Human nature, according to Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic study, comprises some deep qualities that yearn to be satisfied by particular requirements and compulsions such as aggression, the ego that drives him towards pleasurable activities, and the need for love.
According to the type of pleasure they provide and the good or bad influence it has on an individual and society as a whole, impulses are seen to lean one way or another. This study paper will look at Freud’s conception of human nature, which became a major step forward in psychology.
Freud’s View On Human Nature: Main Points
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The nature of the society, whether civil or barbarous, is determined by the personality type of its inhabitants. It’s also a function of the degree to which society’s moral standards satisfy people’s needs for reaction or compensation (Ziegler, 2002).
According to Freud, personality development is one of the significant characteristics of human nature that aids in a deeper recognition of each person’s life. Individuals’ transitions from one stage of life to the next generate conflict between social and biological forces that exist within human nature. Drive theory holds that an individual’s capacity to adapt to his/her surroundings is determined by his/her capacity to cope with forces within society and learn from them.
According to Ken, a boy’s developing psycho-sexuality is “shaped by the home environment rather than the child.” This principle suggests that how parents manage a kid’s sexual and aggressive drives in his early years has a larger impact on his overall personality development, which comprises of three parts: id, which generates primary and biological needs and accounts for a large proportion of the mind.
The ego is the conscious aspect of human nature that is driven by survival and directs id’s urges as required, while the superego is a component of social conscience formed through connections and interactions with parents who educate their children to accept and obey society’s standards and norms (Ziegler, 2002).
Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalysis
According to Sigmund Freud, man’s basic nature is to seek perfection. According to Sigmund Freud’s hypothesis, the instinct that drives them towards this contributes towards intellect and more ethical sublimation, which creates a human desire for a superior complex. Based on the degree of viciousness in each individual, Freud argued that there is a significant link between man and society, making him/her naturally antisocial.
Sigmund Freud regarded society as a safeguard against human antisocial tendencies. According to his psychodynamic perspective of human nature, the degree to which a person is civilized is solely determined by the process of sublimation. This creates an inverse relationship between a person’s natural desire to gratify his needs and societal cultural norms. The more one is repressed, the more civilised one becomes (Ziegler, 2002).
Sigmund Freud’s human nature perspective is interpreted as being more downbeat since he placed such emphasis on conventional thought that there is a strong connection between human actions and the society from which they originate. This makes the source of one’s individuality darker and, on occasion, causes devastation. According to Freud, the majority’s higher position determines how society is governed and driven.
According to Ziegler, the fundamental nature of human beings comprises a greater amount of id, which yearns to fulfill only antisocial desires that lead to an unbalanced society. Human nature theory developed by Sigmund Freud led to the question of whether human nature could be guided by principles that lead towards pleasure (Ziegler, 2002).
Freud maintained that the essential feature of human nature is as a result of id and superego control over human decisions. He thought that childhood behaviors and events, among other things, had an impact on adult personality traits.
According to his hypothesis, neuroses were caused by powerful emotional forces that emerged as a result of profound experiences at the childhood stage. According to Freud, childhood events mold the adult life stage to the point that infancyile character influences character development into adulthood.
Sigmund Freud’s Theory: Is Humanity Disposed of More Towards Granting Mercy or Towards Aggression?
Freud discovered that the overall conduct of a person is strongly influenced by emotions based on the unconscious portion of the mind, and free will is simply an illusion. According to Freud’s theory of personality, people engage in behavior because of mental and neurotic conflicts. It is inherent in human nature, according to Freud, for people to be more disposed toward aggression, which necessitates the gratification of more antisocial instincts geared towards attaining personal pleasure.
Instead of becoming less violent over time, human nature becomes increasingly aggressive. This is due to the fact that humans require rest in order to become productive and creative; therefore they are naturally inclined toward fighting each other for it (Freud, 1930). Humans are naturally inclined toward fighting when they must work hard in order to get something done (Freud, 1930). Humanity’s natural inclination towards conflict and aggression increases when people are denied rest.
Humans are tempted by immediate gratification of their natural desires, resulting in conflict. According to Freud, the id is the little devil inside us that drives people to engage in pleasurable activities regardless of the consequences if some pleasure is guaranteed.
The superego, on the other hand, is a part of the mind that works according to good principles and pushes individuals away from danger. Human aggression may be observed in a child’s actions as he/she becomes more concerned with the problems his/her demands cause others, especially parents (Freud, 1930).
How Do We Progress in a Moral Sense?
There was a theory in Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic thinking that love, as a virtue, is the result of sexual sublimation. Human actions are viewed differently depending on the society’s culture. The culture in which an individual lives has a significant impact on the abnormality or normalcy of particular actions and behaviors. Morality provides clarity to what is considered acceptable or unacceptable within societies. Within communities, moral acts are seen to be caused by common beliefs.
Morals, according to Freud, are designed to enable people to live together in peace and harmony. These ethical codes originate from social and cultural expectations. Because individuals do not know any moral limitations, the general public has a significant influence on their morality (Freud 1930).
People are less likely to suffer psychological injury as a result of stress when they believe themselves to be superior, rather than because it is an issue with others in the same setting. There is no need for reliance on others as long as someone is at peace with himself since people are so concerned about their own reputation rather than those around them. Moral restrictions aren’t important as long as people feel safe within themselves, based on their own desires and egos.
When communities were formed, morality followed as a result of people seeing the value of healthy interactions and recognizing the power in collective purpose. The necessity for more strength necessitates that individual behaviors and actions be limited exclusively. According to Freud, this establishes the community’s authority over an individual’s power, which can be harsh at times. After overcoming humans’ egocentric nature, the force of the community becomes apparent.
Individuals’ actions necessitate morals for stability in order to endure within societies. Freud believed that in order to guarantee the safety of other members of society, all undesirable behaviors must be confronted. This is only possible when people are required to have empathy for one another living in the same community.
The golden rule states that we should behave toward others in the same way that we hope they would treat us. This moral code, based on this idea, emphasizes caution and non-violence when dealing with one another (Freud, 1930).
According to Freud’s notion of morality, any conduct linked with social evil is condemned by all civilizations. According to Freud’s concept of human nature, the majority of people in society accept the norms and rules that safeguard against causing hurt on others because no one wants to engage in evil behaviors against him or his family.
Individual morality is mostly determined by behavioral behaviors, which guarantee society continuity. Because it is more apparent in individuals’ actions, morality is not as linked to one’s thoughts. According to Freud, the fear of punitive community reactions against him rather than empathy prevents people from harming others (Carpendale and Krebs, 1995).
Sigmund Freud, a forerunner of contemporary thought, held a deterministic perspective on human nature based on instinct and personality. Unlike other theories, according to which we are not animals but rather creatures with inborn biological drives: a sophisticated species with primitive urges that must be controlled by societal constraints and pressures from peers.
Freud narrowed down the term “instinct” to four basic drives: ego-preservation, aggression, the need for love, and the impulse to obtain pleasure and avoid pain.
However, passions are a little more difficult. Men are frequently led astray by instinctive desires due to their lack of sense of rationality. This idea is reflected in the phrase “love is blind.” When two people become so wrapped up in their relationship that one or both of them makes some questionable judgments, it’s not unusual.
The intellect is represented by logical arguments, which are the subject of critical thinking. The voice of intellect is gentle yet persevering, offering hope for humanity’s future. However, this optimism fades as men have gained control and power over nature. This awareness results in worry and anxiety.
The development of society, according to Freud, has an impact on human nature through its influence on culture. This is followed by Freud’s idea of Defense mechanisms and the Ego, which will be discussed further in this essay. In general, Freud believes that civilization has an impact on human nature, giving guidelines for living and moral norms to adhere to.
Freud expands his concept of humanity in terms of pleasure, in addition to civilization. Hunger and love are said to rule the world, according to the “Beyond the Pleasure Principle.” While Schiller’s idea was borrowed, Freud employs it to the fundamental instincts he thinks encapsulate human nature.
Sigmund Freud, a pioneer in modern philosophy, advanced a deterministic view of human nature based on instinct and personality. Unlike other concepts, Freud sees us not as people but as animals with inborn biological cravings: a sophisticated species with basic desires that must be controlled by social pressure and parental prohibition. He claims that these urges are only kept under control by peer pressure and societal repression.
Although the word “instinct” has connotations of a variety of urges, it was reduced to four primary instincts by Freud: self-preservation, aggression, the necessity for love, and the drive to acquire pleasure and escape pain. These themes, as well as the psyche’s model developed within the principles of pleasure and civilization, are the most comprehensive personality and human nature theory ever constructed.
Freud makes the first and perhaps most significant claim when he states that civilization supersedes instinct. Instinct, according to Freud, is neither good nor evil; instead, it is classified as such based on its connection to the community’s requirements and demands. A smooth-functioning society requires proper conduct and social success.
Intellectual growth, therefore, is a consequence of society. According to Freud, human beings require an explanation similar to that provided for animals. It appears to be a tireless desire for perfection based on instinctual repression as a result of civilization. Freud identifies two key personality traits that explain the norms of civilization: men are interested in work and have a preference for emotion over intellect.
The pleasure principle is all about the enjoyment and gratification of an individual, whereas the civilization principle is focused on societal demands. It’s then necessary to recognize how these principles are linked inside the id, ego, and superego – three components of human nature. The id is primarily concerned with the pleasure principle, while the superego incorporates civilization. The ego connects both principles and Freud successfully interprets human nature between them.
Sigmund Freud, an Austrian physician, and Thomas Hobbes, an English philosopher, were two famous thinkers who influenced human nature. The sum of qualities and traits possessed by all humans was dubbed by Freud and Hobbes. Freud’s theories have led to significant advancements in child education, teaching, and sociology thanks to his revolutionary ideas on how the human mind functions.
Most people in Western culture subscribe to Freudian ways of thinking about human behavior. Nonetheless, Hobbes was more interested in politics than psychology. He disputed the notion that humans are naturally social beings, according to Hobbes. However, Hobbes’ and Freud’s ideas compare and contrast in many respects.
Hobbes instead argued that people’s most basic instincts are self-interested. He concluded that individuals are selfish. They are primarily driven by a desire for power and a dread of others. As a result, their existence would be miserable without an all-powerful ruler to govern them. Hobbes thought the government was established to safeguard individuals from their basest desires and vices.
He thought that there was a never-ending battle between individuals, and that people should not be trusted. He inquired about the link between science and religion, as well as the nature and limits of political authority, vital questions.
Human beings, according to Freud, are sexual beings from birth to adulthood. He regarded the personalities of people as being determined by physical and mental limitations in a limited society. He was critical of religion and referred to it as an illusion. Freud desired a civilization full of good people. The id, ego, and superego are three components of the mind for Freud.
The id is the origin of such desires as lust, for example. Conflicts between instincts and reality are resolved by the ego. A person’s consciencen is known as the superego. All people have some tension among their three mental components, but certain individuals experience more conflict than others.
The study of human nature is psychology. It’s critical for an individual’s mental climate. “Psychology is a Western invention, and it has evolved considerably since the year 2000,” (Frey, 04/06). The term self-concepts in psychology refers to people’s views of themselves as individuals.
Linking to the Psyche aspect of human mind motion connected to those with bodily perceptions, it relates to psychosomatic. “It yet represents a genuine connection between the mind-body idea. Attitudes and Social Cognitions focuses on social behaviors in which cognition plays an important role, particularly as they interface with overt behavior, affect, and motivation,” (Primis, 119).
The basic principles of psychology at this time include psychoanalysis, humanism, and sociobiology. What is the meaning of psychoanalysis now? “Psychoanalysis as a therapy is based on the notion that people are frequently unaware of many of the factors that shape their emotions and actions,” (Frey,04/06).
Sigmund Freud was the first psychoanalyst. “Many of his ideas about the human mind, which were so innovative at the turn of the century, are today widely accepted by most schools of psychological thought. Although others had recognized the significance of unconscious mental activity before and during his lifetime, Freud was the founding father in recognizing how critical it was.”
Although his ideas were met with criticism and resistance, Freud was steadfast in believing in the importance of his discoveries, and he rarely simplified or exaggerated them for popular acceptance. “Freud believed strongly in the value of his discoveries, and he seldom simplified or exaggerated them for the sake of popular acceptance.” (apa.org) He also recognized that people who wished to improve themselves or others must overcome practical roadblocks.
Although it is easy to be pessimistic, there are other ways of looking at things. While he acknowledged that deep-seated psychological flaws can sometimes overpower our reason and responsibility, he also demonstrated how applying scientific rationality to human failings might make a significant impact on particularly distressed individuals and even society as a whole. “Psychoanalysis has continued to develop and mature as a general theory of human mental functioning while always maintaining a great respect for the individuality of every person’s life, based on such ideas and ideals (psych.nwu.edu).
According to Sigmund Freud, humanity’s behavior is the consequence of a drive that seeks release. “However, up until now, it may be seen that Freud’s psychoanalytic theory best explains human nature,” (Freud introduction). It actually determines the various phases and phalices of human existence as well as natural ignorance for creatures, which provides us with a much more comprehensive picture of humanity.
According to Freud, people are frequently compelled to perform actions without knowing the reasons behind them; their motives for action are unconscious. Sigmund Freud had a number of ideas regarding how human beings develop. His most far-reaching idea in terms of the growth of the human mind was his five psychosexual phases. “Freud believed that children were fully developed at puberty and did not continue developing after that point.
The first stage, according to Freud, began with infants referring to it as the sucking stage. The anal period is for one- and two-year-olds. At this age group, children are beginning to toilet train. After this phase, children aged three through five years old progress through the phallic period. The child’s attention turns to their genitals because they discover them pleasurable. Freuds fourth stage is known as latency, which involves kids aged six to twelve years old (Freud, Civilization). This is when the flames of their sexual passions are deliberately put out.
The genital stage follows the oral stage. During puberty, children experience a sexual rebirth period. Other experts criticized him by claiming that there was more to growth than sex. They also said that after you turn eighteen, you do not stop developing (Freud, Civilization). Freud also developed another idea, which many writers have used in their works, including the Id, Ego, and Superego; he called it “the Three Stages of Mental Development.”
“Ego was used to discuss how the mind worked in a conscious and unconscious manner. It also covered the physiological actions of humans and why we do what we do. When it came to human nature, Freud was a real downer. He claims that man is a biological creature driven by biological needs, which he expresses by saying that man is “a biological animal.” Evolutionary theory influenced his views,” (Freud, Civilization).
Dr. Victor E. Frankl, a psychologist who specialized in the application of psychology to psychoanalysis, wrote several works on Humanistic Psychology. The continuing commitment is represented by contemporary versions of that long-standing devotion. Behaviorism and psychoanalysis were the two main schools of thought in American psychology at the time. Neither fully accepted the significance of values, intentions, or meaning when studied as components of conscious existence.