Cause and Effect Essay on Smoking

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Example #1 – Writing a cause and effect essay Why do I smoke

“Each year, an estimated 443,000 people die prematurely from smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke, and another 8.6 million live with a serious illness caused by smoking”(Mehta). One of the most common problems today that are killing people, all over the world, is smoking.

Many people start this horrible habit because of stress, personal issues, and high blood pressure. Some people began showing off or some people wanted to enjoy it. One cigarette can result in smoking others, which can lead to major addiction.

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When someone smokes a cigarette they are not only hurting themselves but are also hurting others around them. Smoking affects the body by turning the skin color yellow, producing an odor, and making the skin age faster. “Smoking also causes diseases such as coronary heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer”(Mehta).

Not long ago smoking was considered a casual past time with people smoking in restaurants and around children but now we know the consequences can now be dire to the environment, your health, and the others around you.

The smoking addiction is quite a costly habit. In many cities, a pack of cigarettes costs close to $10. For the two-pack per day smoker, this averages more than $500 per month. This sort of expense can be eliminated from one’s life thus causing one to have a much more flexible budget. The costs of smoking, however, is not limited only to one’s bank account. The costs of smoking have a great impact on one’s health also.

When people are addicted, they have a compulsive need to seek out and use a substance, even when they understand the harm it can cause. “Someone who is addicted to cigarette smoking smokes two or more packs per day, anywhere and for more than a few years” (Lee). It is actually the nicotine in tobacco that is addictive. “Each cigarette contains about 10 milligrams of nicotine.

Because the smoker inhales only some of the smoke from a cigarette, and not all of each puff is absorbed in the lungs, a smoker gets about 1 to 2 milligrams of the drug from each cigarette”( Mehta). Although that may not seem like much, it is enough to create an addiction. Nicotine is only one of more than 4,000 chemicals, many of which are poisonous, found in the smoke from tobacco products.

Cigarettes poison the body both physically and mentally and also have social effects. Smoking can lead to social problems because it causes bad breath, and odorous smell and often isolation. Every time the smoker speaks, a pungent smell emanates from the mouth and towards the listener. Smoking also causes a pungent smell to linger on the body and clothes of the smoker. The smoking smell is very strong and it affects the listener. The smoke attaches to the body of the smoker.

Smoking is not only dangerous to your well being but also the health of others and the environment. When you breathe in smoke that comes from the end of a lit cigarette, cigar, or pipe that is exhaled by a smoker, you’re inhaling almost the same amount of chemicals as the smoker breathes in. “Tobacco smoke contains more than 4,000 different chemical compounds, more than 50 of which are known to cause cancer” (Shields). These are just a few of the chemicals that float into your lungs when you are exposed to secondhand smoke

Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body. Some of these harmful effects are immediate. Nicotine addiction is hard to beat because it changes your brain. The brain develops extra nicotine receptors to accommodate the large doses of nicotine from tobacco. When the brain stops getting the nicotine it’s used to, the result is nicotine withdrawal.

A person may feel anxious, irritable, and have strong cravings for nicotine. Smoking takes a toll on one’s mouth. Smokers have more oral health problems than non-smokers, such as mouth sores, ulcers, and gum disease. Smokers are also more likely to get cancers of the mouth and throat. Smoking can cause the skin to be dry and lose elasticity, leading to wrinkles and stretch marks.

The skin tone may become dull and grayish. By one’s early 30s, wrinkles can begin to appear around the mouth and eyes, causing drastic aging. Smoking raises your blood pressure and puts stress on your heart. Over time, stress on the heart can weaken it, making it less able to pump blood to other parts of the body.

Carbon monoxide from inhaled cigarette smoke also contributes to a lack of oxygen, making the heart work even harder. This increases the risk of heart disease, including heart attacks. Smoking affects the body by turning the skin color yellow, producing an odor, and making the skin age more.

Smoking is considered as one of the most dangerous habits of an individual. “20% of persons living in the United States still smoke, and smoking remains the number one cause of preventable mortality” (Tolstrup). There are numerous harmful as well as dangerous effects related to smoking. Carbon monoxide and nicotine in cigarette smoke have been related to several adverse impacts on the lungs and heart. Smoking causes damage to the internal body, causing alterations to the quality of internal organs. For example, smoking affects the lung by damaging the air sac.

Damaging the air sac limits the passageway of air, and progressively leads to emphysema. Smoking also leads to an increased probability of cancer, such as lung cancer and heart failure. Ultimately, reliance on smoking damages the human body, causing more susceptibility to diseases. “Smoking is a major risk factor for heart disease.”(Shields).

Carbon monoxide and nicotine both put a strain on the heart by making it work faster. They also increase your risk of blood clots. Other chemicals in cigarette smoke damage the lining of your coronary arteries, leading to the furring of the arteries. If you smoke, you increase your risk of developing heart disease.

“Smoking cigarettes is harmful to health”(Lee), which is a warming sentence shown on pack of cigarettes. Therefore, the effects of smoking cigarettes on human life are serious. Smoking has become a trend in today’s world, even though people know how harmful it is. Smoking causes are obvious it will ruin your health and give you a series of health issues. Smoking affects not only you but others around you. It is terrible for health as well as personal appearance.

In the end, those who choose to smoke and the others around them are affected the most by this life-threatening activity. Smoking is a habit that individuals find it difficult to quit. Both the causes and effects of smoking have hazardous outcomes that are preventable. The thorough understanding of the chemical as well as smoking internal and external effects of the body are important in order to battle the issue facing the entire nation.

 

Example #2 – Why Do We Smoke

After listening to 2 solid weeks of classroom lecture on all the negative side effects that smoking causes in the human body, I felt somewhat concerned that the habit that I have had for 10 years of my life might be a serious problem to my health, even at this young age. We spent a great deal of time discussing the negative side effects of smoking covering heart disease, cancer, and respiratory failure, but there was very little discussion given to how and why we started smoking in the first place and what steps we have to take to quit. I set out to find these answers to these questions and determine the best way to stop smoking forever.

?Smoking kills over 400,000 people a year — more than one in six people in the United States — making it more lethal than AIDS, automobile accidents, homicides, suicides, drug overdoses, and fires combined.” (1) It’s baffling to me that something so lethal is sold over the counter. Despite this outrageous number of fatalities, over 47 million people or roughly of the American Adult Population smoke more than a pack a day according to the Harvard Medical Journal. A vast majority of these smokers started in their teens and never quit or quit only to restart again in their mid 20’s. This is a prolific trend that continues today were, “Each day, almost 3,000 young people start to smoke.” (1). Several sources have been targeted with blame for this trend, some of which include advertising, psychological factors, social support structure or peer pressure, and the likes. Despite Anti-Smoking campaigns targeting these specific areas, the trend continues.

This continuance of the status quo is large because the anti-smoking campaigns of the recent past have been primarily targeted at groups that are already smoking or will soon be. It is the opinion of Daniel Heller, a doctor of pediatrics at the Harvard Medical Center, that, “Anti-smoking advertising campaigns” may be extremely effective when they target children as young as elementary school age, are long-term, and consistently portray smoking as hazardous for adults and children alike.” (3)

Much like the success of the “just say no” drug program that was widely documented and proven when targeting this age-group, smoking adds should take the same approach to curb the trends of teenage starters in the US.

Smokers that start have a very hard time stopping. “In one study, of the women smokers who said they wanted to stop smoking, 80% of them were unable to.” (1) Nicotine is felt, by many types of research and scientists including the surgeon general, to be as addictive as heroin or cocaine. Nicotine, in fact, affects the same areas of the brain as these drugs and has similar effects.

Nicotine is also similar to these drugs in that the body eventually develops a tolerance to them and requires more amounts of the substance to maintain the effects. Nicotine, however, has a much higher resistance level, thusly requiring even newly started smokers to accelerate their use to dangerously addictive levels.

This tolerance and inherent addiction are what make stopping smoking so difficult. When Nicotine is absent in the user, the individual experiences withdrawal symptoms. The pull of this addiction is so strong that, “Even after years of nonsmoking, about 20% of ex-smokers still have occasional cravings for cigarettes.” (1) According to the Web MD website, a site supported by 3 of the leading medical universities in the US and the FDA, offers the following description and recommendation for that handling withdrawal.

Among the physical symptoms of withdrawal are tingling in the hands and feet, sweating, intestinal disorders, and headache. People often experience sore throats, coughing, and other signs of colds and respiratory problems as the lungs begin to clear. While people are enduring these symptoms they should treat themselves as if they were recuperating from a disease — which they are.

But the withdrawal symptoms also affect the mental and emotional states of those that are struggling to quit. Wild mood swings and feelings of irritability and unrest, as though they can?t quite get comfortable, are very common and should be expected. “As foolish as it sounds, a smoker should plan on a period of actual mourning in order to get through the early withdrawal stages” (1)

With such strong forces working against the efforts to stop smoking, the question truly is what do we do to quit? There are charlatans and tonic vendors who have toted several methods throughout history that have come up as the “sure cure” while others approved with the stamp of science. Which ones work? Why and how do they work? Nicotine Gum and Patches are the latest and greatest solution science has had to offer to the smoking community in hopes of making the success rate inch its way upward. The ideas behind these methods or “replacement therapies” were to break the habit of smoking before you deal with the full brunt of the withdrawal from the drug itself.

These products are now sold over the counter to anyone 18 years or older and come with instructions, calendar markers, support cassette tapes, and a positive planner for a smoke-free life. Unfortunately, they range from $30 to $80 per week and are not supported by HMO’s. They also bring further complications in that prolonged use causes such side effects as an increased risk of heart attack to insulin rejection. Despite the presence of nicotine, smokers still experience withdrawal symptoms and are still 45% more likely to cheat in the first week and 85% more likely to cheat by the second week, making the success rate only %10 to stop smoking for more than a single month.

Another method of stopping is acupuncture, a Chinese holistic approach of using metal staples in and around the ear that actuate charkas that ease the withdrawal symptoms. There is no scientific evidence that has decided decisively how effective this method is. Hypnosis, or the sub-conscious suggestion of an outside party that uses a dream-like trance to convince his patients to stop, also has very little support or research in the scientific community. It is obvious this method has worked for many people, but is very expensive and cannot be quantified easily by researchers.

There is another solution, not widely publicized, in testing right now. A company called Celanese has created a chemical that, when injected in the human body, intercepts nicotine before it gets to the brain. This drug, in effect, would force smokers to go through the withdrawal process once and then never again experience the effects of smoking, thusly eliminating the need for it. I could find no substantial information about the drug or when it would be available, but most reports indicate that it will probably not be much more effective than the methods available now.

In conclusion, smoking is an extremely addictive habit that usually forms in the early teen years. We should be targeting our children from the time they enter elementary school to prepare them for this temptation and encourage them to steer clear of this problem. There is no sure cure for smoking, and every method requires willingness, dedication, and will power.

Smokers should recognize the serious health risks they are facing every time they light a cigarette and accept that quitting such an addictive habit will only come with some amount of discomfort. Never the less, smokers should attempt to quit! “It is so difficult to quit than smokers should never feel inadequate if they fail.” (1) Every step in the right direction, even if you fall, will only make you stronger and bring you one step closer to your goal and to better health.

 

Example #3

One of the most common problems today that are killing people, all over the world, is smoking. Many people start this horrible habit because of stress, personal issues, and high blood pressure. Some people began showing off or some people wanted to enjoy it. One cigarette can result in smoking others, which can lead to major addiction. When someone smokes a cigarette they are not only hurting themselves but others around them.

Smoking does many horrible things to the human body that most people are not aware of. Almost everyone knows that smoking causes cancer and heart disease; that it can shorten your life by 10 years or more; and that the habit can cost a smoker thousands of dirham’s a year. So, why people are still smoking? The answer is obviously, addiction. Smoking is a hard habit to break because tobacco contains nicotine, which is highly addictive. There are several effects and causes of smoking;

First of all, teenagers smoke because they want to be fit,. Teens see their friends smoke and they think it makes them look cool or independent plus them. Feel no tension plus worries. The first cause of smoking which is Nicotine is an addictive and harmful substance contained in cigarettes. It reduces tension and it is also believed that it can have a calming effect on people who are anxious and worried.

Although, people smoke when they are depressed, lonely, or bored and it helps them to reduce stress. The second main cause of smoking is “psychological” (MENTAL) which seems to be a very important factor for people to get the habit. In many cases, smoking is started at a young age due to high blood pressure, tobacco.

Many people who start smoking have a family member or close friend who smokes. Smoking is like a slow death. There are various examples of smoking. Smoking leads to lung cancer, heart disease, strokes, asthma, and a wide variety of other diseases. Smokers experience more coughs and colds as compared to non- smokers. Besides affecting oneself, it also has a negative impact on others around smokers which is also known as second-hand smoking.

Also, any pregnant women who are exposed to cigarette smoke will have an increased risk of having abnormal babies. Did you ever wonder what’s in the cigarette that millions of people love to smoke every day? Well, there are over 4000 toxic substances in a cigarette.

Some of these are Arsenic (found in rat poisons), Acetic acid (found in hair dye developer), Ammonia (found in household cleaners), Benzene (found in rubber cement), Butane (found in lighter fluid), Carbon Monoxide (found in car fumes), Hydrazine and Methanol (both found in rocket fuel), Tar (found inroads).

Smoking is a habit that individuals find it difficult to quit. Many people make preparations for months in their effort to get rid of the habit, Many teenagers smoke because of depression and stress, but they should know by now that smoking kills you from the inside the are many ways to solve problems like those but one of them is NOT smoking. It’s just madness and it will give you cancer. People like teenagers don’t think. SMOKING is BAD for YOU!!!!!!

Always try to avoid what your friends say about smoking, just say Alhamdulillah by what Allah has given to you, So Alhamdulillah for everything, and please stop smoking.

 

Example #4 – Smoking & Advertising

Every day 3,000 children start smoking, most of them between the ages of 10 and 18. These kids account for 90 percent of all new smokers. In fact, 90 percent of all adult smokers said that they first lit up as teenagers (Roberts). These statistics clearly show that young people are the prime target in the tobacco wars. The cigarette manufacturers may deny it, but advertising and promotion play a vital part in making these facts a reality (Roberts).

The kings of these media ploys are Marlboro and Camel. Marlboro uses a fictional western character called The Marlboro Man, while Camel uses Joe Camel, a high-rolling, swinging cartoon character. Joe Camel, the “smooth character” from R.J. Reynolds, who is shown as a dromedary with complete style has been attacked by many Tobacco-Free Kids organizations as a major influence on the children of America. Dr. Lonnie Bristow, AMA (American Medical Association) spokesman, remarks that “to kids, cute cartoon characters mean that the product is harmless, but cigarettes are not harmless.

They have to know that their ads are influencing the youth under 18 to begin smoking”(Breo). Researchers at the Medical College of Georgia report that almost as many 6-year olds recognize Joe Camel as knowing Mickey Mouse (Breo). That is very shocking information for any parent to hear.

The industry denies that these symbols target people under 21 and claim that their advertising goal is simply to promote brand switching and loyalty. So what do the tobacco companies do to keep their industry alive and well? Seemingly, they go toward a market that is not fully aware of the harm that cigarettes are capable of.

Next to addiction, the tobacco industry depends on advertising as its most powerful tool in maintaining its success. Addiction is what keeps people smoking day after day; advertising cigarettes with delusive images is what causes millions to be tempted enough to begin the lethal habit. Cigarettes are the most heavily advertised product in America.

The tobacco industry spends billions of dollars each year to ensure that its products are associated with elegance, prosperity, and finesse, rather than lung cancer, bronchitis, and heart disease (Taylor 44). Since there is little to distinguish one brand of cigarettes from the next, cigarettes must be advertised through emotional appeals instead of product benefits. Thus, the cigarette’s appeal to the consumer is entirely a matter of perception, or rather, misperception.

There are a few American publications – such as the Readers Digest, Good Housekeeping, the New Yorker, and Washington Monthly – that do not accept cigarette advertising as a matter of principle. But for the majority of American publications, the millions of dollars they receive each year from tobacco advertisements is not only enough to keep the advertisements running throughout the year, but enough to control the material they publish.

On many occasions, newspaper and magazine editors have pulled out articles on smoking and health that they would have otherwise published if the articles did not have the ability to interfere with their relations with the cigarette companies. An article in the Columbia Journalism Revue, analyzing coverage which leading national magazines had given to cigarettes and cancer in the 1970s, concluded that it was:

. . . unable to find a single article in 7 years of publication that would have given readers any clear notion of the nature and extent of the medical and social havoc being wreaked by the cigarette-smoking habit. . . one must conclude that advertising revenue can indeed silence the editors of American magazines. (qtd. in Taylor 45) Of all of the newspapers and magazines in America, those with the largest percent of teenage readers seem to be the tobacco industry’s favorite places for advertising.

Similarly, tobacco advertisement remains most popular among billboards located closest to colleges, high schools, and even junior highs. This approach of advertising to young people has been kept a closely guarded secret since, besides being illegal, the companies are ashamed of it. If they had a choice, cigarette companies would simply keep their business between the adult population and not have to worry about enticing children into smoking – but that is not the case.

There are two fundamental reasons why it is necessary for the tobacco industry to market their products towards young people (Hilts 63-64):

Nicotine addiction, which is paramount to the industry, does not develop in adults. Among adults over age 21 who begin smoking for the first time, over 90 percent soon stop completely (65). Among young people ages 12 through 17, who smoke at least a pack a day, 84 percent reported that they were “dependent” on cigarettes. Virtually all tobacco use begins at childhood. Half of the adult smoking population has started by age 14 (Glantz et al. 59); nearly 90 percent of those who will smoke as adults are already smoking daily by the time they reach age 19. It can take up to three years of smoking to establish a nicotine addiction; adults simply do not stick with it long enough (Hilts 65).

The second reason why it is vital for companies to invite children to smoke, has to do with the state of mind of the adolescent. Children, by nature, are attracted to many things that the cigarette has to offer them: defiance of authority, a sense of individualism (which is an illusion, considering they are one among some 50 million), emulation of an admired image, social acceptance by peers, a perception of masculinity (for males) or sexiness (for females), and many other false notions that help settle various insecurities of the adolescent.

Tobacco executives realize that if they introduce their products as being capable of relieving numerous social pressures that teenagers undergo, their products will be perceived this way (to an extent) by a large percentage of children; these children will let the industry affect their actions and, ultimately, their lives.

It is for these two reasons that the industry must focus their attention on persuading young people to start smoking. Cigarette companies view their advertising approach as an investment. Young people, who are only a small percentage of the market, slowly accumulate in numbers, year by year, and increase their habit as they grow older.

Eventually, this small group of consumers develops into the majority of the tobacco market (Hilts 77). It is moreover advantageous for companies to target youths since young smokers have greater “brand loyalty” – a very high likelihood of staying with their first regular brand of cigarettes for years or even for life (76).

Tobacco companies have learned exactly how to market their product to children through extensive research and psychological study of youths; the most intense studies did not start until after the scares of 1954. In the late 1950s, Philip Morris found through comprehensive research that young males started smoking because, to them, it represented independence from their parents. What PM’s advertising agency came up with were “commercials that would turn rookie smokers on to Marlboro . . . the right image to capture the youth market’s fancy . . . a perfect symbol of independence and individualistic rebellion” (qtd. in Hilts 67). With this in mind, they decided that images of alone, a rugged cowboys would catch the attention of male children.

The Marlboro Man soon began to capture the largest percentage of starters and clearly put Philip Morris at the top of the tobacco industry; PM tried to duplicate the success of Marlboros by creating Virginia Slims for young girls in the late 1960s (66-69).

There is no doubt that peer group influence is the single most important factor in the decision by the adolescent to smoke . . . The adolescent seeks to display his new urge for independence with a symbol, and cigarettes are such a symbol since they are associated with adulthood and at the same time the adults seek to deny them to the young. (qtd. in Hilts 83) R.J. Reynolds eventually did respond to the youth market in 1988 with Camel cigarettes. RJR’s market basically remained the same since 1913, before they modified their advertising approach 75 years later (Hilts 70).

Camels, which had previously been pitched to smokers over 50 years old, were suddenly targeted towards those under 20 years old with the introduction of the cartoon Joe Camel in February 1988 (79-80). RJR established a program to sell their cigarettes to what is referred to in their documents as “YAS,” or “young adult smokers.” (They were referred to in the documents as young adults only for legal purposes; orally, it was agreed that the targeted groups were much younger.) The program carefully governs, among other things, the placement of ads and propaganda.

They ensure that stores within 1,000 feet of schools carry more promotions than other stores; that promotions are closest to candy counters more often than anywhere else; that displays are more often set at a height of three feet or lower; and that stores in neighborhoods with a large number of children under 17 receive a greater number of signs promoting their cigarettes (92-93).

The effectiveness of the tobacco industry’s psychologically designed promotions has been remarkable. Coinciding with the 1967 ad campaigns which targeted young girls, there was a sudden rise in teenage, female smokers: 110 percent in 12-year-olds, 55 percent in 13-year-olds, 70 percent 14-year-olds, 75 percent in 15-year-olds, 55 percent in 16-year-olds, and 35 percent in 17-year olds (Hilts 69). Within three years after Camels were introduced to children in 1988, the brand jumped from 3 percent to more than 13 percent of the cigarette market; the jump was even larger among the youngest groups (70). An R.J. Reynolds executive was asked exactly who the young people are that are being targeted, junior high school kids, or even younger? His reply made RJR’s objective clear: “They got lips?

We Want ‘em.” If this is truly who the tobacco industry is aiming for, their achievements are considerable. More than 100,000 American children ages 12 and under are habitual smokers (Mixon 3). Every day, 3,000 to 5,000 American kids light a cigarette for the first time. Children spend a billion dollars a year on cigarettes. Tobacco companies must make sure that they recruit enough new smokers every day, taking into account that they lose one of their life-long customers to disease every 13 seconds (Starr and Taggart 706).

Tobacco products have claimed the lives of more people than those who died in World War Two (Jaffa 85). The sum of its victims exceeds the number of deaths resulting from alcohol abuse, illegal drug abuse, AIDS, traffic accidents, homicides, and suicides combined (Glantz xvii).

There are thousands of documents from tobacco companies that reveal that the industry has been remarkably successful in protecting its ability to market an addictive product that not only kills its customers by the millions but also shrinks the economy by 22 billion dollars annually (Starr and Taggart 706).

The industry has uniquely been able to market its lethal products by tactfully instilling completely irrational desires in the vulnerable minds of children. Although tobacco products have been proven to be seriously hazardous to health, some 50 million Americans continue to smoke regularly; this is not necessarily a matter of “personal choice” as the companies claim.

Rather, after seducing young people’s minds (by explaining smoking as glamorous rather than deadly), the whole business trusts that these youths will continue to smoke because they will develop addictions to the nicotine in tobacco. Along with some help from the government, the industry fights regulation of their product through the skilled legal, political, and public relations tactics that helped them create an imaginary controversy on the effects of smoking. This situation, however, is slowly changing.

The deception of the tobacco industry has recently become better publicized through the revelation of internal documents which previously have been suppressed by the companies. (Among these documents, those of Brown & Willamson and have been greatly exposed.) Every day, organizations such as the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) are taking steps to control the virtually unregulated sale of cigarettes and other tobacco products. Until something effective is done, however, the best way to fight the merchants of death is to influence their prey – the impressionable minds of children – before they do.

 

Example #5 – Smoking In The Workplace

Introduction

The single most preventable factor that contributes to the major health problems facing Canadians today is the use of tobacco. The very mention of the word smoking can evoke an argument from the calmest of people, whether they are smokers or non-smokers. The former feel threatened while the latter feel they may have the chance to bring an end to an activity they have long disliked and disapproved of.

Workplaces across the country are adopting smoke-free policies in order to provide clean air and to protect employees and the public alike from the harmful, if not life-threatening effects of smoking. According to the American Lung Association (1997), 94 percent of smokers and non-smokers now believe companies should either ban smoking totally in the workplace or restrict it to separately ventilated areas.

Purpose

In response to an increased awareness of the dangers of smoking, there has been a growing interest in the introduction of smoking policies for the workplace. The purpose of this paper will be to outline some of the effects of smoking and the effectiveness of implementing smoking cessation programs. This paper also contains specific goals and strategic direction with which to achieve these goals and provides the groundwork for the formation of a committee to review the research and aid in implementing the recommendations. Well-designed and implemented programs and policies can aid in preventing the use and effects of tobacco and second-hand smoke.

The Effects of Smoking and Second Hand Smoke

The effects of the use of tobacco are well researched and well documented. Tobacco use poses a risk to both those who participate in the behavior, and to those who passively take in second-hand smoke. Stillman (1995) found that smoking is the leading cause of preventable death, and smoking-related diseases are involved in more than one-third of all hospital admissions. Fried (1994) reported that women who smoke are more often subject to infertility, miscarriage, spontaneous abortion, stillbirths, and underweight babies. Fried also found that crib death (sudden infant death syndrome, or SIDS) occurs 2.5 times more often in babies whose mothers smoke.

Albrecht, Cassidy, Reynolds, Ketchem, and Abriola (1999) reported that more than 400,000 annual deaths are associated with tobacco use, and the cost to health care and lost productivity is almost $100 billion per year. Moreover, maternal smoking in pregnancy has been linked to learning disabilities, hyperactivity, impulsivity, and soft neurological signs in school-aged children.

Albrecht et al (1999) also reported that maternal smoking and second-hand smoke are associated with an increased incidence of acute respiratory infections and more frequent hospitalization for severe bronchitis, pneumonia, asthma, and otitis media during the first year of infancy. Similarly, current estimates of the number of deaths attributed to smoking in Canada range as high as 38,000 per year (Albrecht et al, 1999). A large amount of deaths is also associated with involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke.

According to Single, MacLennan, and MacNeil (1994) in 1991, 46.8 billion cigarettes were sold legally in Canada. Thus, an estimated 35,717 deaths were attributed to smoking in Canada in 1990, a rate of 135.6 per 100,000. Single et al (1994) revealed that although Canadian men were once much more likely than women to smoke, men and women are now almost equally likely to be current smokers (31% vs. 28%). Also, men are more likely than women to be former smokers (39% vs. 31%). Meanwhile, smoking is highest among those aged 25 to 44 (35%) and lowest among those over 65 (15%).

The effects of smoking and second-hand smoke are many in number. Tobacco smoke represents the single most significant source of indoor air pollution. The smoke and second-hand smoke from tobacco contain over 4000 chemicals, both gas, and particulate. The American Nurses’ Association (ANA, 1998) researched and found that the gas phase of second-hand smoke contained such poisons and irritants as carbon monoxide, acrolein, ammonia, nitrogen oxides, benzene, pyridine, and hydrogen cyanide and the particulate phase contains nicotine and many known or probable carcinogens, which have no safe level for human exposure.

The seriously damaging health effects of tobacco smoke continue to be documented. ANA (1998) found that children and adults exposed to tobacco smoke experienced increased rates of respiratory illness, including lung cancer (approximately 3000 deaths per year in adults exposed to tobacco smoke), higher rates of respiratory tract infections (bronchitis and pneumonia), and exacerbation of asthma symptoms. The ANA (1998) also found that high exposure to tobacco smoke nearly doubles a woman’s risk of heart attack, and also causes eye, nose, and throat irritation, leading to excess coughing, chest discomfort, and difficulty breathing.

Do Non-smoking Policies Succeed?

Joseph, Knapp, Nichol, and Pirie (1995) found that smoke-free hospital policies are designed to minimize patient, employee, and visitor exposure to secondhand smoke, encourage patients to quit smoking and set an example for the community of institutional policies that reflect scientific knowledge about the health risks of smoking. David (1992) implemented a survey at a 38-bed hospice, where 119 staff is employed, as a preliminary way to introduce a no-smoking policy. The survey proved to be valuable in introducing staff to the concept of policy, making them feel involved, and supplying the policy-makers with background information.

Literature suggests that positive behavioral changes occur among employees after the introduction of a no-smoking policy. Shirres (1996) found in a study that the introduction of non-smoking policy and education programs induced positive behavioral and attitudinal changes in smoking. Martin (1998) states that providing a tobacco-free environment that establishes the nonuse of tobacco as a norm offers opportunities for positive role modeling. Joseph et al (1995) also found that having a person at the hospital dedicated to enforcing the no-smoking policy greatly improved the chances of success.

If a smoke-free work environment is to be achieved, greater efforts to assist smokers to quit will be necessary. Interventions to reduce smoking must become a priority for health care providers, as physicians and nurses come into contact and interact with a large number of smokers every year. Health promotion advocates must also communicate the cost savings and health benefits garnered from workplace smoking cessation programs.

Why do people continue to smoke?

Tobacco use, which occurs primarily through smoking, is behavior influenced by pharmacological, psychological, social, and environmental factors (Fisher, Haire-Joshu, Morgan, Rehberg, & Rost, 1990). The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1988) states that nicotine, the major addictive agent in tobacco, provides both euphoric and sedating effects and serves as powerful pharmacological reinforcement for maintenance of the behavior. Christen and Christen (1994) suggested that recognizing tobacco use as an addiction is both critical for treating the tobacco user and for understanding why people continue to use tobacco despite the known health risks.

Shiffman (1979) adds that in addition to its pharmacological effects, smoking involves a strong psychological dependence in that smokers report engaging in the behavior to soothe negative affective symptoms, such as tension, anxiety, boredom, and irritability. When these affective symptoms are reduced, it leads to increased activity in the behavior.

Christen and Christen (1994) state that smoking is seldom a take-it-or-leave-it activity. Most smokers cannot choose to use tobacco one day and leave it alone the next. Most smokers admit that they would like to quit, but are unable to do so. Christen and Christen (1994) further argue that some individuals use nicotine as a tranquilizer: they believe that smoking keeps them on an even emotional keel and reduces their feelings of anger, fear, and frustration.

In addition, Christen and Christen (1994) stated that smokers commonly reported smoking helps them to regulate their dysphoric moods or negative affect, and those who experience excessive stressors tend to increase their consumption. As mentioned, social and environmental conditions also influence tobacco use. McIntyre-Kingsolver, Lichenstein, & Mermelstein (1983) and Ockene, Benfari, Nuttall, Hurwitz, & Ockene (1983) state that a majority of smokers are surrounded by family members and friends who engage in the behavior, providing strong cues to continue smoking.

Albrecht et al (1999) found that adolescents are faced with lifestyle choices that are influenced by developmental level, cognitive understanding, decision-making skills, and social influences such as family values and peer pressure. Fried (1994) reported epidemiological data and study of psychological, biological, sociocultural, and physiological variables reveal a gender-related proclivity for females to initiate and maintain the tobacco habit.

Young women appear to be more vulnerable to starting smoking and less amendable to stopping it. Fried (1994) reported a woman’s fear of weight gain is a deterrent to cessation and an impetus to continue the tobacco habit. Women tend to report less confidence in their abilities to quit, perceive more barriers to abstinence and anticipate negative consequences of quitting.

Fried (1994) suggested low income, poor housing, lack of education, single/divorced or separated marital status, unemployment, city-dwelling, lack of independence, housewife, or single working parents are characteristics of a smoker. As mentioned, social and environmental conditions also influence tobacco use. These factors alone make it hard to resist and quit smoking, but when adolescents face smoking cessation, it can be even more difficult.

Christen and Christen (1994) state that smoking has both similarities to and differences from other addictions. Cigarette smoking, a special form of addiction with its own unique features, is incredibly resistant to long-term modification. Nicotine is addicting and smoking represents an addictive disorder, such as alcohol, cocaine, and heroin dependence. It is further argued that cigarette smoking is psychologically as well as physically addicting.

Christen and Christen (1994) suggested that nicotine is now understood to be a strongly addictive mood-altering drug, with properties that clearly reinforce the continued use of tobacco products. They further argue that nicotine, as an ingestive disorder, compulsive nicotine intake causes physiological tolerance, tissue dependence, psychic dependence, and relatively well defined physical withdrawal symptoms.

Promotion Smoking Cessation

According to Blair (1995), one objective of wellness program activities is to foster employee health. However, workers whose health stands to gain the most from wellness programs are the least aware of their unhealthy lifestyles and the least motivated to change. According to Nagel, Mayton, and Walner (1995) since values are a central concept in understanding and predicting human behavior, health education aimed specifically at cigarette smoking or other habits treated singly rather than in relation to each other. Effective health promotion programs, that attempt to change negative behaviors while reinforcing existing positive behaviors must understand the attitudes and behavior of target audiences, are necessary.

Mintz (1989) argued that for health promotion to be of any use in a practical sense, it must be put into the hands of those who can use it. Mintz (1989) suggested that the value of health information to society could only be fully realized if the information is absorbed and acted upon to a significant degree by the audience that the information is intended to reach.

According to Novelli (1997), successful utilization of health promotion is dependent upon the understanding or identifying the target consumers’ needs, expectations, satisfactions, and dissatisfactions. Lefebvre and Rochlin (1997) and Wilson and Olds (1991) suggested that promotion of health products should consider the objectives of the promotion, the target audience, the desired effect, and the optimal reach and frequency.

Much serious public health and social problems of the day have their root in behaviors that begin in late childhood and adolescence. Nagel et al (1995) advised that drug education programs designed to keep adolescents from becoming daily users of tobacco (prevention) should be encouraged to focus on changing the value placed on health.

According to Andreasen (1995), an extremely important task during the formative stages of the strategic planning process is to gain an understanding of the extent to which interpersonal influences are likely to be important for one or more target groups. When helping a smoker to quit, the smoking cessation facilitator needs to consider the smoking behaviors and attitudes of family members and significant others.

Social support is an extremely important factor in any effort to change personal behaviors. Albrecht et al (1999) said aspects of development must be considered when developing health education programs for adolescent females. They further advise that health providers must be aware of this educational barrier when counseling teens regarding health-related behavior. Albrecht et al (1999) stated that adolescent development has a significant impact on strategies for health promotion. Behavioral experimentation is a common pattern in this age group and is related to the task of separation from family and identity development. They further indicated that rebelliousness and identification with peer groups influence adolescent behavior.

One of the most persistent findings is that children and adolescents are much more likely to participate in a particular high-risk behavior or activity if their friends also engage in that behavior or activity. Greenlund, Johnson, Webber, and Berenson (1997) found that from third grade through to sixth grade, there was five times the risk of an individual to smoke if a best friend also smoked. Grunberg, Winders & Wewers (1991) found that boys have decreased, but girls have increased, their likelihood to try cigarettes. Tobacco use in adolescent females is also associated with personal factors including self-image and self-esteem.

Christen & Christen (1994) studied that tobacco use is learned and typically initiated during adolescence when the need to achieve acceptance through peer conformity is particularly strong. They suggest that the desire to feel more grown-up and the drive to become self-defined and individuated can cause adolescents to rebel against strict parental control or to challenge cultural and /or religious expectations. If social marketers are to develop effective health promotion programs to prevent the onset of high-risk behaviors in adolescents, such as smoking, it is crucial that they understand the exact role that social influence plays in this process.

According to Fried (1994), several variables in addition to gender are associated with the prevalence of cigarette smoking. These include socioeconomic status (SES), level of education, race, and occupational status. Fried further suggested that the difference in how young girls and young boys relate to their social contexts appear to create gender-distinct smoking behaviors and perceptions. Christen & Christen (1994) stated that the two major predictors of early cigarette use are experiencing peer pressure to smoke and having one or both parents who smoke. Fried (1994) stated that a host of environmental factors predispose the adolescent female to tobacco use.

The prime influencing factor is the tobacco industry’s seductive advertising that depicts women smokers as powerful, glamorous, happy, successful, and attractive. Fried (1994) also suggested that the adolescent female, struggling with her negative body image and searching for beauty, views cigarette smoking as a means to achieve thinness and shape a feminine gender role. Fried (1994) found less educated adolescents females from lower socioeconomic strata are most likely to become one of the new smokers who start each day. In addition, 20 to 30 percent of these adolescent smokers will become regular users by age 18.

Christen and Christen (1994) suggested, early in the cessation process, nonjudgmental and empathetic friends and family members can be enlisted to actively support recovering smokers. Likewise, healthy competition among recovering friends may also become a potent smoking cessation motivator. Tripp & Davenport (1989) suggested several strategies could be implemented in order to be successful in utilizing social marketing to promote smokers to reduce or cease smoking behaviors. These include:

  1. Smokers don’t want to be threatened. They don’t want to be bullied or made to feel ashamed of smoking.
  2. A message that smoking causes death is not successful. All smokers know smoking causes health risks and that is it associated with a variety of health problems. Smokers know many people, who are healthy, yet have smoked regularly for many years. Smokers also know many people, who are sick, yet have never smoked a cigarette. Smokers also know many doctors, who surely know the facts, but are smokers.
  3. Smokers need encouragement to quit. Many smokers have tried or know somebody who attempted to quit but could not. Smokers want more than punitive measures to help them stop smoking. The findings of these studies revealed that the supportive tone of the ads make the female smokers feel understood, reassured them that they were not failures, and supported them in their efforts to quit. (Tripp & Davenport, 1989)
  4. Smokers want realistic guidance about quitting. Smokers responded positively and were receptive to messages that revealed people often fail to quit in the first few attempts, and that kind of failure is normal. These messages gave smokers a reason for trying again and again.

Christen & Christen (1994) said recognizing tobacco use as an addiction is critical both for treating the tobacco user and for understanding why people continue to use tobacco despite the known health risks. They also suggested tobacco is a potent drug that exerts strong control over its regular users and reinforces the need to use and re-use. Albrecht et al (1999) stated that developmentally, adolescents focus on the present, the immediate effects of tobacco use, such as bad breath, stained teeth, and high cost of cigarettes, and this should be the focus of the education effort.

Christen and Christen (1994) reported that about 70 to 80 percent of smokers who do quit are likely to relapse within the first 3 months of cessation. In addition, 50 percent or more of patients who are recovering from surgery for a smoking-related disease continue to smoke while they are hospitalized or resume smoking shortly after they are discharged. In essence, smoking is an extremely multifaceted, addictive behavior that involves pharmacological, environmental, cognitive, and affective factors.

Albrecht et al (1999) recommended programs that involve role modeling, peer resistance, and booster sessions, focused on attitude and behavior change, to achieve cessation while recognizing issues of adolescent development can be highly successful. They also suggested when working with teens, parents of the adolescent must be included in health promotion activities. Tripp & Davenport (1989) examined advertising directed at smokers found that fear tactics were the most ineffective means of encouraging smokers away from their smoking behavior.

They found advertisements that provided information about the dangers of smoking and offered some suggestions that are effective methods to quit were effective. This study concluded positive ads seemed to motivate people to a moderate degree. Tripp & Davenport (1989) opposed the use of fear tactics to help teenage female smokers decide against initiation or cessation of smoking. They found that fear tactics failed to address the real concerns of female adolescent smokers, which center on the difficulties and frustration involved in breaking an addiction.

Albrecht et al (1999) further recommended the following steps as effective guidelines for smoking cessation for high-risk populations:

  1. Awareness: understanding of the unique needs of the high-risk population.
  2. Ask: inquire about lifestyle to assess high-risk areas to target cessation activities.
  3. Advice: education should center around specific short and long-term effects smoking has on the high-risk population and reversible effects that occur with cessation.
  4. Assist: self-help educational material must be supplemental with counseling sessions that specifically address quit preparation, smoking triggers, and alternative coping responses that enhance lifestyle changes.
  5. Arrange: follow-up appointments can be scheduled closely around quit date for reinforcement and support of cessation efforts.
  6. Again: repeating process reinforces cessation efforts and addresses relapse issues.

Conclusion

A healthy and safe environment is a public health priority. Clean air, free from tobacco smoke, is particularly vital since researchers have documented the link between tobacco smoke and increased morbidity and mortality in both smokers and non-smokers.

Health professionals can play an essential role in both clinical and community settings to reduce tobacco use, one of the leading causes of health problems in this country.

Worksite environments must have policies established and enforced that restrict or prohibit smoking. Health professionals must make it their duty to enhance public awareness and education about the hazards of tobacco smoke within the work setting, and the benefits no-smoking policies as mechanisms for enhancing the health of both smokers and non-smokers.

Recommendations

A committee needs to be created to steer this organization to form and adopt a policy that satisfies all involved. The committee must include all employees representative and other stakeholders. We also advise, open procedures that motivate active decision making participation of all participants. The overall goals for the policy ensure that its scope of action is extensive.

These three goals are:

  • to protect the health and rights of non-smokers (protection);
  • to help non-smokers stay smoke-free (prevention);
  • to aid and encourage those who want to quit smoking to do so (cessation).

To achieve this, the following six strategic directions have been identified:

  • access to information;
  • access to services and programs;
  • message promotion;
  • support for action;
  • Intersectoral policy coordination;
  • research and knowledge development

 

Example #6 – Smoking And Its Consequences

My research paper is on smoking and other consequences of smoking. Many times when people think of smoking diseases they think of heart disease and lung cancer. While those things are very true there are subtle things that happen also. Most of the time after someone has smoked their third cigarette they are hooked. Nicotine is one of the most addictive substances on earth.

Usually, once people start smoking they never stop. The three most harmful substances in a cigarette are tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide. Tar is a very interesting chemical. When a cigarette remains unburned tar is not there. Only when the cigarette is burned does the tar show up as a chemical. While filters on the cigarette keep out a little bit of the tar, it is still very dangerous. The tar in the cigarette is actually the same as road tar. Tar causes numerous types of cancer all over your body.

One of the worst things that tar does is it fills up your lungs. The tar goes directly into your lungs and stays there forever. This is the reason why smokers can not inhale as much oxygen as non-smokers can. The place where that extra air should go is now filled up with tar. The number of disease caused by death is emphysema.

Nicotine is the reason why people are addicted to cigarettes. Nicotine kills nerve endings and mucosae. Mucosae is the thin layer of skin in your nose and mouth that is full of blood cells. Nicotine goes straight to the brain. When the nicotine goes into the bloodstream, it travels all over the body. That is why you can get cancer from smoking anywhere in your body.

Nicotine is actually the least harmful out of all the chemicals in a cigarette. Since people crave the nicotine though they ingest all of these other life-killing chemicals. Carbon monoxide is a chemical in a gas form. Like tar, it only appears when the cigarette is burned. Unlike nicotine, carbon monoxide does not go to the brain. Instead, it goes to the lungs and straight into the bloodstream. When the carbon monoxide enters the lungs, the body is deprived of the oxygen it needs.

One out of every six deaths is caused by smoking. In 1985 alone more than 400,000 people died from smoking. They died just because they wanted a dangerous substance in their body. Many people believe that you have to be smoke-free for a very long period of time for it to make any real difference. That is not true. Even if you do not smoke for twenty minutes, it greatly benefits you. When you do not smoke for twenty minutes it greatly benefits you. When you do not smoke for twenty minutes your blood pressure goes back to normal, your pulse rate drops to normal, and your temperature increases back to normal.

When you stop smoking for eight hours, the carbon monoxide in your blood drops down to the normal amount and more oxygen goes into your blood. When you do not smoke for twenty-four hours, the chance of having a heart attack or other serious heart problems, due to smoking, decrease. If you do not smoke for forty-eight hours, the nerve endings that were killed, start to regrow themselves; your ability to smell things and taste food is increased; also your ability to walk in a straight line becomes easier.

When you stop smoking for two weeks to three months, your blood circulation improves and your lungs functioning ability increases by 30%. If you do not smoke from one to nine months your coughing, sinus infection, and shortness of breath decrease; your cilia in your lungs start to regrow which lets the body handle mucus better, it cleans the lungs and reduces lung infections. When someone does not smoke for one year the risk of serious heart disease is half that of someone who still smokes.

The top five causes of death are heart disease, cancer, strokes, accidents, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (mostly bronchitis and emphysema). Every single one of those reasons is usually caused by smoking. Even smoking causes a few accidents. When you smoke your reaction skills do not function as well as they should. Therefore, some might be a little slow to stomp on the break and have an accident. There are about three reasons why heart disease occurs. Smoking, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol levels are those three reasons. Not only is smoking the top cause of heart disease but smoking also causes high blood pressure and high cholesterol.

In the year of 1986, 765,000 people died from heart disease. More than 40% of those deaths would not have happened if people did not smoke. Cancer is the second main cause of death. Over half a million people die from cancer every year. 30% of that half a million deaths are from smoking and over 90% of deaths from lung cancer was caused by smoking.

Besides lung cancer here are the most common cancers caused by smoking: bladder cancer, pancreas cancer, kidney cancer, larynx cancer, mouth cancer, esophagus cancer, and uterine cervix cancer. The third main cause of death strokes. Every year more than 150,000 people die from strokes. The main cause of strokes is again smoking. The fifth main cause of death is chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. Every year around 80,000 people die from COPD.

Eighty to ninety percent of those deaths were caused by smoking. Smoking effects the heart as well as the other organs of the body. Smoking is known to increase your chances of heart disease and heart attacks. Many people have bad hearts but when they smoke it makes their hearts worse.

Most people who smoke have high blood pressure. This is not a coincidence. The smoke you breathe in from the cigarettes makes the arteries in your heart narrow down. Instead of your arteries being open to its fullest extent, it because much smaller. This causes high blood pressure. After someone smokes for a long period of time, doctors believe that whey they stop their blood pressure will return to normal. Although your blood pressure may remain the same, your heart works easier which reduces your chance of a heart attack.

Smoking sometimes blocks the arteries of the heart which causes atherosclerosis. This disease happens when the circulation through your heart decreases rapidly. It usually only occurs when at least one artery is blocked. When you smoke not only does your blood pressure go up but you may end up blocking your heart arteries in the future. These two reasons are why many smokers will experience atherosclerosis sometimes in their life. Another type of heart disease is coronary artery disease.

This happens when your blood vessels become too small. Doctors will prescribe medications to help these heart diseases but they say that not smoking is the best medicine. Many people are so addicted to cigarettes though that they may never stop.

What many people do not realize is that smoking does not just give you cancer in your organs. Smoking can give you cancer in your throat, mouth, nose, and hip as well. Since the cigarettes harmful chemicals travel through your bloodstream you can have cancer anywhere. When doctors take cancer out of your organs you do not see the end result. They have to actually dig out the cancer tumor. When you have cancer in your throat or face, everyone can see the result. Huge gaping holes are everywhere because cancer had to be carved out of your skin. After this, you are deformed for the rest o your life. Many times cancer even comes back.

If cancer should come back to the same place or near the same place, there is usually nothing that anyone can do. When you smoke, cancer can be anywhere. You could have cancer in your mouth and in your hip at the same time. Since the chemicals in cigarette travel through your bloodstream, every part of your body gets infected. Some people are lucky.

Some people do not die from smoking, but in most cases, the people who smoke do indeed die. Many people know how cigarettes cause cancer and other problems with your organs. Now new studies show that cigarettes seriously damage your brain as well. When someone inhales nicotine from a cigarette it takes only ten seconds for it to reach the brain. It rides through your bloodstream and passes through the barrier around the brain that is supposed to keep things out than can be harmful to the brain.

Nicotines signal is basically the same as one of the brains most important signal chemicals. When the nicotine goes into the brain it fills up all of this space on the brain that the real chemical needs. 1.5 milligrams of nicotine takes up this space through just one cigarette. With nicotine in your brain, it can trigger many other chemicals to release into your body. So instead of these chemicals releasing naturally when needed, nicotine releases them when you do not need them. One of these chemicals is adrenaline.

The reason your body craves nicotine is also explained in your brain. After awhile these nicotine cells kill off many of the chemicals so cells that it replaces in your brain. With so few of the real chemicals left the brain needs the nicotine to function properly. The brain needs this chemical because it is the only thing that can tell the other chemicals in the body when to release itself into the body.

Eventually, the real chemical will increase to the necessary amount again but it takes a while so while the brain is making more of the real chemical it keeps saying that I need more which is usually why people continue to smoke. When people go into shock from lack of nicotine, it is because the brain is saying that it needs more of the chemical that has not had enough time to fully restore itself.

People feel tired and nervous if they do not smoke and fill up the remaining space that is not yet taken up by the real chemical. They feel tired because there are not enough nicotine cells to falsely release the adrenaline the body is so used to. This is very dangerous because your brain ends up relying on nicotine.

Women suffer worse efforts from smoking than men suffer. If a woman is using birth control pills while smoking, she has a greater risk of developing cardiovascular disease. If women smoke more than a pack of cigarettes every day, they have a higher chance of being unable to conceive a child. For women who can still have children, the number of years that they could possibly conceive is drastically reduced because they smoke. Menopause usually starts a lot earlier than normal when a woman smokes.

When a pregnant women smoke, many dangerous side effects can happen to her unborn child. A few of the problems that can happen are premature labor, problems with breathing, and death. These things can even happen when the father smokes and the wife does not smoke.

At least thirty percent of babies that are born to women who smoked during pregnancy are very underweight. Their birth weight is always at least seven ounces less than a normal baby which can cause other problems. The reason the baby is smaller is that it got too much carbon monoxide and not enough oxygen. Around fourteen percent of pre-mature deliveries are from women who are smoking while pregnant. Also, about ten percent of all miscarriages happen to women who smoked while pregnant.

The chance of having a miscarriage is actually greater with women who smoke while pregnant. Their chance of having a miscarriage is about twice the chance of a woman who does not smoke while pregnant. The nicotine and carbon monoxide that the women inhale goes straight to the placenta.

This also prevents the fetus from getting all of the different nutrients and oxygen that it needs to be able to be healthy at birth. The nicotine is still fed to the baby after he his born. When a mother who smoked through pregnancy, breastfeeds her baby, nicotine is transferred to the baby. All of this can happen even when the woman herself does not smoke but her husband does.

Some other problems that usually occur are congenital malformation, bleeding in the womb, rupture of membrane, and SIDS. While growing up these children will continue to have problems. Most of them will have brain function disorders, psychological abnormalities, hyperactivity, asthma, more colds, bronchitis, and respiratory diseases. Lately, there have been more teenage smokers than ever before. Companies are making their cigarette ads more noticeable to teenagers which is taking a deadly toll. The reason why many kids feel the need to smoke is peer pressure.

Kids see older kids or their friends smoking so they smoke too. For teenage girls, there is usually a different reason. They want to lose weight or they want people to think that they are glamorous, like a movie star. Today there are going to be one thousand adults who die from smoking while they were a teenager. Those one thousand people wanted to be cool or maybe lose weight so they started smoking.

Unfortunately, those thousand people are going to die for it today. The really sad part is that three thousand teenagers will start smoking today taking the pace of those one thousand adults who died. Not only do you endanger yourself, other people, and your children but people who smoke cigarettes usually end up addicted to together drugs like marijuana. No matter what anyone says, smoking is wrong.

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Cause and Effect Essay on Smoking. (2020, Aug 17). Retrieved September 19, 2020, from https://essayscollector.com/examples/essay-on-smoking/



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