From the early 17th century to the mid-1860s, African Americans were sold and used as slaves. They were brought over by boat looking for a better lifestyle and more respect. Instead, they were sold at auctions to white English men. These men owned their own farm and worked slaves in their fields cutting Sugar Cane and growing Tobacco, Coffee, and Cotton. While working in the fields they all grew close to one another, fell in love, and later got married and had children. They also had a lot of political problems while trying to gain better working conditions.
In 1619, 20 African Americans arrived in Jamestown, Virginia. These people were sold and bought by the English Mainlanders. All of them were not slaves but were in fact, Indentured Servants. There were many Indentured Servants already in the American Colonies but more just kept on coming. Most slaves were young, black males. But not all Slaves were from Africa like most. Some were homelanders and knew the area well which made it easier for them to escape.
Prices start at $12
Prices start at $11
Prices start at $12
By the time of 1625, there were only about 25 Negroes in the Virginia Colony. Soon the population grew to over 1,000 in 1672 and all the slaves were being bought. There was never a shortage of Slaves in 1708 when more than 12,000 African Americans were being brought in along with 18,000 whites. Then 48 years later the population of Slave Labour had multiplied by ten leaving 120,156 Negro Slaves in the Southern Colonies. Then in 1763, 60,000 Slaves were all imported into Cuba and used there as Slaves. But then in 1793, the world was in high demand for cotton and Slavery expanded rapidly.
In the time the African Americans were slaves to the English white people there were usually about 30-60 of them who made most of the southern Agriculture unit. They worked in the fields doing various jobs. Most Slaves didn’t work alone. They usually worked in groups of 20-25 because one particular job needed the power to do so. If a Slave was cutting Sugar Cane they would need the help of 49 others to do the job. The Sugar Cane always had to be kept clean and the fields had to be weeded constantly. They worked in the heat, the cold, the rain, the hail, the snow, and nothing would stop them from working except the master of the slave. Working in the heat of the South summer was harsh.
After the rain or snow, the Slaves would be out in the fields taking the snow off the tobacco, corn, and cotton plants just to save the crops. In the spring they would have to drain all the water out of the fields and then after doing that they planted the next year’s crop and took care of it all year round. They mostly planted Tobacco, Sugar Cane, Coffee, and Cotton, where the most important crop of the southern colonies was the Tobacco and the cotton. This usually happened in the first few months of the new year, usually around March or April. Planting was the simple part but sometimes Slaves were in knee-deep water for hours every day picking cotton out of it. This was the time when labour was the most difficult. There were other jobs for the slaves to do other then work in the fields. For the Slaves who where in the Northern colonies, some were taught skilled labor.
Slaves were Slaves and did everything from being house servants, nurses, midwives, carpenters, blacksmiths, drivers, preachers, gardeners, and handymen. Usually, Slaves, where assigned a daily job and once that job, was done the rest of the day was theirs to do whatever they wanted to. As they lived and worked the men usually wore Jeans and a T-Shirt often called an osnaburg. For the women, they usually wore dresses or calico. For the most part, Slaves had their own small, wooden sleeping cabin and were given seeds for them to grow their own food. On their downtime, they would do work around their cabin. Most hoped for better days and someday even own their own place sometime.
And although Slaves were there to work for free they all shared a complex and intimate relationship with each other. Many times intimacy was often proved fatal for the bondsman. They also thought about themselves and lived as American people would have lived. They had friends, they sang to pass time, told stories to the children and others, played games and tried to make the most out of their lives. They all knew too, what the most important thing to them was, their families and their religion. Most Slaves were lucky in a way that they still kept living as a family. Though they had to share a small cabin together they were at least together. Some also feared that their loved family members would be sold off and taken away and that they would never see them again. Women also feared they would be used as Slaves sexually to their Male masters.
There were apoximently eight million white people who enjoyed the service of Slave Labour and “384,884 people owned Negro Slaves”. This means three- quarters of the white people in America (of the southern colonies) did not own slaves (1947: Franklin, 139). Of the first 12 presidents 8 of them where Slaveholders. In 1788 Governor John Hancock protested the return of the Negroes but didn’t get anywhere with it. But before that in 1778 there was a law that was passed and said if there where any African American Slaves caught escaping they would be sold to anyone who bidded the highest on them. The main reason for the white English people to have Slaves was that they could only stay on the plantation for so long without catching a virulent fever.
Also owning a Slave gave a white English man total control of their Slave. This made them feel like they were someone with some kind of power. Most masters directed what their Slaves could and couldn’t do. They had power over a Slave to approve or disapprove of a marriage. Some even went all the way and wrote out rules for their Slave to abide by. If any of the rules were broken their Master would punish, beat, nag, and threaten the Slave, but if a Slave was lucky, they would have a rich master who would take care of them. Some would call in a doctor to see what the problem was with their Slave if they were sick and couldn’t work. Most Slaves got so sick of being tossed around and always hoped they would one day be able to escape from their owners who treated them poorly.
Slaves didn’t like the way they were being treated. They complained in an attempt to gain better conditions. But of course, never got any. They wanted control of their lives instead of them being run by White English people. They hated their masters because they would always get in the way of their lives and they wanted to increase their independence while their owners tried to minimize it. African Americans struggled with political, legal, and social issues to gain full citizenship and equality. Segregation was a big issue for the African American people too. Segregation is the legal or social issue of separating people based on race or ethnicity. Segregation occurs when national laws required racial separation. During the civil rights movement, people challenged segregation and discrimination by protesting, boycotting, and not following the laws of Segregation.
Towards the end of Slave Labour in 1860, only 5% of people living in a town of 2500 people or more were Slaves. Slavery finally came to an end when President Lincoln issued a reality check on the 13th amendment to the American constitution in 1863. Although the Southern Politicians were against the ending of Slavery in December of 1865 Congress passed the law. By 1865 Slavery had come to an end. Black African Americans were free and could look after themselves and not have to work for anyone else for free. African Americans now had rights just like any other American citizens. “Although slavery was ended, it was followed by an intense struggle during Reconstruction over the status of the newly freed slaves. In subsequent decades, black Americans continued to struggle against poverty, racism, and segregation, as they sought to overcome the bitter legacy of slavery.”
Africans were brought by force to the New World to work in an economic system in which they had no stake. Bringing them to labor not only free of charge, but free of rights and above that treated as things that the white men own, meant a great and wide dispersal of peoples, maybe not the most important one throughout the history or the greatest or widest, but certainly a very important inhuman action that destroyed the lives of millions of people. It was indeed traffic with human merchandise that started in the early sixteenth century and continued until the nineteenth century. Even if at the beginning the slave market was something new and unexplored by most white people, after a while it became a fashion and after that a custom, which made the slave demand increase. It was a mentality that was blocked in the mind of slave owners for whom the nineteenth century was quite a disaster.
1.1. Slave Trading. The beginning of the slave trade in America, according to Colin Palmer, is sustained by some records which affirm that the first black came there when Christopher Columbus took a second visit to the New World in 1493. Nevertheless, if we refer to slavery as an institution it only appeared in 1501, and the first English colony which took part in the whole importing process; Virginia in North America brought Africans in 1619 to do “unfree” labor for whites. There were also free blacks who owned slaves. Black skin was indeed the symbol of discrimination, even if a minority of white people were also held as slaves. The 1600s until the end of the nineteenth century was devastating for the ones shipped to America. We could not say precisely how many lives were destroyed, but Philip Curtin, who is said to have the most systematic accounting, estimates that only 9.391.000 slaves were brought during the slave trade; from this amount, an almost insignificant proportion went to North America.
The slave trade was very important for colonists, not only concerning the economy, but it also became a habit, something that they thought they could not live without. Americans came to believe that slaves were literally indispensable farm animals and their lives would be much easier if they bought some, then hire a person to “take care” of them and after the work was done they would become rich men. That is why the demand for slaves increased, slave traders were the happiest people and human souls vanished. The slave trade influenced everyone. Even in Georgia, a colony that didn’t permit slave labor, the planters started to want them so much that when they had a drink, their regular toast was: “Here’s for the one thing needful!”. So, buying slaves was something very normal for American planters, but no one other than a slave knew what this process was like.
Palmer describes in his essay about the slave trade how things unfolded. At first, the slaves were witnesses to the process of their price negotiation between the African trader and the foreigner. They were examined by a doctor and those who were apt for hard labor were marked with a red hot iron on the breast so that each company could trail its slaves. If we would take into consideration one human action, it would be the fact that women were treated a little gentler than men when they were marked on the breast with that hot iron, a treatment unconscionable for every being. That doesn’t mean that they had feelings, but at least they didn’t forget that women were more sensitive than men.
The next step was the “middle passage”, a dreadful journey of a slave ship, which lasted between six and ten weeks and most frequently departed from a European harbor. You could almost say that the ones who were aboard were future walking corps because of the conditions in which they traveled. What was so awful about the journey? Slaves were chained and stayed like sardines in a can the whole way. They could not move without hurting themselves or another person; even before they arrived at their master’s they were treated worse than animals and these conditions facilitated the appearance of diseases and pandemics. Measles, smallpox, dysentery, “ophthalmia” (a form of blindness), and others were the cause of their death; but some of them also committed suicide or died in anguish by a process known as “fixed melancholy”, an outcome of the shock. An anonymous slave trader which arrived once with only 372 slaves out of 700 remarked:
We could not say if at the end of the journey the ones who survived were lucky or not because what followed was as horrible as the journey, if not even worse. On their arrival, the slaves were shaved and oiled and generally made ready for the hordes of prospective buyers. Often these wretched humans were paraded through the public square so as to expose them to the anxious eyes of the waiting purchasers. Thereafter the bargain for each slave took place, while the terrified Africans often believed they were being bought in order to be eaten. (Palmer 96) After they arrived in America, the domestic trade was next in line.
Virginia was one of the states that practiced this with a lot of success and it was followed by North Carolina, South Carolina, and Maryland. The slave price increased and in Georgia, for example, it rose from $700 to $1,050 in thirty years. This process was pretty fast involving the slave trade within the territory and was made by those who could not participate in the external trade, but after the Haitian Revolution in 1791, the slave owners had a real problem: fear. In that period half a million slaves destroyed the sugar plantations and murdered their owners. Theoretically, the slave trade became illegal before the beginning of the nineteenth century.
1.1.1. The Illegal Phase. In 1776, the Founding Fathers “wrote” in the pages of history an important change. After taking part in the American Revolution and winning American Independence from Great Britain, they signed the United States Declaration of Independence which gave thirteen states their freedom: Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maryland, South Carolina, New Hampshire, Virginia, New York, North Carolina, and Rhode Island. But even if that has occurred, an important paragraph from the Declaration, a matter of principles, something for what they fought was not true:
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness. (www.ushistory.org/declaration/document/). Maybe this was available for many, but not for all; slaves were also humans. The thing was that planters now depended on slave labor (even the “founding fathers” were slave owners), but among the people who did not agree with slave traffic and tried to stop it, the Declaration played an important role also; even if it wasn’t a fact.
They made it illegal, but they were still practicing it and Eli Whitney’s invention in 1793, the cotton gin, was one of the reasons. After 1808, when the federal government declared the slave trade illegal, Georgia and Louisiana were the two principal centers of traffic. The British government persuaded the European maritime powers to sign a treaty whereby they agreed to abolish slave trading for good, but they did not manage to convince the United States (U.S.A.). The British also wanted to prevent the advantages that their economic competitors had because of cheap labor and the U.S.A. was definitely a hitch. And even after they repeated their proposal in the next two decades, the Americans still wouldn’t yield. That refusal was a perfect alibi for any kind of slave traders because a ship that had the American flag had immunity in front of the law.
Slave trading became illegal in 1820 and it was considered a form of piracy. The sentence was death, but this law remained unenforced until the time Lincoln was elected president. That election opened the Civil War and the fight between North and South settled things in the end, even if blood poured and the Southern mentality was still standing. Some ships were captured and some slaves romped their freedom thanks to the American and British squadrons: the Americans captured 24 ships and released 4.945 Africans and the British captured 595 slavers and released 45.612 slaves; in the end, 1862 was the year when American participation in the slave trade was cut off (they finally agreed to sign the treaty and the American flag lost its immunity).
In 1867 the British squadron was withdrawn from the African coast, the fact that was recognized by the entire world as the end of the slave trade. This terrible action was present in the New World’s history for almost four centuries and the fight to end it was an unexpectedly slow process, all because of human greed that, unfortunately, is still a fact of life today.
1.2. The Lives of Slaves. Being a slave is something that no one in this world would accept, but blacks had no choice. According to John C. Calhoun, who was a model for the secessionists, slaves had certain features, physical characteristics that other races did not have and which made them perfect for hard labor and for bondage. It was true that they were capable of working very hard compared to whites, but it was also something that they had to do because slavery is not a lifestyle, it is something maleficent. Slaves, on the other hand, had their own opinion that this “peculiar institution”, how slave-owners called it, was equivalent to exertion. And this was a matter of discrimination and race problems which were present especially in slave states in Southern U.S.A. like Georgia, South Carolina, Virginia, Mississippi, Alabama, etc.
Discrimination and slavery had a major influence on those who were held in bondage because they were deprived of rights. They felt the lack of social and legal status, their private lives did not exist anymore, but the thing that affected them most was the absence of a vital right: having authority over their own life. Francis Gaines call to mind that it was said that due to the African character they did not suffer so much and they were capable of being happy and accept their status. They were “quick to respond to the stimulus of joy, quick to forget their grief.” (Gaines 244). A wrong thing was that most masters had the vague impression that they knew their slaves. They actually knew nothing about the way they felt, but for no reason, the servants danced as the master sang and did not let him or her know the truth about their lives.
Slaves did exactly what pleased the master: they said what he wanted to hear, acted in a way so that they would not disappoint them, and did what they were told. Moreover, the planters had the idea that slaves did not know what freedom is or they did not understand it, but things weren’t like that at all. Slaves knew what freedom meant, knew what possibilities they could have if they were free and they knew it only because they observed how things unfold. They saw how their masters, the master’s guests, and also other free men lived and they concluded a definition of true life. Another thing concerning this perspective of freedom was also the fact that all knew that emancipation of Negros was no fairy tale because of the concrete cases.
They saw with their own eyes human beings who were like them, in bondage, and who were freed by their masters, worked where they wanted, went where they wished, and spent money as they pleased. That made them believe that a life without bondage was not something they could not reach. At any rate, a line was often said when slaves were asked about their freedom. We do not know if they said this because they were scared of being punished or if they accepted their fate, but when others who were in the South asked a slave if he wants to be free, he would reply: ” No, Massa, me no want to be free, have good massa, take care of me when I sick, never ‘buse nigger; no, me no want to be free. “(Andrews 97).
Some planters knew that slaves were not as they thought and a tangible example is given by Ethan Andrews: a slave-owner in Georgia that said: “We planters could never get at the truth”. But besides this, they also had various theories about slaves, like many overseers who considered that people must not be as stupid as to trust a slave or to have a good relationship with one. And that was also a problem. As anywhere in this world there are different people, different mentalities and even if the whites believed it or not, slaves were also people. There were slave-owners who did not punish them and treated them as human beings are supposed to be treated, with respect, but at the same time, these were the slave-owners who suffered most.
This kind of merciful person received no compassion from their slaves because they had a hatred inside that would not allow them to see the difference between their kind masters and the slave traders and this was the reason why they acted badly. After they received equal treatment, their next desire was freedom; in this manner, they would have wanted to be their own masters and this is what slave-owners were afraid of. They would not give him an inch because he would take an ell, although some did. Frederick Douglas, one of the famous refugee from slavery, considered that if you treated the slave like a dog then that’s what you would have, but he did not specify exactly if in a good way or in a bad way because a dog can be man’s best friend and at the same time his enemy. We just have to think of the fact that those who were treated well could not be controlled anymore and we will realize that his statement refers to the enemy.
In what way slaveholders should treat their slaves was a big confusion for them, but the majority adapted to the situation. The Southerner had his rules, his way of life and he did not understand anything else. Change for him was something that he wished it would never happen and this is why treating his slaves as he wanted was something normal. In consequence, slaves received a very harsh punishment if they did something that the master thought was wrong. They were beaten harshly, burnt with a hot iron, and other kinds of torture, but whipping was the most common punishment. Slaves had as main work experience the plantation. Most of them did hard labor on different kinds of plantations even if their masters were not the owners of that plantation or of any other plantation.
A census tells us that in the South there were approximately 600.000 agricultural units where slaves worked. Those areas were marked with the seal of slavery. And among that slaves also did different kinds of housework, things that need to be done. In the South predominant were corn, tobacco, cotton, rice, indigo, and sugar. These were the plantations where exploitation was flourishing, with the exception of the cotton plantation, which became very important only after the American Revolution. The rice and indigo plantations prevailed in Georgia and South Carolina and the sugar plantations in Mississippi and Louisiana. These three types of plantations were among the most extended and on a plantation of any sort slaves lost their time and strength or in other words their lives.
They did many things when they worked on a plantation and their work included the growing of crops, caring and harvesting them, preparing the land, or extending it under cultivation; and besides these jobs, they also manufactured simple articles. When it came to handling the slaves, the whites had two systems that they used. They were the task system and the gang system. The first system consisted of assigning slaves with a certain job and if all was fair, after the work was done, theoretically they had finished their norm. And the other system, the gang system, was a bit more complicated. The main character of this system was the provided driver who was responsible for a set of paces that slaves were forced to follow. This man who took care of this system was most of the time the master, but he could also be one of the slaves who later received small benefits like better clothing or more food, but only in the case in which he did his job well.
Now, if we talk of the opinion of so many writers, the sugar plantation was considered to be that area where most unfair things occurred. Those were the plantations where slaves received the greatest mistreatment and it was due to the fact that there were more demanding works than, for example, on a cotton plantation. Anyway, the way slaves were treated on different plantations depended on the crop. They were treated differently on a sugar plantation than on a cotton one or on a rice one because each crop had its own procedures that needed to be followed in order to make a great job. However, the most important factor when we talk about the way slaves were treated as the master or the overseer, or both, no matter on which plantation.
A slave’s day on a cotton plantation according to some slaves’ testimonies was as it follows. They worked all day in the field and they went to the gin-house with their baskets. The gin-house was the place where the cotton was being weighed and the slaves were not allowed to bring less than the quantity required or they were punished. They did not afford to be tired, sleepy, or feel bad and they always went to the gin-house with their hearts full of fear because they knew the consequences if they did not do the work as required. It did not matter for the master or for the overseer of the slave could not do his job right because of the crop; it was a “must”.
After this part of the day, full of hard labor and terror, other chores followed; chores like feeding the animals or bringing firewood or something else that had to be done, and in the end, they reached their cabin. In the cabin, they made the fire and prepared lunch for the following day, but the food that they received was selected in a way considered sufficient for their needs. They slept on a wooden plank in terrible conditions and in the morning they had to be sober or, again, the punishment would follow. The next day was another day of hard labor and fear and that’s how things unrolled. Brutality and inhuman behavior concerning slaves were recognized by slave-owners as well. Some of them used it because they had to or at least that was their excuse and others had the gut to say that it was something that was good for the slaves, they enjoyed it and they were content.
One thing is for sure, there were many slave-owners that practiced whipping and other kinds of tortures on their slaves for fun, but for a miserable human being that had his life stolen was not pleasurable at all. Even though slaves were not educated and did not know things about life that whites did, they had a character. These two classes that were part of totally different worlds had many things in common and at the same time many discrepancies. It was understood, but we cannot forget that not only persons who do not belong to the same world are different, but also those who belong to the same world. In conclusion, masters were not all alike and neither were the slaves, but they had to be acquainted with each other in order to know what to expect; especially masters that had to control their chattel.
This was indeed a very hard thing because slaves were not open people and you could not figure them out. This was a side-effect of what they had been through: the way they were treated, the fact that their lives were stolen and religion played an important role also because when they came into the New World the issue was if they should be converted to Christianity or not. Of course, slaves could not accept and their opinion was as if it never existed, but in return, many whites did not agree with the conversion because they would have had to see Negros like their own brothers and they did not comply with that. But as we can imagine, in slave states the law protected the slave-owners and conditioned a law that created the religious difference between the masters and their property.
Among others, there was also another aspect called proslavery. This appeared often when a master decided to enslave one and him or she did not want to. One example is a slave called Washington, who had to choose between freedom and another master from the same family. He chose freedom but he asked the legislature to exempt him from the law which then required free Negros to leave the state. He declared in his petition that he was old and that his family lived in Virginia, but he wanted something that he could not have. When an occasion like this appeared, slaves rarely accepted emancipation because of the conditions imposed on them. One thing was for sure: masters had the entire power given to them by the state. Even so, no one can claim that slavery perpetuated thanks to the satisfaction of slaves or the fact that they did not understand freedom. They thirsted after liberty and withstood bondage with all their heart, but it was more than hard.
Their circumstances and the technique elaborated by their owners, which was a dramatic disproof of a myth, made people think that slavery survived because slaves agreed and were content with this treatment. This acquiescence was only an excuse that whites invented and the state encouraged it (in 1669, in Virginia, the law defined slaves as property without any awareness of their action). In the end, we can say that greed was the most powerful tool that controlled man. Slaves were a capital investment, an important means of profit and their loss would have been a severe economic liability. And no one can ever pretend that he or she can imagine how a slave felt if the person had not been in one’s shoes.
1.3. North and South. The Civil War. John Jakes underlines very well life before, during, and after the Civil War in his novel, North and South published in 1982. He talks about how hard the life of a Southerner and a Yankee was only because they were very good friends, in spite of their different mentalities, lifestyle, and the fact they went to war against each other. In his novel, J. Jakes shows to the entire world how things were in the nineteenth century. He concentrates on brutality, greed, discrimination, love, friendship, honor, and the influence which an experience has upon a human (good or bad) in a book that can give you a different vision of life by just reading an old naked truth. What one thought about the other was not far from reality. The Southerners believed that a Yankee did nothing else but sharpen his knife, make cans and try to beat his neighbors in court.
That opinion was confirmed by a Yankee who also underlined that there were exceptions as well. On the other hand, a Yankee believed that Southerners ate pork, slept all day, and beat their slaves all night. That concept was something that a man from the South could barely accept because the truth is hard to face, although he sustained that not all Southerners are like that and that some of them actually favor modern methods. Slavery was something that a Southerner, even if he did not agree with it, had to embrace and the ones from the North did not understand why. The novel is based on true facts underlining the possibility of a great friendship between two very different people while the ones of their kind hated each other because of chattel slavery.
The election of President Abraham Lincoln in 1860, who wanted to preserve the Union and end the expansion of slavery, was enough to start the Civil War. The causes of the Civil War were many. In the North, by 1808, all states abolished slavery, while in the South it was still legal. The Yankees wanted freedom for slaves; an urban society and people who could choose the place where they will work. But the Southerners were addicted to slave labor and lived in small villages or on farms. The economical differences were also a deterrent. In the North, they had factories and favored taxes that protected them from foreign competition, while in the South there were large plantations and they opposed taxes because that would mean the raising of prices and a negative impact on sales to New England states.
And last, but not least, the Yankees wanted a strong central government and the safekeeping of the Union, whereas seven South states went to secession and form the Confederacy led by Jefferson Davis. But even if the causes for the bubble to burst were many, slavery and discrimination (concepts which were not accepted by abolitionists) and a book called Uncle’s Tom Cabin written by Harriet Beecher Stowe stirred things. Everyone put slavery as the main cause of the war. In fact, if we think of all the differences these two societies had, the problem could have been solved without a war, but because no part was willing to compromise when it came to slavery, this became the main reason for them to fight. Slavery died in the North because it was not beneficial and it was expected to end soon throughout the country, but it did not because of the cotton gin and so problems left unsolved too long created the explosive change that destroyed one America and started rebuilding another one that it is not even today completed.
1.3.1. Uncle’s Tom Cabin. Uncle’s Tom Cabin is an anti-slavery novel and tool that had a major impact on the American civilization at the time it was published, in 1852. They all read it even if southerners burn it and Yankees found a sense in it and as time followed it “helped lay the groundwork for the Civil War”(Kaufman 18). This book was indeed an insult to Southern national honor and had an enormous success because at that time it was the second best-seller; if the Bible did not exist, this book would have been their “Bible”. Stowe created Uncle Tom after Josiah Henson, a black slave who escaped slavery in 1830 and helped other fugitive slaves. The main themes of the book were offenses for the Southern civilization: the evil and immorality of slavery, the moral authority of motherhood, and the fact that Christianity is incompatible with slavery.
The author pointed out on almost every single page her belief that slavery is something to be condemned and she expresses her view upon women’s moral power to change things through characters like Eliza who escapes slavery to save her son and in the end, brings together the whole family or Eva who represents faith and Christianity and for whom love, forgiveness, mercy, and kindness are indispensable features. After the book was published, the author was accused that she wrote things about which she knew nothing because she had no knowledge of the South region, but Stowe declared that the fact that made her write an anti-slavery novel were scenes she observed on the Ohio River and stories told by fugitive slaves. In response to these criticisms, Stowe published another book, A Key to Uncle Tom’s Cabin, in which she cites the most important characters from the first novel and she explains the fact that the novel is no fiction and those persons existed, even though under other names.
Another thing to be mentioned is that Anti-Tom literature written by Southern writers was their shield. Aunt Phillis’s Cabin by Mary Henderson Eastman was one of the novels that presented Southern Life as It Is (another title of the same book). Most of these books were written by Southern women because they thought it would be fair if the view of justice presented by Stowe would be answered by a woman and not a man. Even if there were many discussions about this kind of influence, through literature, one man that had the right principles and played the most important role in the Civil War, had the opinion that Stowe was the lady who started the war, figuratively speaking. And that man was Abraham Lincoln.
1.3.2. Slavery during the Civil War. Civil War began and with it the end of slavery, the fact that most white Southerners refused to believe something that by time became clear. President Abraham Lincoln did not want to spill so much blood, but he considered secession illegal and he did whatever was necessary to protect Federal Law and the Union. On the other hand, he wanted to stop the expansion of slavery, but southerners were aware of the fact that if they would be admitted to the Union their states would be Free states and in the end, slavery would be abolished. Slaves were the cornerstone of the South and so the battle of Fort Sumter, on April 12 1861 opened the war officially (South Carolina wanted to secede from the Union, Fort Sumter was still occupied by Federal troops and that siege gave southerners confidence that they would win a War of Secession).
When the war began both sides wondered if the slaves would rebel if they wanted to be free, if they would fight for that freedom and if they would know what to do after they gained it. The answer to all these questions was “yes”, but slaves did not hurry the cause. The truth is that both sides were preoccupied with the slave rebellion. The consequences slaves endured in the first months of the war when they escaped from the South and arrived at Union lines were the same as before because according to the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 they had to be returned (slave-owners had this right). The North did not want problems of this kind with the South because then they would make the reunion more difficult.
Slaves were neither fools nor suicidal. They realized that this war was very important for their future and even if it was also about them, both North and South agreed that it was better not to bring them on the battlefield. They did not see a reason for doing so; it was their civil war. In any case, the Blacks watched, waited, and analyzed the situation so that they could find some ways to turn all in their favor. They acted from behind the war scene because they did not have political standing or public voice and cautiousness was their main feature. The knowledge that an act of rebellion on their own was hopeless because the whites were too powerful made them ready to take chances for freedom and to put their loyalty in the service of the Union.
In so doing, they severely compromised the power of the master, and like that this war that was for the Union became a war for freedom. Slaves knew and waited for the right time to riot, meanwhile, through desertion and noncooperation they defied the South. The change came neither easy nor fast. Union leaders freed slaves only under military pressure but throughout the war their reluctance yield to increased readiness and last to a firm determination to eliminate chattel slavery. This war was a hard time for everybody and during it, slaves had to work on the battlefield. Officers who fought for the South had servants to cook and do laundry for them and that was not all concerning the labor slaves did for the Confederate States. Discrimination was present in the South even during the war.
White soldiers put their servants to build fortifications, dig latrines or haul supplies among many other chores. This labor was much more difficult than the one on the plantation and it was also dangerous. Additionally, the ones that worked on the front line were carefully watched, so that they would not escape. These slaves were usually men between eighteen and forty and that was one of the things Stowe underlined in her novel: the careless with separating members of a family plus the coolness the South had for their safety and health. “Rewarding” their masters, blacks escaped when the opportunity appeared and helped the North wit.
Slavery in America stems well back to when the new world was first discovered and was led by the country to start the African Slave Trade-Portugal. The African Slave Trade was first exploited for plantations in the Caribbean, and eventually reached the southern coasts of America. The African natives were of all ages and sexes. Women usually worked in the homes cooking and cleaning, while men were sent out into the plantations to farm. Young girls would usually help in the house also and young boys would help on the farm by bailing hay and loading wagons with crops. They were shipped from Africa by the Europeans, The Triangular Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade".
The system involved 3,000 white helpers and freed an estimated 75,000 people after the civil war. Slavery in the middle of the 1800s was abolished except for the rebellion states in the south. In 1863, the Emancipation Proclamation was issued which made slavery illegal in the states that had rebelled and allowed black slaves to serve in the army and get other jobs, or continue to work on the plantations, as employees making money. The nightmare of slavery was over but a new one was to begin. One that was worse for it was prevalent but was secret and silent. One that exists today. One that does not shrink but rather grows. Racism was and is still upon us.
The Ku Klux Klan has been around since the end of the civil war. It is a roller coaster of a history. From extreme power to rapid decline, and slow reemergence. The clan, which is notorious for its violence, has a relatively innocent beginning. It was formed from some veterans from the confederate army and was first called the Kuklos Clan which, in Greek, meant Circle Clan. One person thought it would be a good idea to call it the Ku Klux Klan" as a parody of the fraternity names which always had three Greek alphabet letters in it. They created the Clan to be mischievous and to do it without anyone knowing who they were which accounts for their costumes and masks.
In 1619, there was a Dutch ship that arrived in America to trade for food. But instead of an object, such as silk or wine, they were trading humans. These humans were Africans who were not treated as normal human beings, but as if they were just an object or animal. On their voyage over to America, all the slaves were crammed into the lower part of the ship. They were forbidden to move and had to remain to lie down for the entire voyage. For those on the ship to be sure the slaves were not causing any trouble, the men on the ship had put chains on the large group of slaves or indentured servants, historians are unsure. If anyone had become ill on the journey, no one cared and they went would be sent overboard.
Before 1665, slavery was accepted. Slavery had previously existed in Africa as well as China, Egypt, and Greece. The enslaving of people was not as common as slavery, but it had been happening in South and Central America, as well as Mexico and the Caribbean. Because slavery had existed as well as enslaving people, those being enslaved were starting to rebel. The first recorded rebellion in America was in Gloucester, County, VA in 1663. Rebellions had already been happening in other countries. Abraham Lincoln gave a speech and he as usual used an anecdote to support his main idea. His speech was about slavery.
His anecdote was about two priests, who were discussing some passages from the bible and one of the priests put a coin on the table because the coin was reiterating what the bible said. This was a warning to many people. The southern people had been living their life to make sure there was going to be slavery and some in the north did the same. Centuries later, slavery was all around, just as they hoped, but many slaves were not happy and began to protest. This lead to many rebellions. Between the years 1619 and 1865 there were over two hundred and fifty rebellions. The first recorded rebellion in British North America was in Gloucester County, Virginia, in 1663. It was led by slaves and servants, who decided to flee to the woods.
The word slavery cannot only be defined as the owning of one person by another person, but it is also known to be one of the greatest contributions to the history of the United States. When slavery had just begun to evolve the United States were known as colonies of the New World. In the year 1619, the first African Americans arrived in the New World right off the coast of Jamestown. From then on, any rights or freedoms given to African Americans began to diminish. Although there were many different races of slaves and servants in the Americas, African Americans were the most discriminated against. African Americans become known as the inferior race; however, black slaves were the most popular choice among the slaveholders because they provided the cheapest and best labor. Many factors added to the start of black slavery in the colonies; economic and racial reasons were two of the biggest contributors.
One of the prime roles in the enslavement of blacks was the economy. The colonies in the South wanted to produce the most goods for export as possible; therefore requiring the cheapest labor. With the money the colonies were making from the exports, they were able to buy more slaves. The price of slaves then started to rise quickly, which meant even more profits could be drawn from the slaves who were already owned. A slave owner could not only profit from the new increase in the cost of a slave but also in their breeding and labor as well. When the colonies began exporting rice, cotton, and tobacco, slave labor was in high demand. After these goods became tied with significant economic profits, the labor of the slaves became tied to the economy. As well as economic reasons, racial discrimination was another critical part that resulted in the enslavement of Africans.
By 1750, most slaves in America were not African born but America born. Several slaves worked in sugar, cotton, and tobacco plantation. Very few of these slaves were African born because of the reduction in the importation of slaves from Africa. The majority of these slaves were born in America, but they were descendants of Africans who were imported into America (Ira 112-115). During this time, there were three slavery systems. Slavery in South Carolina and Georgia low country was very harsh than the one in the Northern colonies. Most Slaves were imported from Africa to work on sugar, cotton, and rice plantations. The slaves were forced to work in very harsh conditions including working in very hot marshy areas. they were affected by tropical diseases such as malaria which led to the death of several slaves.
The number of enslaved population imported from Africa reduced in the Chesapeake area, and in the Carolina Georgia low country. By 1750, the Chesapeake had the largest number of slaves in mainland British America, but the majority of these slaves were American born or the Creoles. Slaves in Chesapeake enjoyed good working conditions with less exposure to subtropical diseases such as malaria and yellow fever (Edmund 111-112). Most of these Slaves were given permission by their slaveholders to have to choose their sex partners and subsequently give birth to children. Consequently, the bearing of children naturally increased the number of slaves in this region leading to a reduction in the number of slaves imported from Africa.
Children worked with their parents in large plantations and lived with them in the slave cabins. This led to Creole slaves dominating this area (Allan 145-148). As the number of slaves imported from Africa reduced, the slave culture became more American. This led to the formation of African-American communities in America. The whites less controlled these slaves. They were more exposed to the culture of the whites than those slaves from other regions. The American born slaves introduced Christianity to their traditional ceremonies such as emotional singing, and death rituals (Edmund 111-112). The slaves combined their musical instruments with American musical instruments to develop songs that expressed had African rhythm All these led to the development of African-American communities in America.
The slaves who were born in America developed African American culture out of slavery. The development of Afro-American culture had a significant effect on the establishment of African American communities (Ira 112-115). The new African-American culture influenced children of the white who were put under the care of black servants on the plantations. Many of the African practices, values, and beliefs were blended with white culture. African American traditions were evident in American literature and religion and in other fields. African American culture developed to become a significant part of American culture. African American culture led to a transformative impact on the American culture, which developed, into African-American communities (Allan 145-148). The culture of African slaves who were born in America has greatly influenced American culture. The African-American communities were developed out of the American born slaves in America.
Slavery was a system where African Americans did not have freedom and were treated as property. It existed from the beginning of the 1800s to 1865 in America. Slavery caused many conflicts throughout America’s history, including the Civil War (Newman). Slave rebellions, like Nat Turner’s revolt in 1831 scaring Virginians and the South, John Brown’s heroic earlier raids in the 1850s solidified people’s opinions on slavery, and John Brown’s horrific raid in 1859 on Harpers Ferry, Virginia jeopardized the South’s beliefs about slavery, were leading causes to the Civil War. The South needed a way to make a lot of money. The slaves worked for free and were able to do the labor fast and efficiently because they were more suited for the conditions.
The climate and soil in the South were well suited for farming (Newman). The slaves made the people in the South a lot of money. They worked for free and did not cost very much because the slave owners gave the slaves the least amount of sleep, food, and water possible in order to keep them alive. The settlers were very harsh, “worked the slaves very hard and treated them poorly…. In the colonies, slaves were sometimes worked to death, but the price of replacing slaves was high enough that they often were given just enough food and rest to survive. It also allowed slaves to form informal families, which helped to replace their numbers” (“Slavery”). Also, in order to make it easier, “most of the kidnapping of Africans and forcing them into bondage was actually done by other Africans, requiring even less effort on the part of whites to perpetuate the system” (Newman).
Slavery appealed, especially to the people in the South, because it was easy. The slaves were cheaper because they did not have to be paid like indentured servants (“Slavery”), they were not required to have much to eat or drink, they could be treated however the white people wanted to treat them, and it did not take any time to get the slaves because other Africans did that job (Newman). The slaves were more used to the conditions for working on the fields than anyone else. They could do it faster and more efficient than indentured servants or any other settler. Therefore, slavery continued to be a very important part of the South’s way of life. Slavery became so important when “Tobacco was an extremely labor-intensive crop, requiring field hands to spend long hours bending over plants under the blazing hot sun. Most whites proved entirely unsuited for this labor…African slaves solved many of these problems” (Newman).
The labor that the South needed the slaves to do was very difficult and was hard for the white people to do because they were not used to hard work outside on plantations like the slaves. That is why the South fought so hard in order to keep slavery. The white people were also lazy and did not want to do the hard work the slaves did, which made them enjoy slavery even more. They were able to make money without much effort. It was beneficial to them all around, even though it took away the slave’s rights as people (Newman). Nat Turner was the leader of the slave revolt. He had a passion for fighting against slavery, and so on August 21, 1831, he and 75 other African Americans marched around and killed 51 white people in two days. Eventually, Nat Turner was killed and the others helping him were captured or killed.
The Gag Rule was one example of how Nat Turner’s rebellion scared people, including Congress, which later caused the coming of the Civil War (“Nat Turner’s Rebellion”). Many petitions were made in order to get the District of Columbia to change the rules so that slavery was not allowed. The Gag Rule, made in 1836, only 5 years after Nat Turner’s rebellion, said that Congress would decide whether to accept the petitions and read them instead of deciding what to do with them. It was purposefully confusing so that the Senate did not have to deal with the petitions, and “Most senators wanted this irritating issue to disappear. They feared that Calhoun’s proposal to bar the Senate door to these petitions would inadvertently benefit the small and regionally isolated anti-slavery movement.
Overnight, the troublesome enemies of slavery could be transformed into noble champions of civil liberties” (“The Gag Rule”). Nat Turner’s rebellion influenced the creation of the Gag Rule because he made others want to stand up and petition slavery. He was just an African American slave who revolted in order to stand up for his beliefs. The Gag Rule did not stop the Civil War from coming, but instead just caused the war to be fought later because the petitions were not dealt with, and they would eventually need to be (“The Gag Rule”). Also, this ultimately led to the Civil War because the South was scared, which caused them to try to stop any more rebellions and tried to stop the North from threatening to stop their main source of labor (Newman).
Nat Turner’s rebellion influenced the 1832 national slavery debate that took place in Virginia and influenced the petitions made before the debate. Nat Turner’s revolt “sent shockwaves of fear throughout Virginia” (Root). In one of the petitions from December 6, 1831, only three and a half months after Nat Turner’s rebellion, it stated, “we earnestly recommend to the owners of vessels in this county, immediately, or as soon as practicable, to discontinue the use and employment of slaves and free negroes on board of their vessels as we do firmly believe the practice dangerous to the peace and safety of our society…[we need to be] getting rid of our free negroes, whom we regard as a most prolific source of evil to our community” (“Citizens of Northampton County”).
The people in Virginia wanted all the African Americans to be taken out of the country or wanted them to not be apart of society because they thought they were a danger. They were afraid they were a danger because they had just recently witnessed how many white people Nat Turner killed during his two-day raid. Then, the National Slavery Debate, where the issue of what to do with the African Americans was addressed, as a result of all the petitions. The National Slavery Debate led to the Civil War because it really made people understand how much the people in Virginia did not agree about slavery (Root). John Brown’s earlier raid took place in May of 1856. Brown wanted to get back at the people who were violently fighting to keep slavery, so he attacked the place where some of those people were staying at Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas.
Brown killed five of the people there. His raids took place during “Bleeding Kansas”, where many were rushing to fight for their opinion on slavery. There were 200 or more people dead in Kansas at the end of 1856 (“Harpers Ferry Raid”). The circular written by the Kansas Emigration Society of Missouri in 1856 proves that everyone’s opinions became solidified. This was written and passed out to many people, and the Kansas Emigration Society was in favor of slavery. The Kansas Emigration Society said in the circular that “the abolitionists, staking their all upon the Kansas issue, and hesitating at no means, fair or foul, are moving heaven and earth to render that beautiful Territory a ‘Free State’…The time has come for action—bold, determined action.
Words will no longer do any good; we must have men in Kansas, and that by tens of thousands” (“Pro-Slavery Southerners Urged to Settle in Kansas” ). The abolitionists are described as being very confident in their opinions and fighting hard. The people in the North were set on their opinion and were fighting hard while the people in the South were beginning to realize they needed to fight just as hard to succeed in keeping the institution of slavery in Kansas. John Brown’s earlier raids were done in May of 1856 in Kansas, which was the place mentioned in the circular. It was in Kansas that the people in the South needed to send more people to in order to fight for their opinions (“Pro-Slavery Southerners Urged to Settle in Kansas” ).
Therefore, John Brown’s earlier raids influenced the making of the circular because his earlier rebellions were very big and impactful. Because the people’s opinions became so strong, there was no compromising, which led to the Civil War. At the end of the whole conflict in Kansas, called “Bleeding Kansas”, 200 people were killed (“Harpers Ferry Raid”). Because of Brown’s earlier rebellions, many people started to feel even stronger about their opinions on slavery. Both sides thought the exact opposite about John Brown, and “For many Northerners, including respected intellectuals such as Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau, John Brown was considered a hero, praised for his righteous and uncompromising stand against slavery.
To Southerners, Brown was a loathed and feared abolitionist who threatened a core institution of Southern society. He personified the horrible fate that awaited if the North was able to dictate its will on the issue of slavery” (“Harpers Ferry Raid”). Many people in the North liked that John Brown raided, while the people in the South were not happy with it. (“Harpers Ferry Raid”). The rebellion also “sparked further retaliation. Early in August, Free-Soil forces captured the slavery stronghold of Franklin, and later that month Free-Soilers under Brown repelled an attack by a large party of proslavery men at Osawatomie. Guerrilla warfare raged throughout the territory” (“Bleeding Kansas, 1855-1858” ). Because the people in the South hated John Brown, they developed a stronger opinion for slavery.
Their hatred towards Brown drove them to want to fight to keep slavery even more because they were angry and thought that Brown was wrong in saying that slavery should be abolished. For the North, because they supported Brown, they had Brown influence and motivate them to fight harder to abolish slavery. His rebellions made them want to abolish slavery even more, as their opinions were finally solidified. Then, because both sides became more set on their own opinions, it was obvious that there was no compromising, which led to the Civil War. Something had to be done, and the people had to settle on the issue of slavery. John Brown’s horrific raid in 1859 on Harpers Ferry, Virginia, jeopardized the South’s beliefs about slavery and was a leading cause of the Civil War.
It was on October 16, 1859, that John Brown tried to get the weapons in the federal arsenal to give to the slaves to use when rebelling. However, it didn’t work. After he captured the arsenal, Brown and his followers took people hostage. Brown and his men got captured and caught, and later, Brown died from execution on December 2, 1859 (“The Harpers Ferry Raid”). He was allowed to have a speech before he died. In his speech, he explained, “Now, if it is deemed necessary that I should forfeit my life, for the furtherance of the ends of justice, and mingle my blood further with the blood of my children, and with the blood of millions in this slave country, whose rights are disregarded by wicked, cruel, and unjust enactments, – I say; let it be done” (Brown).
John Brown explained how he was willing to give up his life in order to get the slaves freedom. He had a very strong opinion and maintained it through his entire capture. He even expressed his opinion without any hesitation when he was about to die (Brown). Brown “conducted his defense with uncharacteristic dignity and muted religious conviction, inspiring a wellspring of sympathy and support in the North,…Brown’s raid heightened the sense of threat in the South, where many concluded the North approved his behavior, and that secession was the only viable solution to the great struggle over the future of slavery” (“Harpers Ferry Raid”). John Brown rose up with the slaves around him, even though he was not a slave, which encouraged other people like him in the North to rebel too. Because so many people in the North had those opinions, the people in the South were been re-evaluating their opinions.
When more people started to believe and take action against slavery, it made the opinions of the people in the South more invalid because of the number of people that believed the opposite. This led to the southern states exiting the Union, leading to the Civil War (“The Harpers Ferry Raid”). Because Brown was so outspoken and the South had to deal with raids and outspoken people like him, they were forced to ask themselves if their beliefs were really viable. John Brown created a constitution for the organization he was planning on making, but unfortunately, he was killed for his crimes, so he never got a chance to. The constitution was made in 1858, one year before his revolt on Harpers Ferry. It was based on the rule of no slavery (“Harpers Ferry Raid”).
Brown stated in his constitution, “Whereas, slavery, throughout its entire existence in the United States, is none other than a most barbarous, unprovoked, and unjustifiable War of one portion of its citizens upon another portion;…together with all other people degraded by the laws thereof…the better to protect our persons, property, lives, and liberties; and to govern our actions:” (“Provisional Constitution and Ordinances for the People of the United States”). John Brown wanted to spread the word that slavery was terrible and wanted to get rid of slavery. He explains in his constitution how he, along with the others in his organization, will together create a society with no slavery. His constitution is one example of how Brown continually fought against the people in the South in whatever way he could, including raids and making his own society that did not have slavery.
This caused the South to subconsciously consider if their opinions were valid because of how outspoken and rebellious John Brown was. Some could not handle that and wanted to have slavery, which resulted in the South leaving the Union and the Civil War. Some did not want to compromise at all, including people in the North, which was why the Civil War started. Slave rebellions were a leading cause to the ending of slavery. It was only about 40 years after Nat Turner’s rebellion and 10 years after John Brown’s Raid on Harpers Ferry, which was his latest one, that the Fifteenth Amendment was passed and slave rebellions led to the making of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments (“Nat Turner’s Rebellion”), (“The Harpers Ferry Raid”), (“Reconstruction Amendments”). The Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments were all created after the Civil War.
The Thirteenth Amendment made slavery no longer allowed in the United States, the Fourteenth Amendment allowed the slaves who were born in the United States to be citizens of the United States, and the Fifteenth Amendments said a person’s right to vote could not be denied because of their race (“Reconstruction Amendments”). It was said that John Brown ended up “sharpening the regional tensions that led to the American Civil War…where many concluded the North approved his [Brown’s] behavior” (“Harpers Ferry Raid”) and that Nat Turner “hardened sectional animosities, making secession and the American Civil War (1861-1865) more likely” (“Nat Turner’s Rebellion”). John Brown and Nat Turner caused the North and South to become divided, which was the reason for the Civil War. Also, John Brown and Nat Turner created more support for the North.
Therefore, after Nat Turner and John Brown influenced the Civil War, the North had more support because of them so they won the Civil War. Then the North made the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments, which shows Nat Turner and John Brown succeeded in completing their goal of abolishing slavery. Even though the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments were made which abolished slavery, gave the slaves citizenship, and gave the African Americans rights to vote, the African Americans were still not treated equally (“Reconstruction Amendments”). John Brown and Nat Turner’s rebellions influenced the making of those three amendments, in which the government tried to force people to treat African Americans equally.
But the amendments did not work as they were supposed to. In fact, because people were forced to treat African Americans with respect, it led to the making of the Jim Crow Laws. There began to be laws that actually limited what the African Americans could do because the people did not like the African Americans getting rights. After those three amendments were passed, “as the federal government was working to protect African Americans’ rights in the South, white supremacist organizations emerged to reassert whites’ dominance and racial superiority. Members of the Ku Klux Klan, the Knights of the White Camellia, and other secret organizations terrorized African Americans and their supporters throughout the South…Jim Crow Laws legalized racial segregation in everything from education to public facilities to religion” (“Reconstruction and the Rise of Jim Crow”).
Therefore, even though those three amendments said the African Americans should be free and get the right to citizenship and to vote just like the whites, the African Americans were actually treated the same as before. The African Americans also became segregated from the whites because of the Jim Crow Laws and did not get the rights the Civil War Amendments gave them. It was because the white people did not like to think about the African Americans getting rights because the white people did not think they were equal (“Reconstruction and the Rise of Jim Crow”). But about 30 years after John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry, which was his latest, and about 60 years after Nat Turner’s rebellion, segregation, and the Jim Crow Laws began (“Reconstruction and the Rise of Jim Crow”), (“Nat Turner’s Rebellion”), (“The Harpers Ferry Raid”), (“Reconstruction Amendments”).
Therefore, it partly was because of the slave rebellions, specifically John Brown’s and Nat Turner’s raids, that the Civil War happened, the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments were made, and that the Jim Crow Laws were created. It was Nat Turner’s raid that scared the people in Virginia and the South, it was John Brown’s earlier raids that solidified people’s opinions, and then it was John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry, Virginia, that jeopardized people’s opinions. The people in the South and North were affected by Nat Turner and John Brown’s raids, no matter where they took place. Word got around about the rebellions, so they impacted everyone in the United States. They made some people want to rebel, they made some people scared, and they made some people reconsider their opinions.
Ultimately, the rebellions were a leading cause of the Civil War. It was obvious that there was no compromising Both sides had totally different opinions, and so the conflict about slavery broke out into the Civil War. The Union fought the Confederacy and ultimately ended up winning. There was no compromise on slavery, but instead, the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments were created which actually abolished slavery, gave the African Americans the right to vote and citizenship in the United States. In the end, the slave rebellions were a success and Nat Turner and John Brown achieved their goal.
Example #8 – interesting ideas
Origin of slavery in America? “The origins of slavery in America was based on social reasons rather than economic reasons” What is your opinion on this quote, what you think it means, and why. I’m doing an essay on different opinions of this quote.
Answer. Logically speaking slavery in America was just a habit. We had watched people be enslaved throughout the history of civilization (just ask the Egyptians). Therefore it is hard to say that we only did it because it was economically sensible; had we not been trained that slavery was socially acceptable by history, we would never have imagined enslaving ‘people’ to do work we wouldn’t do if we got paid. It is against human nature.
So basically I have to write a 5-7 page essay about the geography of African slavery in America. I just need some pointers and ideas on where to start and what I should include in my outline.
Answer. Why don’t you try looking at the area of the country(like the south) that grew cash crops that were major economic means for the area AND were labor-intensive I mean like tobacco and cotton….both important to the south…both required lots of help from planting to harvesting and getting to market. you can contrast this with the lack of huge cash crops in the areas of the country where few slaves existed. for example, in the north east….no real heavy agriculture so no huge number of slaves. your contrast would be north(no big agriculture and no large amount of slaves) versus the southern part of the country (huge agriculture and a huge number of slaves).
I’m writing a 6-page essay on Slavery. One of the paragraphs, it’s about how slavery in America started. I wrote about half of it, but I ran out of things to talk about. I already wrote the dates, which civilizations used slaves, and where they were brought for the first time. I don’t know what else to mention. What else could I say to make it longer?
Answer. It basically started because… well, after people came to America when Columbus “discovered” America(he actually didn’t), they had all this work to do on plantations. So they took boats to Africa and basically kidnapped all these black people, then sold them as slaves. Pretty harsh stuff if you ask me.
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