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Possessive Inflectional Morpheme Essay

Possessive inflectional morphemes, possessive pronouns and possessive determiners are words that express possession. This is a topic which has been debated for many years and it has not yet been resolved. Possessives can be considered to be either adjectives or pronouns, but they seem to function more like an adjective than a pronoun because the possessive word always agrees with the noun’s number (singular or plural) and gender (masculine or feminine).

Essay 1

Introduction: Inflectional Morphemes in English

The meaning of inflection in grammar is “a variation in or an addition to the shape of a word that indicates a change in how it is used in sentences.” In English, the inflectional morphemes system is considered as “poor” because there are too few inflectional morphemes, as compared to other languages (Denham & Lobeck 158). There are just eight inflectional morphemes – one for each letter and tense – that indicate form and tense.

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The following is a list of inflectional morphemes:

s – is an indicator of a plural form of nouns
s’ – marks the possessive form of nouns
s – is attached to verbs in the third person singular
ed – is an indicator of the past tense of verbs
ing – indicates the present participle
en – marks past participle
er – is attached to adjectives to show a comparative form
est – is an indicator of the superlative form of adjectives

Inflectional Morphemes: Examples

Here are some examples of English inflectional morphemes. The verb “to mark” has several forms, such as mark (basic form), marking (present continuous), marked (past simple) , and so on. We attach the inflectional morphemes (such as -ed and -ing) to the basic form of the verb to show its tense.

Inflectional Morphemes: Main Features

It’s worth noting that inflectional morphemes do not constitute new words. They only change the shape of a word signifying “grammatical function” of a word (Denham & Lobeck 69). As a result, certain inflectional affixes have their limited purpose in creating distinct forms of the word. Derivational morphemes, on the other hand, are used to generate new words in English because to its unique morphological patterns. Inflectional morphemes that indicate plural form and past tense form may have varied pronunciations owing to the language’s peculiarities. Some inflectional morphemes can have various allomorphs.

The choice of allomorph in English morphology is influenced by phonetic and grammatical factors, for example. Allomorphs that are phonetically determined indicate plural forms (s, z, iz) and present tense form [s], [z], [iz], and past tense form [t] and [d] in inflectional morphemes. When a word ends in a voiceless consonant or fricative (cat), for example, this may be an indication of an allomorph.

When the speaker uses more than one grammatical form for a single word, such as in phrasal verbs or with gradable adjectives, he or she should use allomorph [s]. In cases where a term ends in a voiced consonant or vowel, allomorph [z] is necessary. Some of the grammatically conditioned allomorphs are fish, sheep, mice, children, oxen, criteria, stimuli. They’re made from nonproductive endings that are “linguistic fossils” and borrowings (Brinton & Brinton 92).

Morphological Composition

In terms of the notion of inflectional morphemes, it’s also vital to distinguish between morphemes and morphs. A lexical morph is “the concrete manifestation of a morpheme,” that is, the manner in which a word is spoken (Brinton & Brinton 83).

In some languages, there are no plural forms for animal names. For example, in English mythology, the term “fish” refers to a short and flat fish that is often eaten as food by humans. The word “sheep,” on the other hand, has a separate meaning and does not have a distinct plural form. However, because of context, the word is used in its plural form (although this usage is technically incorrect). In English morphology, words lack morphs; they do not exist as phonetic or written symbols.

Free and bound morphs exist. Bound morphs can only be used as parts of a word, but free ones may be a separate word; they are generally roots. It’s worth noting that in English, a morphology may include numerous lexical suffixes. As a result, the words me and him have complicated morphological composition:

  • me 2 morphemes { I } +
  • his 2 morphemes { he } +

As a result, there are no inflectional morphemes or allomorphs. Instead, unique stems are created. In this instance, the time factor is involved. These forms derive from Old English’s word form.

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8 Inflectional Morphemes & Second Language Phonology

The study of sounds in English, also known as phonology, is one of the first key factors in determining affixation (Brinton & Brinton 11). It is the analysis of noises in English. According to popular belief, the range of sounds that people may produce is broad. People do not utilize every sound they can produce in their native language; each language’s sound capacity is rather narrow.

As a result, speakers of different languages produce sounds that are not used in other languages. For example, the strange sounds [Δ] might be perplexing to English as a second language learners, particularly because there is no similar sound in their mother tongue. The sound [d] is typically replaced by [d]. This may be explained by the fact that these sounds are similarly distributed.

As a result, [Δ] is created at the top teeth, and [d] is produced at the gum below. This might be one explanation for why these sounds frequently switch places. The following set of words, for example, illustrates this: that [dat], dog [dɑɡ], head [hεd], leather [lεΔə] leader [liΔə].

The following are some examples of frequently substituted sounds: [s] and [ʃ]. This group of sounds may also be classified as having parallel distribution, with both noises emanating from the top of the mouth. The sets listed below may serve to demonstrate this phenomena: sing [ʃɪŋ], sat [sat], loss [lɑs], fish [fɪʃ], miss [mɪʃ], push [pus].

When we speak English, we use different sounds to differentiate them. However, since these sounds have the same place of articulation, a learner for English may mix up these sets of noises owing to their comparable location of articulation.

In English, similar sounds that occur in the native language can be distinguished by a learner since they are in the complementary distribution for the speaker. However, if there are no comparable sounds in the native language, pairs such as [d] and [s], [k] and [n], and so on will be parallel distributed, whereas pairs like [b] and [Δ], or [n] and [x] will be complementary distributed.

As a result, for such learners (who are not used to such noises), the following words will be spoken as follows: Daddy [dædi], either [aidə], loathe [ləud], ship [sip], pass [pɑʃ], dish [diʃ], usher [ʌsə].

Phonological Processes

In English, there are a number of major phonological processes. Assimilation is one of the most frequent phonological processes. Assimilation is a process in which one sound influences another. The influence of nasal consonants on vowels may be illustrated by this rule.

For example, the sound [æ] (such as in words cat [kæt], sat [sæt]) will be pronounced like [ã] before nasal sounds: Pam [pãm], Sam [sãm], pan [pãn]. Aspiration is another significant phonological operation. When English voiceless consonants are at the beginning or end of a word, they are aspirated.

Many phonological processes can be used to describe a given set of words. For example, the pattern /t/ – [t˺] demonstrates this phonological process. It may be exemplified by phrases such as sat [sat], met [me t˺], and let [le t]. Of course, many words can be characterized by a variety of phonological processes. Exchange of syllable onsets is a common phonological process in children’s English (Denham and Lobeck 118).

[ɛfəlɛnt], [hɛp]. In addition, some dialects have their own rules. For example, in African American Vernacular English, final voiced consonants are frequently devoiced (62). This process can be illustrated by the following examples: [mek], [tik]. Southern English is a dialect with a difference: instead of replacing [e] by [i] before nasal consonants, it replaces it with a glottal stop (82).

Parameters of English Consonants

  • 17 is between both 3s, 11 is vibrating, and 8-9 is closed. Sound: [Δ]
  • 16 is completely touching 5, 11 is vibrating, and 8-9 is closed. Sound: [r]
  • 16 is close to 5, 11 is open and 8-9 is open. Sound: [l]
  • 14 is completely touching 8, 11 is open, and 8-9 is closed. Sound: [k]
  • 14 is completely touching 8, 11 is vibrating, and 8-9 is open. Sound: [g]
  • 2 on the bottom is close to 3 on the top, 11 is vibrating, and 8-9 is closed. Sound: [v]
  • Both 2s are completely touching, 11 is open, and 8-9 is closed. Sound: [p]
  • Both 2s are completely touching, 11 is vibrating, and 8-9 is open. Sound: [b]

Conclusion: Inflectional Morphemes in English

Inflectional morphemes are used to show if a word has the plural, comparative, or possessive form, as well as whether it is in the past or present tense. They do not create new words like derivational morphemes do. This essay explains how many inflectional morphemes there are in English and gives a complete list of them, as well as some examples of inflectional morphemes using.

Essay 2

Inflectional morphemes change the way a word is used in terms of grammar, but they do not generate a new term. For instance, skip has several forms: skip (base form), skipping (present progressive), and skipped (past tense). To indicate the verb’s tense, the present -ing and past -ed are appended to the base word skip.

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Even if a word has an inflectional morpheme, it is still the same word with a few suffixes tacked on. As a result, if you looked up skip in the dictionary, only the base term would have its own entry. Because they are inflections of the basic term, skipping and skipped are listed under skip. Skipping and skipped do not have their own entry in the dictionary.

The following are examples of inflectional morphemes in English, originating from the Anglo-Saxon language. An inflectional morpheme changes the grammar of a word, but it does not produce a new term. The phrase “To your left” differs from “Your left,” for example, in terms of syntax (grammar).

The tense of the word is indicated by inflectional morphemes -ing and -ed, which are appended to the base word. Even when an inflectional morpheme is possessed, a term remains the same. As a result, if you look up skip in a dictionary, only the base term skip will be recorded.

Skipping and skipped are both inflections of the base word, as they are variants. Skipping and sked do not have their own entry in the dictionary. Inflectional morphemes that originate from Anglo-Saxon include the following.

Essay 3

Inflectional morphemes – represent features of a word’s grammatical function. Possessives (-‘s), -(e)s (plural), and four inflections may be added to nouns: -ed, -ing, -en, and-en. Verbs can have the following four inflections: -ed, -ing, past tense, present participle, past participle. The third person singular is marked by the use of an inflectional morpheme containing three digits (-‘s).

What are the eight inflectional morphemes in English?

The Eight Inflectional Morphemes of English

  • Bahram Kazemian.
  • Somayyeh Hashemi.

What are the 8 inflectional suffixes?

The inflectional suffixes of English are extremely limited:

  • noun plural {-s} – “He has three desserts.”
  • noun possessive {-s} – “This is Betty’s dessert.”
  • verb present tense {-s} – “Bill usually eats dessert.”
  • verb past tense {-ed} – “He baked the dessert yesterday.”
  • verb past participle {-en} – “He has always eaten dessert.”

What is an inflectional suffix example?

A suffix can either inflect (change the grammatical form of) a word: for example, from “dog” to “dogs,” or from “walk” to “walked.” The basic meaning of the term does not alter in this situation.

Is Al a Derivational suffix?

English suffixes can be derived or inflectional, as the name implies. Derivational and Inflectional Prefixes and Suffixes are two types of English affixes.

What is a Derivational affix example?

On the other side of the spectrum, derivational suffixes modify the grammatical word-class of the base. Consider how nice, fast, and happy are made into adverbs by adding -ly at the end. There is a small variation in meaning and form in these instances.

What is a Derivational affix?

A derivational suffix is a suffix that generates (derived) words by combining two words. Frequently, the subsequently formed term is of a different word class than the source term.

What are the examples of Derivational Morphemes?

For example, the root word “form” and a derivational morpheme, the prefix “trans,” make up the verb “transform.” The noun “transformation” is formed by adding the derivational morpheme “ation” as a suffix. However, you don’t have to limit yourself to that.

What is difference between Inflectional and Derivational Morphemes?

The terms “derivational” and “inflectional” are used to distinguish between derivation and inflection in morphemes. Inflectional morphemes modify the meaning of the stem, while derivational morphemes alter it significantly.

What are Inflectional words?

Inflection (or inflexion) is a word creation technique in which a word’s grammatical categories are changed to indicate tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, mood, animacy, and definiteness.

Is Ly Derivational or Inflectional?

On the one hand, a derivational suffix might transform a term’s grammatical category. The suffix “-ly” may be used to change an adjective into an adverb, and the suffix “-ment” is frequently used to create a noun. On the other hand, we can modify the meaning of a word without changing its category.

Is ing a Derivational suffix?

The -ing form of the English gerund is inflectional since adding it does not change the part of speech, and this is regarded as a distinction between English inflection and derivation.

Are all ing words gerunds?

Yes, by definition, gerunds end in -ing. A gerund is a Latin term that means “to act as” (i.e., has functional features of) a noun – it can, for example, serve as the subject or object of a verb or take a plural ending.

What is ING called in grammar?


What are words that end in ing called?

A present participle or a gerund is used to form the -ing ending of a verb. These two variants are nearly identical in appearance.

Can two ING forms come together?

In a “go + gerund” phrase, two -ing words can also be used together. The verb + gerund construction is an example of this type of phrase. In English, we use the verb to go to a variety of leisure activities. These activities include fishing, swimming, shopping, and skating, as well as a dozen or so other things.

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Do all participles end in ing?

All current participles end in -ing, but past participles exist for: The basic form of a regular verb is constructed by adding -ed or -d to the present form. Irregular verbs can have any shape (often identical with present or past forms).

Why do we use ing?

The suffix -ing is a suffix that may be used to form one of the inflected forms of English verbs. This verb form is used as a present participle, gerund, and occasionally an independent noun or adjective. The suffix comes into play in words like morning and ceiling, as well as names like Browning.

Can we use ing after to?

The -ING form can also be used with phrasal verbs that end in ‘to.’ Look forward to is a phrasal verb; it’s regarded as a unit, and we always use the -ING form after this phrasal verb. Get around to means to accomplish something despite the fact that you don’t have a lot of time or put up with delays.

How does ING change a word?

Verbs that end in “ing” can modify the verb tense to represent various instances of the continuous, indicating continuing activities. The verb “singing” is used to express the present continuous tense in, “I’m performing opera.” In, “I’ve been singing opera,” the phrase “been singing” implies the present perfect tense.

Can we use ing with see?

The verb ‘see’ may take either an infinitive or “ing” form, but with a slight change in meaning. If we want to convey that we saw the whole event from start to end, we generally use a bare infinitive, as shown by your example and a similar one below. In the field, I observed him at work.

What type of verb is heard?

Conjugation of ‘Hear’

What is a verb for see?

verb (used with object), saw, seen, see·ing. to perceive with the eyes; look at. to view; visit or attend as a spectator: to see a play.

What is the correct verb of eat?

verb eats, eating, ate or eaten.

Is Eat present tense?

He/She/It eats . You/We/They eat. Present Continuous Tense. He/She/It is eating.

Is eat an adjective?

‘Eating,’ as defined above, can be used as an adjective, a noun, or a verb. Usage of adjectives: Wait! That’s not a eating apple. We had some excellent eating when we visited Aunt Martha’s house. Verbal usage: I recall when we went to Aunt Martha’s home.

Is YEET a word?

Although yeet isn’t really a nonsense word, most people use it that way. As an exclamation, yeet is a word that means “to hurl.” It’s also used as a meaningless term to add humor to an activity or verbal response.

Is eat a verb or adverb?

To put it another way, eating is a verb. A qualifying adverb is referred to as an adverb.

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