitarianism was addressed previously in the thought of Plato. The theory of Utilitarianism and the writings of Plato’s great may be seen to differ in the following ways: in their metaphysical vision of the universe and humanity’s place in it, their view on human nature that assumes there is a flaw in it that enables beings to be unhappy or unfulfilled, and how they would create an ideal version of humanity and human existence based on their ideas.
Another well-known philosopher, Socrates, was Plato’s instructor. Through his interaction with the older teacher, Plato’s ideas were molded and adjusted. When Socrates was charged with corrupting the minds of the youth and sentenced to death, it had a big influence on his pupils. Plato came to believe that most individuals accept what they see and hear without putting forth any effort (Kupperman, 2010, p.47).
When people accept authority without question, it leads to the deaths of those who would seek to challenge it. Humans are charged with listening and observing, but then applying personal judgment and, most crucially, questioning. If unchecked power is given to authority and the majority, nothing may be changed, and society will not improve. Rule utilitarianism and act utilitarianism are two types of Utilitarian thinking. Rule utility theory says that the standard of living for the masses will most likely be determined by a rule. John Stuart Mill (2002), author of Utilitarianism, wrote in his work:
The best actions are intended not for the world’s benefit, but rather for the benefit of individuals, of which the world’s well-being is comprised. The thoughts of the most just man may not need to travel far beyond specific people in these circumstances, except to assure himself that he is not violating anybody else’s rights by improving them.
Utilitarianism, on the other hand, is concerned with individual people’s actual actions rather than the overall happiness of a group. These two types collaborate and drive those in positions of authority to pass rules regulating conduct. To create its own morality to follow, mankind must develop its own system of ethics.
In the Republic, Plato argues for his views on human nature. He described an instance in which two governing bodies compete for control of territory (Plato). He stated that not only was the civil war and the development of political factions the most serious risk to society but also that peace achieved by defeating the enemy rather than through peaceful resolution might lead to further societal division.
Promethean’s take on humanity is that people are hostile in their interests. When enraged or upset, they are unable to carry out actions that would benefit the majority since they are consumed with their emotions. Plato’s notion of nature was more concerned with the individual than with society as a whole. He argued that individuals must accept responsibility for their own behavior.
Utilitarianism is a branch of philosophy that examines the notion of ethics and values, like many other philosophical ideas. This theory maintains that ethical judgments are determined by the social group in which they are made (Mill, 2002, p. 4). Ethics and morals are decided based on what makes people or a group of persons the happiest in a specific cultural environment.
According to this culture, if a course of action brings the majority of people joy, it is ethical. In contrast, if a certain set of behaviors induces the great majority of people to be unhappy, it is considered unethical. Utility represents ultimate happiness and the greatest technique for individuals and the general population in a given society to be happy.
Most people will find themselves in a situation where their behavior is at odds with the social setting designated by authorities. Rule utilitarianism is the most widely used ethical theory throughout the world. They often establish rules that they believe would best suit as many of its citizens as possible, basing their judgments on rule utilitarianism.
This may appear to be a simple problem, but when applied to reality, it might become complex and/or near-impossible to enforce. The intentions of those in positions of power in a government and prospective legislation are to establish a set of rules or laws that give the greatest amount of people happy. It will never be feasible to write legislation that pleases all individual members of a population at once.
Mill identified two varieties of obligations that compel people to adhere to social norms: perfect and imperfect obligations. “Duties of perfect obligation are those moral duties which do not give rise to any right; whereas duties of imperfect obligation are those duties in virtue of which a correlative right resides in some individual or persons” (Mill, 2002, p.63).
For others, the rules are hostile, and individuals will choose to defy the directives of authority. However, adherence to the letter of the legislation as dictated by rule utilitarians does not allow for situations where individual choice and discretion do not match with government laws. Plato sees no difficulty with individuality. It is, rather, humans’ lack of personal responsibility and duty that poisons the soul. In Plato’s The Apology, for example, he creates a fictionalized version of Socrates’ trial. There are three individuals who accuse Socrates in the story.
Anytus, Meletus, and Lycon have made their accusations not because they believe in Socrates’ guilt, but as a result of their own personal problems and worries. Anytus attacked Socrates for his trade and political views; Meletus for his literature; and Lycon simply because he despised rhetoricians. Fear of punishment, either physically or mentally, is a powerful tool that men have in their hands. They are easily influenced by the fear of being punished, and they give in to pressure rather than endure harsh consequences.