Urbanization is a phenomenon that has been occurring in urban areas all over the world for centuries. It’s an urban development strategy that focuses on urbanizing rural or suburban areas into urban centers to accommodate population growth and urban sprawl. Urbanization can have both positive and negative effects, so it’s important to be able to weigh both sides of the debate before making your decision about whether you’re pro-urbanization or anti-urbanization.
The term refers to the movement of people from rural areas to cities in order to improve their standard of living. People who live in rural regions are subject to unpredictable weather conditions, which have an impact on their livelihood; as a result, they migrate to metropolises in search of a better life.
Prices start at $12
Prices start at $11
Prices start at $12
Contrary to rural regions, cities provide these individuals with chances to live a better life; there are industries, educational institutions, and social services that attract them (Andersen, 2002). As a result of the availability of these necessary services, they encounter difficulties as their number grows; hence, this paper will evaluate the benefits and drawbacks of urbanization.
Advantages of Urbanization
Electric and water services may be supplied more efficiently in city regions, where less work is involved in delivering basic amenities such as power and water. People who move to cities like these enjoy the benefits, which are difficult to obtain in rural communities. The cities also make great use of space; there are a lot of flats that can house a large number of individuals on a small piece of ground. There are also waste-recycling initiatives, such as tins and waste papers, which help to clean the city while also providing employment for people who migrate from rural areas.
Cities provide a wide range of social services, such as hospitals, schools, social services, and cultural activities. These facilities are important for the growth and health of a population because they allow people to leave rural areas (Tolley and Vinod 2006). People move to cities in order to have easy access to these facilities; with all of the social amenities, education and cultural activities that they provide, city dwellers live a more sophisticated and pleasant lifestyle. Cities also feature modern transportation and communication systems that make movement and communication considerably easier.
During the growth of cities, people preferred locations with well-established natural resources, which resulted in most cities having a plethora of resources nearby and within (DeBlij et al., 2010). The presence of infrastructure and manpower in cities allows for rapid development and improvement of city dwellers’ living standards owing to the availability of these resources (Varthoulakis, 2008).
Cities, as a result of their access to such services and workers from the municipality, stimulate manufacturing and service industries around the city, which provides employment for people from rural areas (Savage, 2005). Cities have well-established universities, colleges, and schools; these make them ideal locations for improving human resources. There are several courses in a variety of disciplines and levels available to students who move to cities; this implies that most of them will pursue jobs of their choosing , resulting in high degrees of success.
Students who have completed their education can pursue a wide range of employment, as well as the opportunity to start enterprises or projects for those who want to establish job opportunities in which they have a better chance of succeeding (Andersen, 2002). Also, there are several financial institutions that allow individuals to store money and borrow money for investments. This creates an investment-friendly climate.
People from different backgrounds, castes, and belief systems come together in cities, and despite their differences, they do live and work together. As they dwell alongside one another, they learn and comprehend one another, which aids in the reduction of social and cultural barriers; since many individuals now live in metropolises throughout the country has less conflict. People who live in rural areas also profit from urbanization; the majority of these individuals work on farms, and their farm product requires to be marketed. They value cities since they consume their farm goods for money, allowing them to improve economically (Potsiou, 2010).
Consider a nation with everyone living in rural areas and having their own property. Because everyone will have enough for themselves, there would be a lot of waste. Urbanization also helps to relieve agricultural land strain; as people relocate to cities, they give more room for agriculture, which increases the agricultural sector (Potsiou, 2010). Agricultural products will be produced in greater quantities, assuring food security.
Disadvantages of Urbanization
Urbanization has led to increasing air pollution in cities. Energy is insufficient, and some people opt for illegal electricity connections while others turn to inefficient cooking fuels like firewood and charcoal, which produce more carbon emissions (Marchand, 1998). For example, Kozani in Greece is the most polluting city in Europe. As the population of individuals grows, so does the number of cars on the road, which leads to an increase in diesel usage and hence carbon emissions.
Cities’ expanding population raises issues with transportation and traffic management. Mumbai, for example, has almost 18 million inhabitants and 56.5% of the population travels on foot, while 21.9 percent use rail (Potsiou, 2010). This city has few vehicles, but over 20,000 people have died as a result of the packed train with less than 10 passengers every day (Potsiou, 2010). Another example is Vietnam, where there are an estimated 18 million motorcycles and one million automobiles on narrow roads.
Urbanization causes an increase in the number of people living in cramped conditions on little land in cities, which exceeds the rate at which water is added, resulting in water shortages. Also, because people use water before disposing of wastewater on land, this produces overburden disposal; this generates a worse appearance, stench emanating from sewage and flies attracted by the filthy water (Arnaud et al., 2004).
As the population grows, access to clean water in cities becomes increasingly difficult, and some individuals seek out untreated river water as a result; this water is unclean and might cause cholera.
Finally, the water in these rivers is contaminated with untreated discharged that has entered them, and their waters flow into the sea where drinking water and irrigation water are taken; this might lead to illnesses among persons who consume sea water for drinking (Marchand, 1998). In New Delhi, sewage was applied to agricultural regions without regard for the health effects it may have on humans.
Cities with a large population have garbage management concerns. The city of Athens, for example, generates six thousand tons of waste every day; the city’s inability to manage this waste has become an issue. Many nations have decided to dispose of trash in landfills, which is another method of contaminating the soil. Greece ran into difficulties with the EU for operating 1,102 open landfills; nevertheless, they’ve cut the number of operational landfills down to 400 (Potsiou 2010).
The growing number of people in cities has necessitated the need for low-cost housing; most city governments with high populations lack building regulations, resulting in illegal construction (Arnaud et al., 2004).
People cut down trees on private property without permission, and sometimes these individuals are evicted from the property and forced to search for another location to locate. Slums have sprung up in cities throughout the world, and they are characterized by poor size and construction, as well as land-use violations. These are areas where crime grows since most of those living in slums do not have adequate employment prospects; they prefer to engage in criminal activities rather than starve.
Urbanization will continue, although it may be slowed down. As a result, the first step toward alleviating the effects of urbanization is to prepare for all amenities and resources accessible to the public in order to relieve society and the environment from additional strain.
Because the areas of your city may be isolated from one another, you’ll need to give them some kind of connection. Because these cities are growing at breakneck speed, there is a greater risk of meeting unforeseen challenges and problems. The cities should employ the cardinal rule, which states that development should be planned rather than allowed to take place on its own. To improve service delivery, residential areas should be built near government bodies while the local government plans for the city.
Job prospects may be created in rural areas to reduce urban-to-rural migration. The growing number of people will relieve city stress. Individuals cannot be restricted from moving to cities to solve issues relating to urbanization. This is because each citizen has the right to relocate and settle wherever he or she chooses as long as it does not violate someone else’s rights.
The term “urbanization” is no longer an obscure one, in light of the modern consequences on people and the environment. Urbanization occurs when there is a rise in population in cities and towns compared to rural areas. It’s either a measure of how urbanized a region is relative to its population or how fast its people are growing. Cities are expanding at a rapid rate these days, with little prospect of rural areas being replaced by urban ones.
It has been said that the United Nations declared that half of the world’s population now live in cities (Haub, 2009, p. 1). This will continue to grow as economies expand and the chance of attaining a higher income in cities rises. Job prospects, modernization, and commercialization are examples of why urban areas have grown in popularity over time. People believe they can live a successful life in cities when these regions become more technologically advanced.
There are, however, drawbacks to the advantages of urbanization. Overcrowding and housing shortages are two negative consequences of urbanization. In cities, a rise in the population may cause a scarcity of homes and forced confinement of individuals within a small area. The reduced living circumstances might result in future health issues. Overall, because to the employment possibilities and improving economic situation inside the cities, the benefits outweigh the disadvantages by far.
The availability of employment opportunities in cities is the primary cause of urbanization. People from rural areas come to seek a variety of employment possibilities. It provides people with the opportunity to work in a number of job categories that contribute to economic growth. “Most individuals move into towns in order to obtain well-paying jobs, as urban areas provide numerous employment possibilities across all developmental sectors such as public health, education, transportation, industries, and business enterprises” (Rinkesh, 2016 , p. 7).
Job growth is boosted by creating and increasing tourism marketing in order to attract people into cities for the job prospects. Because of technological advancements that make it easier to advertise businesses via social media and internet advertising, there are more individuals discussing the employment prospects in urban areas every day.
The second advantage of urbanization is the improved technological and infrastructure development. “As city areas become increasingly technologically sophisticated as well as highly developed in terms of communication, infrastructure, medical services, and other social amenities access, individuals believe they can lead a fulfilled existence there” (Rinkesh, 2016, p. 8).
The construction engineers are at the forefront of city development. They have control over the building and road construction in cities. It was claimed that “the world’s growing urban areas’ stability and livability will depend more than ever on advances in public-infrastructure engineering” (Arizona State, 2009) (p.1).
The transportation industry is one of the most polluting sectors, and it requires significant maintenance. It starts with construction engineers who must keep urbanization going by building strong and environmentally safe structures and roads. In the future, the world’s fastest growing metropolitan areas will require a far more up-to-date infrastructure. Buildings that utilize wind to maintain temperature, recycle water, and potentially produce their own energy are on the horizon.
Modern house designs will be an important answer to urban growth. “Solar One’s new headquarters in New York will be a net zero energy consumer and include environmental technologies such as PV panels and a shaded garden wall” (Goodier, 2013, p 3). Another problem that plagues today’s megacities is traffic congestion. Modern transportation systems will self-monitor and show drivers how to avoid urban congestion.
Cities expand, and governments work on large projects, including public transit systems and highways. The construction of additional infrastructure will make cities more mobile, allowing businesses to locate near transportation nodes to gain access to a new customer base as more people are able to commute to their locations.
The fourth benefit of urbanization is commercialization. Commercialization is the act of supplying products or services to the general public or to other firms. It’s the process of generating, distributing, and selling goods or services in order to achieve success. “Commercialization and trade are associated with a widespread belief that cities and towns provide greater commercial opportunities and returns than rural areas,” according to Rinkesh (2016, p. 5).
The development of a city’s ecommerce increases its productivity. Humans have desires and higher living standards are achieved as a result of it. People may now purchase anything in cities, ensuring that their needs and desires are met. Commercialization aids us in getting the right goods at the best price and place, as well as improving our standard of living. Commerce connects manufacturers with consumers through wholesale or retail transactions.
Through marketing research, the producer can learn about a producers wants and requirements. Commercialization links everyone together through the production of goods and services. Despite the many advantages of urbanization, there are also several drawbacks that must be addressed in order to complete the case for urbanization. In populated areas, there are increased rates of slums, overcrowding, and water and sanitation issues. The cost of living in cities may be high in certain areas.
“When this is combined with erratic and unpredictable development, as well as unemployment, there is a spread of unlawful resident communities demonstrated by slums and squatters.” (Rinkesh, 2016, p. 15). This may occur because people wish to seek for a better life but are unable to afford the growing prices of living.
The second issue with urbanization is the chance of people being overburdened. When individuals move into cities, they may create a human crush in a small zone. This congestion might lead to increased conflict among residents or infrastructure. The final difficulty is lack of water and sanitation services.
Because of the rapid population growth, cities may be confronted with significant resource issues. “By 2050, we predict that 993 million people will live in cities with regular water shortages within their urban perimeter” (Mcdonald, 2010, p. 7). Water scarcity inside cities can also endanger wildlife. Many more freshwater species might be at risk due to growing demand for water in towns.
These drawbacks, nevertheless, can be readily overcome by experienced personal and committed individuals. It begins with everyone living in the cities to work together to prevent slums, water, and sanitation issues from happening in the first place. There are two options for city governments when confronted with a water scarcity. The first is to boost groundwater mining.
The total volume of water may be increased by several years or decades, while the problem will be alleviated without construction works. Second, land management can help us keep our water supplies stable. Changing land use or management might save water for urban areas. Cities may pay farmers for the water they normally pump from their fields so that it can be used in towns.
The civil engineers may take care of the growth of slums. It begins with the civil engineers, who are in charge of city development, to construct sturdy and ecologically safe buildings and roads. Engineers will collaborate with communication and public utility systems to create technological advancements essential to connecting these systems and operating a successful city correctly. The city administration’s ability to control population is crucial. There must be regulation over the number of people in order for overpopulation to be avoided.
The term “urbanization” is used more than ever these days, due to the recent effects on people and the environment. Urbanization occurs when there is an increase in population density in cities and towns versus rural areas. As long as humanity exists, urbanization will continue. Nothing can stop the creation of additional cities in the future. The growth is fueled by industrialisation, job opportunities, and modernisation within cities.
If everyone begins to take care of the planet, the advantages may easily outweigh the difficulties. If individuals don’t misuse what they have and take care of everything in a good way, then the problems can be prevented before they occur. Overall, because to the employment prospects and growing economic prosperity within cities, urbanization has benefits that outweigh its negatives.
According to a 2010 survey, there are approximately 4.5 million Jordanian citizens in the country’s cities. That number today is expected to be about 15% (Jordan Urbanization), indicating that the vast majority of Jordanians, refugees and asylum seekers have relocated to the cities. This rapid urbanization has put a tremendous amount of strain on infrastructure, which translates to higher costs for both the government and its people.
Additionally, rising housing costs, food prices, and basic amenities like water are all contributing to the rise in cost of living. The greatest overall risk is accelerated and rapid inflation (Higget), which is due to water scarcity. Jordanians are fleeing rural areas and moving to cities that can provide more water and a different lifestyle as a result of water scarcity. This has contributed to rapid urbanization, putting significant strains on the government and citizens economically.
There are numerous advantages to urbanization, even in the face of water scarcity caused by climate change. People who formerly relied on agriculture are being forced to migrate to cities because of water scarcity, and one would expect that this just brings negative effects; nevertheless, there are also several benefits to urbanization (as long as it is sustainable).
The first point is that with a growing population in cities, there is an increase in the development and diversification of enterprises, especially those in service industries, as a result of the increasing number of people requiring new goods and services (Dociu and Dunarintu). As a consequence, overall economic development and diversification also leads to improvements in GDP and foreign investment.