Unitarists believe that there is only one unitary divine schoolmaster. This unitarian belief has been traced back to the writings of a sixth-century Persian philosopher, Abu Ali Sina. In his book The Book of Healing, he states “All people are from God and to Him they will return.” According to unitarists, everything in the universe is of a single substance or essence and it is all part of the same unitary being.
In general, Unitarianism refers to a workplace that is integrated and cooperative in order to achieve a common aim. In unitarism, management’s duty is significant, with the primary goal of leadership and communication being to give effective leadership and communication. To accomplish their common goals, employees should be loyal to their company as well as its leadership in a unitarized organization.
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The majority of the world’s unions are founded on loyalty and dedication for their workers, but this is why they are not welcomed by employers. Employees may grow too familiar with management at times, and this can lead to conflict. (Morris et al., 1999) In Pluralism , Management is supposed to not only create powerful and distinct sub-groups, but also empower these groups with its own set of objectives as well as leaders. The two most significant sub-groups are Management and trade unions, as a result of this discussion.
In a multi-ethnic company, it’s hard for management to avoid conflict since Management only focuses on achieving objectives and goals, and proper attention is not paid to employees who simply give standard training in order to achieve them. So in a Pluralistic environment, management is solely focused on attaining objectives rather than establishing personal connections. (Morris, R., Leece P., & Mortimer D., eds.) (1998))
What is Unitarism? In a nutshell, unitarism might be described as the theory of ordinary purpose as well as mutual objectives with no fundamental conflict of interest between labor and capital (capital). As a result of this, management’s role diversifies, but it also diversifies towards enforcement and coordination rather than policing. Trade unions are the legal Council of Workers in many countries, and they’re primarily concerned with workplace conflicts. If management is able to manage trade unions well, this might lead to progress as well as positive change. (Wiesner, R., & Millett, B., eds.)
A disagreement is an exception; the result of a conflict may be any one of the above. Between management and the workforce, there are numerous problems in communication. Unethical behavior on the part of management may make it difficult for them to handle employees. People are the most important assets in an organization, and therefore HRM is a highly strategic and logical method of management. People working for the company’s success contribute to its success.
HRM has replaced the phrase “Personnel Management,” which involves the process of managing people in an organization. In general, HRM is defined as the method of hiring people, developing their assets, utilizing them, caring for them, and compensating them when necessary based on job requirements and managerial necessity. ( Wood J., Wallace J., Zeffane R., Schermerhorn Hunt & Osborn (2001).)
The most common methods in HRM are as follows:
- HRM is a long-term solution. -> HRM is a long-term strategy. HRM allows people to grow in their thinking skills, making them more productive over time.
- Extremely hard HRM – It has to do with integrating staff into corporate goals, and management appears to be tough on their people, generally they are concerned with meeting objectives.
- Neo-institutionalism is the term used to describe a multi-partnership business model in which neo-institutionalists seek greater autonomy over their workforce than conventional workplace structures allow.
There are two main categories of rules in the field of personnel management: individual and organizational.
- Rules of etiquette
- Rules with concrete content
Other characteristics of neo-institutionalism include:
- Neo-intuitionism is not only open but also closed when it comes to employee engagement.
- Neo-Intuitionalism aids in interpreting the present in light of the past.
- Neo-Intuitionalism refers to and aids employees in comprehending the actual world.
It’s been observed that, in Australia and throughout the world, the majority of employment presently follows unitarism tool of HRM since it has been labeled as “soft” HRM. In this “Soft” HRM, there are several criteria that meet today’s changing world’s needs and wants, such as –
The technologies are concentrating on individual performance, especially in the field of HRM. Individual achievement is also a theme in Unitarism, where all of the employees and management at an organization do team-based work, making it more attractive for employers. In contrast, Management in hard HRM is usually focused on attaining results, which makes hard HRM unfavorable for both employers and employees. Employers have been emphasizing on the development of workers because it can be demonstrated positively for them in the long run.
Unitarism, which is also known as human resource management, is a company seen to be an integrated and harmonious whole with the objective of creating one big happy family where everyone has a common goal, emphasizing mutual cooperation. Pluralism is another name for industry relationship.
There is no common ground in the organization, and various loyalty and authority exist on a per-participant basis. The unitarism approach will be challenged in this essay. It will also make a side-by-side comparison between China and Australia to demonstrate why it is not useful for all actors in the employment relationship. Body: Unitarism emphasizes on the fixed human resource.
For example, the Foxconn electronics facility in China that creates goods for a number of major laptop and mobile phone brands such as Apple, Dell, HP, Sony, and Nintendo. It has previously claimed that totally 11 workers have committed suicide owing to pressure. Foxconn offers its employees strong working conditions and a healthy work environment. This implies that if the high-paying but unskilled staff don’t have positive communication with their bosses or lack psychological or self-release skills, they will face similar pressures at work (Tam, 2010).
If the employers detect a large amount of work, their employees will be less stressed out than those who do not report. As a result, the workers will de stress or become dissatisfied. It is also stressful for businesses since to the decision-making and management demands, as well as more flexible employment relationships that need more input in order to function properly.
Exchange roles in the original trade union. Employers should be more concerned with their connection with workers. Within the unitarism method, employees may be readily changed or dismissed without the aid of a union and state intervention, human resource management will be focused on individuals rather than groups.
During the early 1990s, most businesses embraced decentralized bargaining as a competitive business strategy. This was due to the fact that it was considered to be a necessary mechanism by which companies could adapt in order to stay competitive. The consequence was the creation of a new corporate culture in which an organization is supposed to function as a family (Consortium Reseach Program, 2006, p.11).
Australia is one of the nations that has undergone a shift in its industrial relations framework. Furthermore, there was a substantial transformation in Australia’s labor market, which had an impact on firm-employee interactions. According to Kaye (1999), Australian businesses’ decentralized employee relations system has resulted in a unitary management style.
According to Unitarian management theory, an organization should be regarded as a single entity. This implies that workers must have a common goal in order for the company to achieve its objectives. Employee commitment is becoming more important for organizations, according to Kirton and Greene (2010, p.232).
As a result, management teams are focusing on employee loyalty by looking at how well employees have internalized the firm’s corporate vision even if it means sacrificing their own interests. As a consequence of more Australian employment system becoming unitarists, the degree of inequality has greatly increased. According to Budd (2005, p.19), an equitable employment relationship entails a number of fair employment standards.
Hindering collective action/bargaining
According to Kirton and Greene (2010, p.233), unitary theory holds that an employee’s dedication to a firm is individualistic. However, this might have negative consequences for organizational equality in a variety of ways. One of the most widespread impacts is that unitarism hinders the notion of collective action within a company. Unitary management inhibits the formation of trade unions in businesses.
According to Kirton & Greene (2010, p.233), the unitarism approach has been labeled an assault on trade unions. The theory denigrates trade unions by claiming that a mutual loyalty is established between the employer and employees. As a result, no organization can have two sides. Employees who hold opposing viewpoints are considered to be insubordinate. As a result, the company may choose to take legal action or even fire them. Employees are not permitted to voice their views despite the fact that they have the right to do so.
Unions are considered a source of conflict in an organization, which is why they are viewed as disruptive. Trade unions, on the other hand, play a significant part in keeping an organization focused on equality issues within the company. Over the last several decades, trade unions have become quite vocal in promoting for legislation of a National Minimum Wage (NMW) (Konrad, Prasad & Pringle, 2006 , p.499). The Australian labor relations system has been decentralized, greatly reducing the importance of trade unions in the country. According to Bray, Waring & Cooper (2009), unitarism restricts the collective bargaining agenda, as demonstrated by trade unions.
The unitarism perspective leads to a change in employment conditions regulation from co-determination to managerial prerogative. According to Kaye (1999, p.584), a company that uses a managerial prerogative style of management to achieve organizational objectives does so at the expense of other elements that are essential in creating an organizational culture. The use of unitarism in management prevents the formation of any employee representation body within the organization, which leaves staff feeling alienated.
The belief that various interest groups, such as the trade unions, are opposed to Unitarism because of a lack of knowledge regarding management goals is called an attitude. To resolve this, unitarists feel that the greatest method is for firms to have open communication (Sheldrake, 2003, p. 71).
However, this could backfire and exacerbate the dispute as the workers gain a greater insight into the existing gap of interest between them and management. For instance, while the trade union is demanding a higher minimum wage, the management team is arguing for its retention at a low level (Buchanan et al., 1999, p. 100).
Failure to appreciate differences in personal interests
Organizations are influenced by conflicts between various interest groups in their operations. A successful strategy must be devised to improve relationships despite the present divergences in interests, points of view, rewards and values (Levy & Merry, p.223). The unitary management strategy, according to Price (2000, p.292), does not value the variety in employees’ interests. Managers are assumed to know best, and they will act in the best interests of the workers (Kirton & Greene, 2010, p.34).
Finally, this method argues that both employees and management share a common goal. This has aided in the generation of inequality among organizations’ personnel needs. Restructuring management procedures has resulted in management teams disregarding staff training and development. Organizations have been unable to achieve a balance between conflicting interests because they did not recognize the existence of personal variables (Budd, Gomez, & Meltz, 2004, p. 3).
To improve equity in employment relationships, management teams must use management methods that promote employee liberty and respect. In addition, the company’s approach should guarantee equal treatment for employees (Budd, 2005, p.20). In order for equality to be upheld throughout an organization, its leadership must make sure that its staff are treated fairly. Giving the workers the treatment they deserve is one of the methods by which this may be accomplished. Managers should set up a workplace that is conducive to working.
Other considerations include providing for retirement, work leave, and protection against unjust dismissal (Budd, 2005, p.20). For example, equitable minimum working standards in terms of a minimum wage, safety and health, and maximum working hours should be established (Edwards, p.5). Other conditions to consider include retirement benefits, work leave provisions, and protection from wrongful termination (Budd, 2005 , pp. 20-21)
The Australian workforce has been negatively affected as a result of the country’s industrial employee relations systems being overhauled (Kaye, 1999, p. 584). Employees in Australia are increasingly seen as commodities to be managed. The adoption of a unitary strategy has encouraged businesses to overlook employment obligations. Employees are required to work long hours for which they are not paid well, causing them to be anxious. Furthermore, Australian businesses do not have a secure job. As a result, employee motivation has decreased.
The unitary management approach has harmed equality in Australian companies, according to the data presented above. For example, the policy has prevented Australian workers from participating in collective bargaining. This is due to the fact that a uni-directional approach restricts employees from establishing trade unions.
Because managers are viewed as working in the employees’ best interests, it’s in their nature to appear intent on helping them achieve their objectives. Furthermore, according to the theory, both employees and management are motivated by a common goal. Trade unions are thought to be a source of contention.
This strategy has also brought about an increase in inequality as a result of unjust treatment. The Unitary Management System has had an impact on the work environment by ignoring basic working requirements. Employees are forced to work long hours and receive inadequate pay, for example. This is exacerbated by the fact that there are no trade unions that may advocate for employee rights.
The attitude does not account for individuals having diverse interests. As a result, employee training has significantly decreased. Employee development has been hampered as a result of this. Australian businesses must evaluate ways to improve their employee relations systems in order to develop a positive employment relationship. In addition, they should look at other sources of conflicts beyond emphasizing on establishing a corporate culture to prevent them.
The idea that the management and workforce are working together for the benefit of the company is known as unitarism, which is defined in the Dictionary of Human Resources and Personal Management as follows: ‘the concept that management and labor are cooperating to serve the interests of the organization’ (Ivanovic and Collin, 2006, p.267). Pluralism, on the other hand, is defined as follows: ‘the viewpoint that different types of employees have varying needs and demands, necessitating compromise’ (Ivanovic and Collin, 2006, p.201).
In the following essay, unitarism and pluralism will be compared and contrasted. In order to do so, unitarism, pluralism, and the employment relationship will be defined in greater detail. Gospel and Palmer (1993) state that the employment connection is ‘an economic social and political relationship in which employees give manual or mental labor in exchange for remuneration provided by employers’ (p. 3). There are certain elements that define the employment relationship as it is defined and differentiate it from other workplace relationships, such as the customer-business relationship (Lewis, Thornhill, and Saunders, 2003).
The employment relationship may be viewed from many vantage points. Each company has its own viewpoint, but similar firms share the same outlook. These viewpoints are unitarism, pluralism, and Marxism. The two perspectives that most divide employee relationships are unitarism and pluralism, which are by far the most prevalent views adopted by a firm (Lewis et al., 2003).
A unitarist viewpoint is defined by Fox (1966, p.2) as: ‘a group…united by a common aim’”. All workers contribute to the same goal and share the same principles (Lewis, Thornhill & Saunders, 2003). Everyone performs their tasks in an area where they are competent. Employees in small or family-owned companies are frequently compared to a large family or team that works together to achieve the same objective. There is, however, one person who holds the power in the company, and everyone follows the leader designated by leadership.
Strength of the Unitarist Perspective
Managers and employees may have different goals, but this viewpoint strives to combine their interests in order to increase employees’ dedication as well as loyalty. This can be vital in managing stakeholders, especially when dealing with workers who are viewed as key parts of the business. As a result, it’s critical to handle employee issues with care so that the company succeeds.
Workers’ rights are frequently seen as an impediment to development, particularly in the case of manufacturing industries. This argument focuses on the firm’s management function, which entails achieving a win-win situation for both employees and the organization as a whole. As a result, executives are compelled to go out of their way to demonstrate their managerial and leadership skills. If managers can make a convincing and persuasive argument, trade unions may soon be obsolete (Giri, 2008).
According to this viewpoint, all organization members are considered rational, so they trust in discovering commonalities. Such a belief gives a firm basis for putting emphasis on the shared aims of employees to achieve a stable employment relationship system. Unitarism is essentially individualistic in its approach to employee relations. This may be advantageous for industrial relations systems based on individuality (Martin and Fellenz, 2010).
Weakness of Unitarism
Unitarism fails to acknowledge the existence of power imbalances between bosses and employees. This results in a variety of restrictions. Managers have significant power, and they exert influence over workers by setting the conditions under which they work. Blue-collar occupations are most affected by this thinking. Workers are deprived of control under this view.
Workers are compelled to accept management choices in this scenario. The unitarist perspective also sees conflict as a bad thing. As a result, conflicts are not viewed as potential sources of harmony in the workplace. Some disputes are considered beneficial to businesses, therefore they must be endured (Wilton and Wilton, 2011).
In a nutshell, it is important to remember that the unitary perspective is natural in nature. It does not describe how each employee’s interests and sentiments can be fully incorporated into corporate goals. Unitarism additionally lacks a framework for determining how the company’s fundamental interests may be identified and shared across organizations.
The approach is ineffective because it does not offer human resource standards that would improve its effectiveness. The idea is based on the notion that company members have the capacity to make sensible judgments about how their interests align with those of the organization (Wilton and Wilton, 2011).