There are millions of different kinds of animals and plants that share our planet. Each species is special and unique, and sadly some of these species are in danger of disappearing forever, just as the passenger pigeon did. It is when the last member of a species disappears, that species becomes extinct. The specie will never again walk, swim, fly on the planet again.
Canada was once filled with wildlife. Due to the fact that in the past, people hunted without worrying about future Canada s wildlife has become less apparent. To our ancestors, it seemed as though there was an unlimited amount of wildlife to be found in Canada. In time over-hunting has changed this and caused the extinction of many species.
Canadians of the past thought that the regulations put in to effect that protected animals from hunters would be enough. Recently we have learned that we must also protect their habitats. It is in their habitats that they find food, water, shelter, and a place breed, therefore giving them the essentials to live. With time we have concluded that even if they are not hunted, animals will die out; for if their habitats are destroyed then they will be unable to find their life necessities.
Still, people cut down forests for lumber, clear fields for farms, and fill swamps to build towns, highways, and factories. The land is also cleared for such things as mineral extraction. Wild animals get fenced out from areas that were once their homes.
Larger animals are affected the worst because they need large open spaces, and when these areas shrink it is much more difficult to find food and shelter. Animals begin to live in fear of their home being destroyed by man.
Even habitats that are left intact and not disturbed by human intervention may in fact be unsafe for wildlife due to pollution. A man-made disaster such as oil spills pollute the oceans in such injuring or killing water mammals and birds. When farmers spray their crops with pesticides, to keep insects from eating their crops, cause harm to many other mammals.
Aswell, Industries send out chemicals into the air, water, and land, with no concern about what it may be doing to the environment. Garbage dumps leak toxic chemicals into neighboring lakes and rivers, also affecting birds and fish. Moreover, the garbage that is dumped straight into the ocean poisons wildlife severely. When the animals come across the garbage they may mistake plastics and Styrofoam for food or as in many cases become strangled by plastic six-pack holders.
Not all cases are animals and their environments poisoned by accident. In such cases as certain, ranchers putting out poison for coyotes and wolves to prevent these animals from occasionally sometimes will kill the rancher s cattle or sheep. People and industries need to become more aware of what they are doing to the environment and how they affect the wildlife in general or with time all the wildlife will become extinct.
There are more than 1,117 plant and animal species on the Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants list. Each year about fifty more species are added. More than 4,000 additional species are currently waiting to be added to the list. The case for them may be just as convincing, but limited manpower and funding have kept them from being processed for protected status.
Unfortunately, some species cannot wait for all the red tape to be cut through. According to the Fish and Wildlife Service, 300 species waiting to be put on the list may have become extinct before they could be listed.
Economic Implications. When a species becomes extinct or even endangered the people financially involved with this animal is out of a job. Take cod for example there were many cod fishermen that lived off the money they made fishing. When cod became endangered it was illegal to catch them, this made the cod fishers stop fishing, well legally. So now all these fishermen have to find new jobs.
Until then the fisherman will be spending less because they are on well-fare, this will cause what is called a ripple effect. Those fishermen will be spending less on daily extras, and when this happens to a fishing town, some of the other businesses may have to lay off one or two employees. This being the ripple effect and in time the ripple will continue getting bigger and bigger.
On environment. If a species becomes extinct not only does it harm humans that depend on that animal to survive but it also hurts the animals that depend on it. If a specific plant or animal becomes extinct animals that eat it will have to search for another source of food (i.e. another animal food) this is rare because each animal can only digest certain species. Another thing the animal might do is to move somewhere else so they can find food, this over-populates an area.
This is such will have the animals consume most of the pray in that area causing other animals now to be forced out of that area and so force. This again will cause the ripple effect. This time the ripple effect is with the animals. These ripples change food chains for better or worse. As in such when a species is made extinct not only are the predators killing that species, but they are endangering other species connected with that extinct animal via the food chains.
Solutions. The Endangered Species Act (ESA) was a giant step toward helping endangered animals as well as threatened animals in Canada and around the world. It established a program that brings together the federal government, conservation groups, individuals, business and industry, and foreign governments in a cooperative effort to save endangered wildlife.
The ESA restricts the killing, collection, or harming of endangered and threatened animals and makes it illegal to buy or sell, and imports or export them without special permission. Violators can face a fine of up to $20,000
The problem with this act is that $20,000 dollars aren’t enough to punish someone who has killed, bought, sold or anything other mentioned in the ESA to endangered animals. I believe that endangered animals should have the same rights as humans, is it their fault for not understanding. If someone killed, bought, or sold another human they would be thrown into jail, why not this with animals.
The habitat of endangered species (the land, water, and air that members of the species need for survival, including places where they live and breed) is also protected under the act. Each year habitats of endangered species are bought up with money from the Land and Water Conservation Fund.
The U.S Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service list the endangered and threatened species. Candidates are submitted by anyone concerned about a species of animal or plant, and information has to be gathered to support the claim that the species are endangered.
When the ESA program was set up, the goal was to make the endangered species in the wild more populated so they could be removed from the endangered species list. Few of these species have recovered enough to be removed from the list.
After a species is placed on the endangered or threatened list, the next step is to determine a recovery plan that will help increase the number of animals or plants. Measures include buying more land to preserve their habitats or breeding the species in captivity so they can be released. But setting up effective recovery plans takes a lot of time and money, and only one-third of the species on the list even have recovery plans.
Responsibilities. There are many people to be blamed for the number of endangered animals. Citizens for using cars, which pollute the atmosphere, over-hunting animals which endanger animals of being extinct. Corporations, industries, factories that pollute the environment by burning fuel and running engines.
The government places law that endangers and save animals, they allow people to carry guns which harm animals; they expand cities that destroy wildlife. So as you can see its not only the logging companies that make species endangered but everyone has a part in making and destroying a species.
What can they do? Humans can actually help endangered species it s not like everyone says what can one person do. Humans can not hurt animals by not hunting unless necessary try not to endanger the environment by trying not to drive or only when needed. You could try to encourage others to stop doing things that would harm the animals directly or indirectly.
Direct Causes. Is when the animals are purposely hunted, trapped, fished, or whaled to extinction. Hunting for the sport has been responsible for endangering such animals as the Polar Bear and the Siberian Tiger. Among the animals that have become endangered for commercial reasons are several species of whales, including the enormous Blue Whale; many of the spotted cats, such as the Cheetah; and some kinds of Alligators, Crocodiles, lizards, and snakes.
The Whales have been killed for their oil, the cats for their furs, and the reptiles for their skins. Animals may also be killed when they interfere with human activity. Wolves became endangered because they preyed on livestock. They were hunted and trapped by livestock holders in such large numbers, that they disappeared from most parts of the world where they once lived.
Indirect Causes. The major indirect cause of endangerment to animals throughout the world is the loss of a place to live. As the human population increases: more land is needed for homestead, for the growing of crops, and for mining the minerals and fuels that people need. Many animals that live in the great forest, such as the monkeys of the Amazon Basin in South America are disappearing fast.
They are not disappearing because they are being killed but because the trees that provide their food and shelter are being cut down for lumber and for space to grow crops. In central Africa, the mountain gorilla is presently endangered because its forest home is being cut down. The same is true for the Asian ape and orangutan.
Another indirect cause of endangerment has come from chemical poisoning of the environment. When the chemical DDT was widely used in the U.S to control pests, it washed off the plants to the soil and then into streams, rivers, and oceans. There it was taken up with food by tiny sea animals. When fish ate these animals, they, too, accumulated the poison in their systems.
And when birds such as osprey, bald eagles, and pelicans ate the fish, the chemicals affected the eggs laid by these birds. They began to produce eggs with shells so thin that they broke when the parents sat on them to keep them warm. Some birds stopped laying eggs completely.
Other poisons such as mercury, which is used in agriculture and industry, and polychlorinated biphenyls, known as PCBs, have found their way into oceans. There they are taken in by fish that are eaten by sea lions, seals, polar bears, and penguins- often far from the place where the chemicals originally came from. These animals may then be poisoned by eating the fish. Eating the poisoned fish would be the indirect cause of endangerment to the large sea animals.
Polluting of the waters is also of great concern because of other forms of sea life that have been poisoned may be eaten by people. Accidental poisoning of water supplies used by people- poisoning, for example, by industrial pollutants- is another threat to human life. Many animals are threatened too.
Before European settlement, as many as 150,000 trumpeter swans populated the Eastern United States. By the end of the 19th century, they were all gone, victims of pioneer settlers who wanted their meat, or of hatters, who wanted their feathers. (Hatters played a surprisingly large role in the conservation movement: their use of feathers from the great blue heron and the bald eagle helped spark the formation of the Audubon Society and the passage of laws protecting migratory birds.)
When the streams, lakes, and marshes of the Eastern United States lost the trumpeter swan, they lost a majestic bird whose snowy white feathers contrast with jet-black bills, legs, and feet. With a wingspan between 7 and 8 feet, the swan is the largest waterfowl in the United States; males can weigh 35 pounds.
“It’s an absolutely stunning sight, on a fall morning, in the fog, to see this pure white bird with its black bill,” says Sumner Matteson, an avian ecologist with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR) who is participating in a reintroduction project. “In these still mornings, it has one of the most haunting calls you’ll ever hear.”
After two years of false starts, DNR biologists began collecting eggs in Alaska in 1989. The swan’s historic breeding range extends in a wide band from the Bering Sea east through most of Canada and south to Missouri, Illinois, and Indiana. The Alaska population was healthy, and removing 50 eggs per year causes no harm.
The eggs were incubated and hatched at the Milwaukee County Zoo. From there, cygnets (defined) went into one of two programs:
- Captive rearing
Cygnets are raised in pens on the shore of a pond for 12 weeks. Then they are allowed to roam the entire pond (with some flight feathers removed, they can’t fly). After two years on the pond, they are transported to wetlands in northern Wisconsin and released.
- Decoy rearing
Five days after hatching, cygnets are flown to wetlands in northern Wisconsin, separated into groups of up to 10, and tended by the University of Wisconsin-Madison undergraduate interns for the summer. The intern gets to sit inside the blind mounted on an inner tube and linked to a swan decoy.
While ushering the cygnets around to feeding spots, the interns can trigger a hidden tape recorder that plays a warning call when a great horned owl, coyote, fox, bear, or human is present. The birds must be taught to fear predators, Matteson says.
The work is soggy but satisfying. In return for wading around all summer long, wildlife ecology students inside this blind-decoy contraption get to watch a marsh up close and personal while “babysitting” groups of cygnets.
Goal: to simulate behavior in the wild that will allow cygnets to survive with little or no human contact. Specifically, the swans must recognize food, fear danger, and come when they hear the “follow me” call. Photo courtesy of Sumner Matteson.
After seven years of releases, Matteson says, the free-living population in Wisconsin has reached 100 birds, and the project is nearing its goal of having 20 nesting pairs in the wild. In addition, Minnesota, Iowa, Michigan, Ohio, and Ontario, Canada, are in various stages of reintroducing trumpeter swans.
Despite the success, problems remain. The majestic swans are being poisoned from eating lead shot pellets, which still pollute the bottom of wetlands even years after they were banned. Just a pellet or two, Matteson says, is enough to kill a swan, or sicken it, making the bird easy prey for predators.
And hunters continue to shoot swans, either because they don’t know that the bird is protected by federal law, or because they can’t distinguish swans from smaller birds. (The only white waterbird that can be mistaken for a trumpeter swan is a snow goose. But snow geese are less than half as large. And they have black feathers on their wings; the trumpeter swan’s feathers come only in white.)
Still, the project, which is funded mainly by private donations, is succeeding, says Matteson. “Trumpeters are a symbol of nature’s majesty and a wonderful vehicle for promoting wetland conservation in the state. They’re ambassadors.”
How serious, overall, is the threat to biodiversity in the United States? A study by the Nature Conservancy found that “about one-third of U.S. plants and animals are of conservation concern,” meaning they were in some danger of being eliminated from at least part of their ranges.
Despite all the attention devoted to endangered animals, members of the plant kingdom are also imperiled, the report said. “Plants…receive low marks overall, with many of our most beautiful wildflowers in peril,” the report said. “A startling 5,121 flowering plant species are at risk, fully one-third of their total number.” The threat to plants
- percent number
- presumed extinct 0.1 17
- possibly extinct 1.0 159
- critically imperiled 6.3 979
- imperiled 9.6 1,486
- vulnerable 15.8 2,480
- total flowering plants 100 15,495
Source: Priorities for Conservation. Here’s a letter from Hawaii on work to preserve the state’s critically endangered plants.
Another indication of the rate of plant extirpation (defined) and extinction came from a recent study of Middlesex Fells, a 1,000-acre park north of Boston. Expert botanists who surveyed the park in 1894 found 422 plant species. Less than 100 years later, after a century as a protected park, only 300 of those species were found in the area.
The disappearances were blamed on trails (which open up the forest and allow it to dry out), trampling by visitors, and fires. Fragmentation of nearby habitat by roads and development may have prevented plants from being pollinated, or seeds from being dispersed by invertebrates (see Plant Census Raises the Alarm…).
An additional cause of the missing plants was the arrival of 64 exotic plants, whose rapid growth and adaptability allowed them to colonize ground quickly at the expense of the native species. Biologists have come to recognize that these invasive exotic species are a major cause of species extirpations worldwide.
Yet the dramatic disappearance of 122 plant species might have been missed without a careful study, since it equaled “only” a bit more than 1 species per year.
On the brighter side, amateur and professional botanists in New York State have rediscovered 61 rare plants that had not been seen for at least 15 years in the state. The “Lazarus” species included nine grasses, 13 sedges, seven aquatic plants, and 32 wildflowers (including two orchids). The average length of time since the last sighting was 46 years.
What about the genetics of species reintroductions?
Big trouble in the deep blue sea
In Florida, a new disease with medieval names like black band disease, white plague, and white pox are devastating corals. Reefs, a bedrock of marine biodiversity, have been silently suffering for years — only more slowly. A new study by James Porter of the University of Georgia found a 446 percent increase in the number of diseased sites — and a 244 percent increase in the number of sick coral species — between just 1996 and 1998.
Another threat to ocean ecosystems and coastal economies is the rise of invasive exotic species. On the Pacific Coast, European green crabs are on an underwater march toward Puget Sound, where they threaten productive shellfish beds. The crabs are soldiers in an army of aquatic intrusions that earlier brought the disastrous zebra mussel to the Great Lakes.
In North Carolina, fish, fishing people, and scientists alike are being stricken by nerve diseases caused by “red tide” algae. The algal toxin undermines the ability of fish and shellfish to protect themselves. It makes people confused and forgetful and can cause month-long headaches.
It’s not just new maladies that are plaguing the ocean. Old diseases like cholera are responding to the warmer sea temperatures and rising sea levels of global warming.
The great blue ocean. A healing, healthy cloak on our watery planet. A limitless resource that’s immune to human destruction.
That’s not quite the picture we took away from the 1999 meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Anaheim, Calif., this January. Before you read this Why File on emerging oceanic hazards, read this caution: Swimming and surfing may never be the same.
Didn’t swim in the water
The chamber of commerce might not tell you, but ocean water can be hazardous to your health. Don’t believe us? Check the evidence. Windsurfers who fall more often get sick more often. Among surfers, and canoeists and swimmers, “More exposure leads to more disease.” That’s the word from Joan Rose, a microbiologist with the University of South Florida Department of Marine Science.
Rose, who studies contamination of shoreline water, says a disturbing number of pathogenic viruses appear in those waters, causing infections of the skin, eye, ear, and stomach. Most illnesses are transitory, but in a small percentage of cases, damage to the heart, liver, or other organ causes long-term disease.
More than 100 enteric (gut) viruses can move from human feces to wastewater. Viruses are much smaller than bacteria, and that “allows rapid transmission through soil and water,” Rose says. The seaside villains include hepatitis A, a cause of serious liver disease; and coxsackie B, which is thought to attack the heart.
Don’t touch that fork!
Coastal populations are soaring. Beaches are a favorite vacation destination. And shellfish is a popular food. Adding it up, scientists warn about more diseases from water-borne viruses.
Why do they pick on shellfish when discussing diseases associated with the ocean? Because those poor oysters or clams resting on the ocean floor make a living by patiently extracting nutrients from seawater. That filtering mechanism makes shellfish beds targets for invading toxins and viruses and excellent indicators of water pollution.
It also makes them questionable food.
How are human viruses entering near-shore waters? A major culprit is antiquated — or non-existent — sewage treatment. In Florida, where Rose works, septic tanks, designed to degrade sewage a bit before it seeps into the subsurface soil and rock, quickly leak into groundwater.
At least in Florida, septic tanks — not to mention the even more primitive “cesspits” don’t work. If you flush something down a toilet today, you can find it tomorrow in the nearby ocean.
Don’t touch that plunger!
Rose’s scientific technique was simplicity itself. Her research group grew a harmless virus, then flushed it down toilets in homes with septic tanks or cesspits. Over the next week or so, they sampled the nearby ocean for the virus, using a test able to detect one viral particle in 10 liters of water.
In some studies in the Florida Keys, the marker viruses were found within 24 hours in shellfish beds a mile offshore. The movement was propelled by heavy rain and “tidal pumping,” the motion of the groundwater caused by tides. In another study, open shellfish beds in Charlotte Harbor, Fla., were contaminated with infectious human waste. That’s according to Erin Lipp, a graduate student in marine sciences at the University of South Florida.
As evidence gathers about the presence of viruses in the near-shore waters, the dispute is shifting from science to politics. The best way to clean up is to build sewers and a modern sewage treatment plant, which kills most pathogens in sewage. Since that’s expensive — one Florida estimate came to $10,000 per household — scientists are trying to pin down the risk and help regulators focus on the worst sources first.
The “worst go first” approach focuses on older homes with rudimentary sewage “treatment.” The U.S. has already banned cesspits, says Rose.
Still unknown is how much cleanup will make a difference. Would, for example, cleaning up half the sewage reduce viral contamination enough to matter, or is a much greater reduction required?
Scientists trying to prevent ocean-borne disease are running up against antiquated regulations. D. Jay Grimes, director of the Institute of Marine Sciences at the University of Southern Mississippi, says the present approach to assuring clean water — counting harmless bacteria at originating in the human intestines — misses the point.
“We have predicted the risk based on fecal coliforms,” he says. “But they don’t correlate with viruses, most bacteria, fungi, protozoa or helminths,” all known causes of human disease. Rather than rely on indirect indications, Grimes says regulators should identify pathogens directly with molecular biological techniques.
Example #3 – Causes of Endangered Species
The term endangered is used by international and national organizations to define plants and animals currently in danger of becoming extinct. Although the term endangered is universally used, the definition of an endangered species is greatly varied. In most cases, the factors causing an organism to become endangered are human-related.
When discussing the causes of endangered species, it is important to understand that individual species are not the only factors involved in this dilemma. Endangerment is a broad issue, one that involves the habitats and environments where species live and interact with one another. Although some measures are being taken to help specific cases of endangerment, the universal problem cannot be solved until humans protect the natural environments where endangered species dwell.
Back in the fall of 1973, Congress passed the Endangered Species Act, the point of which was to identify the plants and animals in the most trouble and come up with plans for saving them. The effort has probably been as controversial as it has been successful (Institute of Advanced Studies 39). Of the more than 1,400 species designated as endangered, only 18 have recovered to the point where they’ve been taken off the list.
Upon signing the Endangered Species Act on December 28, 1973, President Nixon stated “Nothing is more priceless and more worthy of preservation than the rich array of animal life with which our country has been blessed” (Environmental Protection Agency). And now that scientists have cloned the last surviving member of a rare breed of cow, some fear that the public’s sense of urgency regarding vanishing species might fade.
Why not just clone more owls, the thinking goes; but that, say wildlife experts, would be only a quick fix. “Cloning would provide us with individual animals but not the home to introduce them to in the wild,” says Jeff Flocken, endangered species outreach coordinator at the National Wildlife Federation. “Whatever’s causing a species to decline, whether it’s exploitation or destruction of habitat, would continue to put that species at risk of being exterminated” (National Wildlife Federation ).
Today there are currently 1246 species of plants and animals that are either on the endangered or threatened list in the United States and 1804 worldwide. Of the 1804 endangered species worldwide, only 975 of them have approved recovery plans (Endangered Species Coalition). When these individual cases are grouped together and studied, the same cause is threatening their existence again and again.
Rapid habitat destruction is the main reason that species become endangered. Natural changes usually occur at a slow rate, so the effects on individual species are usually slight, at least over the short term. When the rate of change is greatly speeded up, there may be no time for individual species to adapt to new conditions. The results can be disastrous.
This increase in the rate of habitat destruction is directly linked to the rise in the human population. As more people need space for homes, farms, shopping centers, and so on, there is less living space for species that cannot adapt to changing conditions. People also affect plant and animal habitats when they take wood, oil, and other products from the land.
It can be difficult for individuals to recognize the effects that humans have had on specific species. It is hard to identify or predict human effects on individual species and habitats, especially during a human lifetime. But it is quite apparent that human activity has greatly contributed to species endangerment. For example, although tropical forests may look as though they are lush, they are actually highly susceptible to destruction.
This is because the soils in which they grow are lacking nutrients. It may take centuries to regrow forests that were cut down by humans or destroyed by fire, and many of the world’s severely threatened animals and plants live in these forests. If the current rate of forest loss continues, huge quantities of plant and animal species will disappear. ” What is a man without the beasts? If all the beasts were gone, man would die from a great loneliness of spirit, for whatever happens to the beasts, also happens to man. All things are connected” (Chief Sealth 1885).
Native species are those plants and animals that are part of a specific geographic area and have ordinarily been a part of that particular biological landscape for a lengthy period of time. They are well adapted to their local environment and are accustomed to the presence of other native species within the same general habitat. Exotic species, however, are interlopers.
These species are introduced into new environments by way of human activities, either intentionally or accidentally. These interlopers are viewed by the native species as foreign elements. They may cause no obvious problems and may eventually be considered as natural as any native species in the habitat. However, exotic species may also seriously disrupt delicate ecological balances and may produce a plethora of unintended yet harmful consequences.
The worst of these unintended yet harmful consequences arise when introduced exotic species put native species in jeopardy by preying on them. This can alter the natural habitat and cause greater competition for food. Species have been biologically introduced to environments all over the world and the most destructive effects have occurred on islands.
Introduced insects, rats, pigs, cats, and other foreign species have actually caused the endangerment and extinction of hundreds of species during the past five centuries. Exotic species are certainly a major factor leading to endangerment.
Overexploitation is another reason species become endangered. A species that face overexploitation is one that may become severely endangered or even extinct due to the high rate in which the species is being used. One example of this is the case of the great whales, many of which were reduced to extremely low population sizes in the mid-20th century because of unrestricted whaling.
In 1982 a number of countries agreed to put a ban on commercial whaling. As a result, some whales species that used to be endangered have made great comebacks. Many other species, however, are still at risk (Washington Post 57). Some other animal species experience high rates of exploitation because of the trade-in animal parts.
Poaching is still common in some parts of the world but in far fewer numbers than before. Most poaching affects animals with horns or tusks that can be sold for the ivory of medicinal purposes. Currently, this trade is centered in several parts of Asia where there is a strong market for traditional medicines made from items like tiger bone and rhino horn (Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 69).
Disease, pollution, and limited distribution are more factors that threaten various plant and animal species. If a species does not have the natural genetic protection against particular pathogens, an introduced disease can have severe effects on that species. For example, rabies and canine distemper viruses are presently destroying carnivore populations in East Africa.
Domestic animals often transmit the diseases that affect wild populations, demonstrating again how human activities lie at the root of most causes of endangerment. Pollution has seriously affected multiple terrestrial and aquatic species, and limited distributions are frequently a consequence of other threats. Populations confined to a few small areas due to habitat loss may be disastrously affected by random factors.
Example #4 – Cloning Endangered Species
Cloning is the production of duplicate copies of genetic materials, cells, or entire multi-cellular living materials. For years cloning had only been a fantasy, but with new scientific research cloning can be very successful. Because there are so many advantages in areas like agriculture, medicine, and biological research in producing genetically identical organisms, artificial cloning has become the focus of attention with scientists today.
“At last there is hope of saving endangered species. We might be able to witness the cloning of now nearly extinct condors, tigers, rhinoceroses, and so many other living marvels.” That was a quote from Jose F. Jaramillo; a man who has written many essays on the hope of cloning endangered species. There are so many animals that are nearly extinct which could benefit greatly by cloning.
Cloning endangered species would take a lot of time and it would be and extremely difficult process. Just look at the sheep that got cloned, Dolly. It took 276 tries to clone Dolly. So at the moment the success rate of cloning endangered animals is very low. But it is very possible to do.
The history of cloning goes back to 1938 when a German scientist suggested removing the nucleus, which contains the genes, from an egg cell and replacing it with the nucleus from another cell, but back then the tools and technology to do such a task didn’t exist.
Then, in 1952, scientists took the nucleus out of the cell of a frog embryo and put it into a denucleated frog cell, but the egg didn’t develop. In 1970, another scientist tried to do the same thing. But this time the eggs hatched and went into tadpole mode. But the tadpoles always died.
Finally in 1984, scientists reported the successful cloning of a sheep. Cells from an early post-fertilization stage of development were taken out and put into a denucleated egg of a second sheep. The second sheep gave birth to a healthy lamb with cells having the genes from the original. In 1994 calf clones were produced. In 1996 scientists in Scotland cloned a sheep named Dolly.
Cloning has never been tried on endangered species before. But since cloning has been done on other mammals it is very possible that it can be done on endangered species. It seems that congressional efforts to make cloning illegal are accelerating. Also, congress may go beyond cloning, they may try to stop research on important new infertility therapies.
Many people are saying that cloning endangered species just isn’t ethical, while others are saying that it must be done before they go extinct. Currently nothing but debating the efforts of cloning is going on.
Currently scientists are trying to find possible ways to clone human beings, but protesters are getting in the way bringing up the ethics of it all, one anonymous citizen stated, “It just is not ethical. Why should we be cloning human beings while at the same time too many are being produced every day naturally”
A bill was written by Sampson G. Smith to encourage the cloning of cloning of endangered species. It basically says that cloning can only be operated by qualified scientists and approved companies and we will be able to clone endangered species before they go extinct.
Some endangered species that are being killed are elephants for it’s ivory, the sharks for their and whales for their oils, the leopard for it’s fur, and the rhinoceroses for their horns. Many species all over the world are becoming endangered and very close to becoming extinct. Cloning is needed to save these animals from extinction.
Extinct animals would be very hard to clone. A female can’t normally give birth to an animal of a different species, but it is not yet clear whether a female of a closely related species could give birth to a clone of a different species.
Genes can mutate, or suddenly change, as a result of exposure to normal background radiation or certain chemicals or other influences. And some mutations may be lethal. Who know what could happen when you have a clone with mutations.
A big issue of concern when cloning is what this clone may bring in the world. They could be bringing new diseases into this world that have not been here before and spread it to other creatures and humans. I think that if we could clone endangered species it would be wonderful. We could take a walk outside and see beautiful creatures in person that before we could only see in pictures.
I think that cloning should be started right away before some of these animals go extinct and we will never have the chance to see one ever again. The process of this should be well thought out and the species with the lowest population should be cloned first.
There are endangered species found all around the world, in every sort of habitat. Every day, many different creatures are affected, some even going into extinction! This is usually because of human interference. It is a topic of a great importance to us in our day, because these endangered species are important to our planet.
Endangered species come in all different shapes and sizes and are a plant or an animal. Not just land plants and animals, but marine plants and animals as well. To be endangered is where a certain species is almost extinct. That means that their entire species is no longer going to exist. Some of the world’s most astounding creatures are endangered.
Almost all of the species that are endangered or have gone extinct have become that way with human interference. Another reason is that they have a loss of habitat. This includes when humans destroy their habitats for different items found there, including wood (needed by loggers) and fields (needed by farmers and their livestock). Wildlife trade could also be a reason for being endangered or extinct. This is where animals are intentionally captured to become pets, to be put in zoos, for research, and more.
Animals are also captured for their skins, tusks, or horns. Some of these animals are poached, which means hunted illegally. This idea overlaps with the fact that they are overhunted. That means they are hunted too much too often. Another main reason is competition with other species, especially invasive ones.
Invasive species are different plants and animals that almost completely take over a whole habitat, and push some of the not-so-strong species into extinction. Yet another reason is disease. The plants and animals of our world don’t take antibacterial every time they get sick”they can’t! This is why disease is such an important factor in their loss of population.
Every year, it is estimated that around one to five species experience extinction. Having their habitats destroyed is just one of the reasons for why they go extinct. They could also not be getting enough of the resources that they need. Some endangered animals are the black-footed ferret, California condors, cheetahs, giant pandas, Indian elephants, red wolves, snow leopards, and tigers.
Some endangered plants are the floating sorrel, the green pitcher plant, the knowlton cactus, the running buffalo clover, and the snakeroot. (World Book, Inc.) Another example of an endangered animal is the primate. It is estimated that about 60% of all their species are endangered, and around 75% of them have a drop in population. Yet another example is the lizards.
It is estimated that of all the lizards, 40% would no longer exist by 2080. Already 20% have gone extinct. Also, many different under-water animals are affected, usually by being unintentionally captured in nets, or wounded by fishermen. This is because, in some areas of the world, the meat and fins of some of the most amazing under-water creatures are highly valued and are considered a rare treat.
Though it seems to some that the insects’ population is increasing, they are also affected. Some plants and animals need insects for their meal or pollination, so we must not let these tiny creatures go extinct.
The Endangered Species Act was passed by Congress in1973. It is one of the most successful laws we have passed to protect endangered species. Many Americans support this act. The Endangered Species Act has three parts. It prevents species from being harmed, it protects these species’ habitats, and it creates plans to improve the population of the species.
It has helped to prevent extinction for some, and some have almost improved after the near-extinction. The Endangered Species Act has reserved and protected many different places where endangered species are found. It was said that the Endangered Species Act has afforded protections to more than 1,400 species in the United States (Protecting the Endangered Species Act).
Without a permit (given by the secretary) that meets with the requirements in the Endangered Species Act no one can take or capture an endangered species. A plan also is created, and they must agree with the Endangered Species Act (Fleming).
Another system made to protect endangered species is the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). It is a treaty that has protected many endangered animals. It was made to control trade that had anything to do with plants and animals. At least 150 of all the countries in the world have agreed with this treaty. Another organization made was the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). It protects many of the species in this world that are endangered. (World Book, Inc.)
The topic of endangered species and how to help has been debated many times. Many want to help, but still not enough is being done. We must do more to help the endangered species of this world. Even though some things have been done that have helped enormously, every year some species still go extinct.
There are many ways to help these creatures, but not all are done. The main one is to preserve their habitats. Another major problem that leads to their endangerment is the fact that there is bad pollution. Whether in the air or in the water, pollution is a problem we must take care of in order to make endangered species’ habitats more livable. In order to get rid of pollution out of the water, better piping systems would be needed to filter out all the junk.
Endangered species are very important to our world, so everything in our power must be done to keep them here. We must not let them die off for God has made these creatures. In Genesis 1, it talks about how God created them, and how they were very good. It says in verses 11, 21, 24, and 25, And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it was soAnd God created great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind: and God saw that it was good.
And God created great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind: and God saw that it was good. Because God saw that they were good, we should view them as good too.
Example #6 – The Importance of the Conservation of Endangered Species
Endangered species refers to those animals that face the risk of extinction from the planet altogether. The animals are so few that they could disappear from the globe if serious action is not taken. The animals are threatened by many factors such as habitat loss, hunting, diseases, and a change in the climate. Such factors continue to decrease the number of such animal species.
This essay is a presentation of the importance of conserving the endangered species as opposed to conserving other animal species that are still in existence in the planet. More consideration ought to be put in the efforts to conserve the animals that may become extinct from the earth. Having the conservation of the other species of animals as the priority is a threat to the endangered lot.
Conservation of endangered species helps in the preservation of the habitat for most species of animals. The solution to protecting endangered species is protecting the habitats before they are damaged. It is evident that the creation of national parks and marine protected area has helped a lot in the protection of endangered species. Habitat preservation with the endangered species in mind is for the benefit of all species of animals.
Even as the endangered species are protected from extinction, other species of animals also benefit from the program of endangered habitat preservation. It cannot be the case when the habitat for animals is preserved without considering the endangered species since the animals would be eliminated by other species from the habitat. In a journal article on the endangered species, a large number of animal and mammal species have disappeared completely due to the devastation of their habitat (Johnson et al. 68).
Conservation of the endangered species has helped in the restoration of the habitats of the endangered animals and other animal species. Conservation of the endangered animals from extinction has made it possible for the restoration of already degraded habitats. Restoration of habitat involves removing invasive species and reintroducing native species that had disappeared from the area.
While protecting the endangered animals, other animals are not disadvantaged since they are bred in the same location but under captivity. They could also be relocated to other areas that best suits them for survival. The program of restoring habitats is thus useful to all species as every species finds its original potential areas. No animal species is left behind while relocation is being done, as it would have been the case when only relocating the species that exists in abundance.
The other species would have continuously displaced the endangered animals to extinction. For instance, the destruction of the Ripian habitat in Mexico is progressing at an alarming rate. and its restoration would be helpful to many species (Johnson et al. 75).
Conservation of the endangered animals is vital for the implementation of the anti-poaching measures. Poaching has been a social concern in the contemporary society where the body parts of most animals are used for commercial purposes.
Anti-poaching measures do not only seek to protect the endangered animals but all the other species. Constructing policies that are against the endangered animals seek also to protect other animal species from poachers who seek other alternatives when one door that enables them to access wild animals is closed. In remote areas in most countries, guards are often employed to protect the endangered species from species.
It is common that the employed guards will not allow the poachers to hunt successfully other species that are not exposed to the risk of extinction. Employing guards to protect endangered species such as the mountain gorilla could be a way of involving communities in the protection of their wildlife as well as the creation of employment to the community members.
Most importantly, wildlife conservation for the endangered species has led to the enforcement of laws and policies that tend to regulate the trade in the wild animal specimen that threaten their survival. It is evident that the efforts that are being put in to protect the endangered species have led to laws that generally protect all wild animals. It could be true that the laws were meant to protect only some few endangered animals in particular countries like elephants in Kenya.
All animals are protected from poaching by law. There are rules that are used regionally to ensure protection of all animals from extinction. Actions such as poaching speed up the disappearance of animals, more so the endangered species. According to a journal article on Bioscience, ecologists agree that the conservation of biodiversity is facilitated by maintaining population densities and distribution among species (Michael, et al. 168).
The implementation of policies to regulate trade in wild animals’ products has paved way for the existence of private farming of the endangered species. Private farming ensures that the ethics in the conservation of animal species are followed. The legal, for-profit, private farming does the opposite of reducing the endangered animal populations.
The move has tremendously increased the populations of the rare species such as the black and the white rhinoceros. Effective law enforcement has led to legal owning of such endangered animal species. It is the emphasis put on the conservation of the rare animal species that has led to legal, private farming, which is used by owners for profit and eco-tourism. Tourists come all the way to view the endangered animals that are very difficult to find.
Meanwhile, it is a chance for the whole nation since the tourists will not leave before visiting the public reserves in order to view the other species of animals. Such economic benefits are all as a result of conservation of the endangered animal species (Loomis, John and White, 197).
Emphasis on the conservation of the endangered species of animals has been if importance in conserving the environment at large. Most governments have created awareness on the causes of climate change and its effects. According to researchers, the most serious effect has been on the wild animals that drastically reduce in number due to the adverse change in the climate.
The awareness has helped in the reduction of pollution and unregulated hunting and poaching. It is the courtesy of the conservation of rare animal species that a lot of attention has been put on the environment. According to scientists, pollutants released into the environment are ingested by a wide variety of organisms, making the environment highly toxic to some plants, rodents and insects. It is the plants, insects and rodents that support the existence of most animals.
The measure by the authorities has therefore been useful in controlling the populations of most animals, not just the endangered species. If the conservation measures were not for the care of the rare animal species, there would be a lot of extinction in most species of animals as well as a massive reduction in the population of other existing species.
In conclusion, the conservation of the endangered animals has been for the benefits of all the other animals. Laws and policies have been made and implemented to protect all the animals globally. The conservation of endangered species has ensured that the habitat for all animals is restored and preserved. Conservation of the rare species of animals has benefited most countries by leading way to eco-tourism and environmental preservation.
There are many endangered animals in the world today, which play important roles in our environment and in our lives. Humans are the main cause of these animals becoming extinct, but with the help of the government and caring people some of these animals have increased in numbers and have been taken off the endangered species list. Many people think that they cannot do anything to help these poor animals, but they are wrong.
There are many ways in which people can help to keep these animals from becoming endangered or help save them.
There are many endangered animals and they come in all shapes and sizes. Ninety-nine percent of the earth’s creatures have become extinct. Just in the United States more than a dozen insects, mostly butterflies are on the endangered species list, along with over 50 species of fish, 100 reptiles and amphibians, and over 300 mammals. (World Book Encyclopedia 490). More than 1,000 species are endangered word wide, and over 100 of these endangered animals become extinct every day.
Scientists estimate that the total number of species lost to extinction each year may climb to 40,000 by the year 2000. One of these many mammals is the tiger, which lives in temperate and habitat is being destroyed. Some other mammals that are being overhunted for sport or for their fur are the Jaguar, Cheetah and the Snow Leopard.
They live in many parts of the world, the Cheetah is found in Africa and India, the Jaguar in the USA and Central and South America, and the Snow Leopard in the mountains of Central Asia. (www.endangeredcreatures.net) (World Book Encyclopedia 490). The Blue Whale is one of the many mammals that are endangered. They live in all the oceans, but are becoming extinct because they are being over hunted for their blubber, food and for whale oil.
The Giant Panda has a slow reproduction rate that has played a major role in the endangerment of the panda. (491). The Asiatic Lion that is native to Turkey and India is endangered because of overhunting and loss of habitat. The Aye-Aye, which is a cute little animal that looks like a Gremlin with a long tale, has been put on the endangered species list because its habitat in Madagascar is being lost. (Compton’s Encyclopedia 209)
Another cute little creature that is on the endangered species list is the Chinchilla that lives in Bolivia. If this little creature gets wet then it will die and that is a big part of its problem. Another problem for the Chinchilla is that is habitat is being destroyed by humans. The Mission Blue Butterfly is one of the dozen insects on the endangered species list.
It only lives in Oregon and is endangered because of habitat destruction. (www.endangeredcreatures.net) Most animals become endangered because of habitat destruction and overhunting, but some become endangered because of changes in the environment, pollution, and accidental kills.
Because most of this is cause by humans it would only be right for us to help these animals increase their population and get them off the endangered species list. There are other reasons why we should help. For one the animals are very important to our ecosystem and to medical research. Some animals have special traits or properties that would benefit humans in the medical field. By finding out what these special traits and properties are then we could find curse to some diseases or much more.
They also provide an important and crucial role in our environment and the life cycle of other animals. If animals that feed on other animals become extinct then the other animals would overrun the land. (Compton’s Encyclopedia 209). It is also important to keep these animals around so we can learn more about them and show younger generations these amazing animals.
If we do not keep these animals around then our whole ecosystem could fall apart and we would be left without anything. We should also be considerate of the animals’ habitats because we must share the earth with all the creatures and it is our job to protect them and keep them from all dying off.
We can prevent these animals from becoming endangered or extinct. Parents and kids can get involved in these activities. There are many organizations where people can adopt endangered animals, and get information on how to conserve their food supply and their habitat. Conducting a community awareness survey would be a good way to let the community know that there are endangered animals in the area and let them know how they can help with the efforts to save it.
The watershed in a community is important for the animals, so find out how the community’s activities affect the watershed. To save the insects and birds, kids can hold a school Arbor Day and plant trees and flowers for birds and insects that are native to their area that are endangered. Participating in river and beach clean ups is very important, because it reduces pollution in the water that could not only kill the poor little animals but hurt humans as well.
If people would not pollute the earth in the fist place then river and beach clean ups would not be necessary. People at home can plant gardens that attract wildlife, birds, and butterflies so they will have something to eat and someplace to rest. Putting out bird feeders in the winter can help with the prevention of bird starvation in the winter.
Also writing to the governor of a town where endangered animals are common could help to build a place where they could live free from hunters and other predators that endanger them. Over hunting is a major part of animals becoming endangered, so find out what animals are endangered or are rare and don’t hunt them for sport or for their fur. Private land owners can really help in the preservation efforts because they can conserve the land that they own if an endangered animal lives on it, or they could use their land to build a wildlife refuge.
This act prohibits endangered animals from being traded, it also penalizes anyone who kills, sells, or transports an endangered species or anything made from an endangered species body. There are some exceptions to this rule but not many. This act also prohibits anyone from killing, hunting, collecting, harassing, harming, pursuing, shooting, trapping, wounding, or capturing any animals that are endangered.
This law really helps the animals because if it were not for this law then there would be many more extinct animals. Sometimes people ignore the laws, and they will eventually get caught and have to pay the price for killing endangered animals. One rule that is useful in protecting the habitats of endangered animals is that no federal agency is allowed to build anything that would destroy the endangered animals habitats.
Even though there are some exceptions to this rule it has helped tremendously. (Lampton, Endangered Species 17) Zoos are also important because they take in animals and show the people how cute they are and teach kids how to be kind to the animals.
When people buy souvenirs from the zoo part of the money goes to organizations that help endangered animals. Even though the space at the zoo may not look like much the animals are better off there than in the wild or our running free where they could get ran over or killed by some non-animal loving person. The zoo also informs people of endangered animals and what they can do to help.
There are many animals out there that are important to us and our environment and need to be helped. There are many people that can do stuff for these animals. Through organizations, government help, and zoos lots is being done to help. So please be kind hearted and help save the poor little endangered animals.
Throughout evolution, many species have come and gone. What causes a species to become extinct and what can the human race due to prevent it? Many species’ population decline has been linked to human causation. An endangered species is defined as “plant and animal species that are at risk for extinction” (Funk). Endangered species can be placed into two more specific categorizes.
Threatened species are species at risk for endangerment, while endangered species are at risk for extinction. Despite the fact that many people believe extinction is a major issue, the Funk and Wagnall’s New World Encyclopedia states that, “extinction is actually a normal process in the course of evolution” (Funk). Over time, numerous species have become extinct, usually as a result of climate changes, inability to adapt, or predation.
Another major cause of endangerment is the human population. Pollution, global warming, and hunting is all causing a decline in the population of numerous species. While the encyclopedia is entirely fact based, many authors have worked to sensitize people to threatened species.
For example, renowned author Sharon Begley, has written numerous articles to inform people of the importance of many species that are often overlooked. One article by Sharon Begley that focuses specifically on invertebrates that are at risk for extinction is “Praise the Humble Dung Beetle”.
This report will be discussing and talking about endangered species and the impacts they have on ecosystems. Endangered species is a species of animal or plants at risk of extinction because of human activity, changes in climate, ruining of ecosystems, etc.
This report will be split into different sections discussing different examples of endangered species and the impacts that they have on different ecosystems. Blue whales, weighing in at 200 tonnes are the largest ever known animal to live on the planet. Sadly, after whaling has occurred it has made the species endangered with only 10000 to 25000 remaining.
Blue whales play a significant role in keeping the food chain stable and helping with the reproduction of other species. In the marine ecosystem whales help control the distribution of food by helping to keep a stable food chain and ensuring that certain marine species do not overpopulate the ocean.
However, Blue whales are being killed and the food distribution in the ocean is becoming unstable and causing major changes in the food supply of many other marine life A Blue Whale is able to consume as much as 40 million krill per day, so the impact on the marine ecosystem would be huge because overtime krill will overpopulate which causes problems in maintaining a food chain because the more krill there is the more food they will eat so because of their new overpopulation it could make other animals become extinct.
Example #10 – interesting ideas
Endangered species are protected by more than just the Endangered Species Act. Local laws, enforced by state governments and state Departments of Natural resources protect species in different states of the United States. Groups of species are protected by specific acts such as the Marine Mammal Protection Act. Many foreign countries have laws protecting their endangered species.
Endangered species are protected on international levels as well. For example, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is an agreement between150 countries worldwide. Endangered species are listed under one of two appendices of CITES (pronounced sigh-tees). If a species is listed under Appendix I, the member countries have agreed not to trade (buy and sell) that species commercially.
If a species is listed under Appendix II, the member countries have agreed to trade that species commercially only if it does not endanger the survival of the species.
1. Organizations like Greenpeace and World Wildlife Fund have dedicated themselves to preserve the earth and its ecology. Many volunteers join organizations like these and work for the environment. You can find some international/local organizations like these and join them.
2. Boycott fur coats and medicines made from rare animals. Boycott ornaments made from ivory and staff like this. Baby seals are murdered for their skin, as it is used to make expensive coats- don’t bye them.
3. Raise your voice against this injustice. Peaceful protest, human chain, petition and rally are some ways to do it. You can also write a heart felt and logical letter to the government stating your ideas about this issue and how it can be solved. Like I wrote a post about African Lion Burgers which are being sold in Arizona.
4. Try to raise awareness amongst your local people. Apart from face to face interaction, the best way to do so is blogging. Blog about endangered animals and what we can do to help them. If you have posts like this, then please write about it in the comment section.
5. Recycle and reuse. It will reduce the need to have more raw materials to produce something. As a result a lot of trees will be spared and wild animals’ habitat will be undisturbed.
6. Governments should come forward to create more safe zones and national parks for wild animals where they will be able to move freely without worrying about hunters and poachers. Governments should apply strict laws to stop poaching.
7. You can make a little room for your wild neighbors. Like, you can build a bird house and feed local birds.
One of the most important ways to help threatened plants and animals survive is to protect their habitats permanently in national parks, nature reserves or wilderness areas. There they can live without too much interference from humans. It is also important to protect habitats outside reserves such as on farms and along roadsides.
You can visit a nearby national park or nature reserve. Some national parks have special guided tours and walks for kids. Talk to the rangers to find out whether there are any threatened species and how they are being protected. You and your friends might be able to help the rangers in their conservation work.
When you visit a national park, make sure you obey the wildlife code: follow fire regulations; leave your pets at home; leave flowers, birds’ eggs, logs and bush rocks where you find them; put your rubbish in a bin or, better still, take it home. If you have friends who live on farms, encourage them to keep patches of bush as wildlife habitats and to leave old trees standing, especially those with hollows suitable for nesting animals.
Some areas have groups which look after local lands and nature reserves. They do this by removing weeds and planting local native species in their place. You could join one of these groups, or even start a new one with your parents and friends. Ask your local parks authority or council for information. By removing rubbish and weeds and replanting with natives you will allow the native bush to gradually regenerate. This will also encourage native animals to return.
An endangered species is a population of organisms which is at risk of becoming extinct because it is either few in numbers, or threatened by changing environmental or predation parameters. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has calculated the percentage of endangered species as 40 percent of all organisms based on the sample of species that have been evaluated through 2006.
Many nations have laws offering protection to conservation reliant species: for example, forbidding hunting, restricting land development or creating preserves.Only a few of the many species at risk of extinction actually make it to the lists and obtain legal protection like Pandas. Many more species become extinct, or potentially will become extinct, without gaining public notice.
The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that endangered species not living. Many factors are taken into account when assessing the conservation status of a species; not simply the number remaining, but the overall increase or decrease in the population over time, breeding success rates, known threats, and so on.
Javan Tiger, Thylacine, Dodo, Passenger Pigeon, Caribbean Monk Seal, Steller’s Sea Cow, Aurochs, Elephant Bird, Woolly Mammoth, Dusky Seaside Sparrow etc are some of the rare species which are in condition of being extinct. We must establish a good surrounding for them for their betterment. If these species are extinct then the environmental surrounding may nit be balanced and may lead to certain exclamations. Hence, we must take this matter very seriously.
Some endangered species actually create a decent amount of tourist revenue when zoos and other organizations feature them. Sometimes it IS best to let nature run its course; if it takes too many resources for the last of a species to stay alive then it may just be their time. However, there are many undiscovered species (plant, fungi, animal, etc) that have benefits for humans, whether it be medicinal or something else.
The fact that many species’ habitats are being destroyed anyway means that we may possibly be destroying the same benefits. A species becoming endangered can also be an indication of something going wrong with the environment (which you and everyone else lives in…) Likewise, humans endangering species can also lead to unseen effects by disrupting ecosystems.
Another thing to consider is that just because humans can speak and have a large brain doesn’t mean we have the right to kill off species if we have a choice not to. We’re actually all self-replicating cells, which just means everything in the world is just stuff–including humans. It’s not the animals’ fault that our political system is corrupt and has some issues, but nothing’s perfect.
Essay on protecting endangered species of tigers in Asia?
Saving endangered species like indain tigers helps reduce poverty and improve the lives of local communities, according to a new World Wildlife Fund report. Now as the eighth Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity opens today in Curitiba, Brazil, WWF urges the CBD and member governments to integrate species conservation work into efforts to alleviate poverty.
“Now’s the time to recognize the strong connections between sustainable economic development, a healthy environment, and successful species conservation,” said Ginette Hemley, vice president for species conservation, World Wildlife Fund. “WWF’s new report provides clear evidence that when endangered species benefit, people also benefit.”
By examining six projects in Africa, Latin America and Asia, the new report shows that WWF’s work to save endangered wildlife helps eradicate poverty and hunger, as well as promote sustainable and fair development in rural areas.
“Problems that threaten species like the destruction of habitats and natural resources often contribute to poverty,” said Hemley.
Conservation and sustainable management of species and their habitats means better protection of forest, freshwater and marine habitats. As a result, the rural poor who depend on these areas have more access to the goods and services they provide. Incomes increase and access to freshwater, health, education and women’s rights often also improve.
According to the report, some ecotourism projects based on the observation of species in the wild–such as marine turtles, pandas and mountain gorillas–generate significant amounts of money for communities. Applying knowledge of species movements in and across habitats can help implement such sustainable land-use planning.
For example, in Tortuguero, Costa Rica, live turtles are worth more to the local economy than turtle meat and eggs ever were. The community strongly supports conservation measures to promote ecotourism, and both turtle and tourist numbers have climbed over the past 30 years.
Community forestry efforts in parts of Nepal have led to the restoration of vital habitat corridors for the survival of tiger populations living there. WWF is helping local people to manage and directly benefit from these forest resources. According to the report, groups of community forest users can earn $4,760 annually in a nation where the per capita income is roughly $250.
In the Indian village of Farida, a WWF awareness-raising program aimed at conserving the rare Ganges river dolphin helped the community to address critical basic needs such as clean water. After five years, the number of families below the poverty line significantly declined.
The report further shows that more than 60 percent of people living around Uganda’s Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, which protects the habitat of the endangered mountain gorilla, feel they benefit economically and socially from the forests. Other examples show that, in China, illegal and damaging activities in forested panda reserves declined when communities gained alternative sources of income, such as farming and animal husbandries supported by WWF. In Namibia, the creation of conservancies, where communities are jointly managing their wildlife resources, has resulted in better wildlife management, increased wildlife populations, ecotourism development and increased profits in community-owned enterprises