Example #1 – Disability Hero
Franklin D. Roosevelt served longer than any other president of the United States. He held office from 1933 until his death in 1945 at the beginning of his fourth term. During his presidency, he led the United States through two great crises –the Great Depression of the 1930s and World War II. Roosevelt was a man of unusual charm and great optimism which he was able to communicate to others. He had a broad smile and an easygoing way of nodding agreement to whatever proposals were made to him. But beneath his outward friendliness was an inner reserve and an iron will. He became one of the most beloved as well as one of the most hated U.S. presidents. His admirers emphasized the way in which he met the nation’s problems.
They praised him for insisting that the federal government must help the underprivileged and that the United States must share in the responsibility for preserving world peace. Roosevelt’s opponents denounced him for increasing the role of the government in the economic life of the country and claimed that he unnecessarily involved the United States in World War II. Yet friend and foe alike agreed that Roosevelt made a vital impact upon his times and that his policies exerted great influence on the future. Roosevelt was born on a comfortable estate overlooking the Hudson River at Hyde Park, New York, on January 30, 1882. He had a pleasant, sheltered childhood. His father, James Roosevelt, was a well-to-do investor and vice president of a small railroad. His mother, Sara Delano Roosevelt, came from a wealthy family of New England origin.
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During his childhood, Franklin was taught by a governess and was taken on frequent trips to Europe. Once his father took him to the White House to see President Grover Cleveland. Cleveland, saddened and worn by the burdens of office, said he hoped that young Franklin would never have the misfortune of becoming president. At 14, Roosevelt entered Groton School in Massachusetts. From Groton, he went to Harvard College where he concerned himself more with social life and other activities than with his studies. He was especially proud of the fact that he was president (chief editor) of the Harvard Crimson, the student newspaper. He graduated in 1904 and went on to Columbia University Law School. Meanwhile, he had become engaged to his slim, attractive distant cousin, Eleanor Roosevelt.
At the wedding in 1905, Eleanor’s uncle, President Theodore Roosevelt (who was Franklin’s fifth cousin), gave her in marriage. Roosevelt was an indifferent law student and did not bother to complete work for his degree after passing his bar examination. Nor was he much interested in his work with a prominent Wall Street law firm. In 1910 the Democratic leaders in Dutchess County, New York, persuaded Roosevelt to run for the state senate. The Senate contest seemed hopeless for a Democrat. Nevertheless, Roosevelt conducted an energetic campaign, touring the Hudson River farming communities in a red Maxwell automobile. The Republicans were split that year, and the 28- year-old Roosevelt won his first election.
Roosevelt supported Woodrow Wilson for the presidential nomination in 1912, and when Wilson became president in 1913, Roosevelt was appointed assistant secretary of the navy. He still seemed too handsome and too unpredictable dashing from one place to another to be taken very seriously. Yet he was especially successful as an administrator during World War I. He was also achieving a reputation as a rising young progressive. In 1920, at the age of 38, Roosevelt won the Democratic nomination for Vice President, running with the presidential candidate, James M. Cox (1870- 1957). However, the Democrats were buried in the landslide victory of the Republican Warren Harding.
Biding his time, Roosevelt entered private business. Then, in the summer of 1921, while vacationing at Campobello Island in Canada, he was suddenly stricken with polio which paralyzed him from the waist down. Not yet 40, he seemed finished in politics. But his wife, Eleanor, and his private secretary, Louis Howe, felt that his recovery would be aided if he kept his political interests. Eleanor, now the mother of five children (a sixth child had died in 1909), cast aside her acute shyness and learned to make appearances for her husband at political meetings. In spite of his illness, which left him unable to walk without leg braces, a cane, and a strong arm upon which to lean, Roosevelt remained one of the dominant figures in the Democratic Party.
In 1928, Roosevelt ran for governor of New York at the urging of the incumbent-governor, Alfred E. Smith (1873-1944), who was the Democratic candidate for president. Although Smith was defeated by Republican Herbert Hoover, Roosevelt was elected governor by a narrow margin. His re-election in 1930 by a record majority made him the leading candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1932. During the 1932 election campaign, the Depression overshadowed all other issues. In accepting the nomination, Roosevelt had promised the American people a “new deal,” and they voted for him in overwhelming numbers. Roosevelt defeated Hoover, running for re-election, by more than 7 million popular votes, and he received 472 electoral votes to Hoover’s 59. Conditions became worse between Roosevelt’s election on November 8, 1932, and his inauguration on March 4, 1933. (The 20th Amendment to the Constitution, changing the presidential inauguration date to January 20, did not go into effect until October 1933.) Thousands of banks failed as depositors, fearful of losing their savings, withdrew their money. A quarter of the nation’s wage earners were unemployed. Families on relief sometimes received no more than 75 cents a week for food. Farmers were in an equally desperate plight because of the low prices on basic crops.
Amid these grim conditions, Roosevelt took his oath of office as president. “The only thing we have to fear is fear itself,” he said in his inaugural speech. The words were not new, but the way Roosevelt said them gave people new hope. As a first step, he closed all U.S. banks to prevent further collapse. Then he called Congress into special session to pass emergency banking legislation. Within a few days, most banks were reopened, and people who had withdrawn their money redeposited it. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation was established soon after. It insured bank deposits and protected people from losing their savings.
During the first one hundred days of his administration, Roosevelt presented to Congress a wide variety of legislation. This became the first New Deal program. These early measures contained one notable reform –the creation of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The TVA provided flood control, cheap electricity, and better use of the land for the entire poverty-stricken Tennessee River area. For the most part, the early New Deal measures were meant to bring immediate relief to the needy and recovery to the economy. A federal agency was set up to provide the states with funds to feed the hungry. The legislation was passed to aid farmers and homeowners in danger of losing their property because they could not keep up mortgage payments.
The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was organized, providing jobs for unemployed young men in forest conservation and road construction work. At the president’s urging, Congress took the United States off the gold standard and devaluated the dollar. This lowered its exchange value, allowing American products to be sold to a better advantage abroad. At the heart of the recovery program of the early New Deal were the Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) and the National Recovery Administration (NRA). Under the AAA, the production of basic crops and livestock was limited in order to raise prices and thus increase farmers’ incomes. Farmers were rewarded by benefit payments for reducing production.
The NRA, created by the president under the National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933, was meant to aid both business and labor. The NRA established codes of fair competition in major industries. In turn, businessmen were expected to pay at least minimum wages and to work their employees for no more than established maximum hours. Furthermore, under the terms of the Recovery Act, workers were given the right to bargain collectively– that is, to join unions of their choice, which would negotiate wages and working hours with employers. These collective bargaining provisions were replaced in 1935 by the National Labor Relations Act (the Wagner Act), which gave strong protection to unions and encouraged the growth of the labor movement.
None of Roosevelt’s recovery measures worked quite satisfactorily, and the road to recovery was one of ups and downs. In 1935 the Supreme Court declared the NRA code system unconstitutional, and in 1936 they ruled against part of the AAA. Still, the economy was showing a marked improvement. But although recovery seemed on the way, unemployment remained high. In 1935, Roosevelt undertook a large-scale work program–the Works Progress Administration (WPA). Then, in the summer of 1935, he pushed through Congress three important reform measures. The Public Utility Holding Company Act placed restrictions on gas and electric utilities. The Revenue Act of 1935 placed heavier tax burdens on those in the upper-income brackets. Roosevelt’s opponents, who criticized the government’s heavy spending, called it the “soak the rich” tax. Most important was the Social Security Act. This provided for unemployment insurance, pensions for the aged, and aid to widows and orphans.
In the 1936 election, Roosevelt won re-election over the Republican candidate, Alfred M. Landon (1887-1987), sweeping every state except Maine and Vermont. The electoral vote was 523 for Roosevelt to 8 for Landon, with Roosevelt receiving nearly 11 million more popular votes than Landon. Re-election by such an overwhelming margin seemed a call for further reform. “I see one-third of a nation ill-housed, ill-clad, ill-nourished,” Roosevelt declared in his second inaugural address. As a first step, Roosevelt wanted to end the Supreme Court’s invalidation of New Deal measures. Roosevelt felt that these laws were constitutional but that the Supreme Court’s interpretation of them was sadly out of date. In February 1937, he asked Congress to authorize him to appoint as many as six new justices to the Court.
A great controversy swept Congress and the country. Many people denounced the proposal to “pack” the Court. Roosevelt’s plan failed, but the gradual retirement of the older justices brought more liberal ones to the Supreme Court. Even while the debate was going on, the Court had modified its decisions. Thereafter it approved most government regulation of the nation’s economy. By 1937 the economy had almost reached the prosperity levels of the 1920s although unemployment continued to be high. When Roosevelt cut New Deal spending in an effort to balance the federal budget, a sharp recession followed. He returned to heavy spending, and the trend toward recovery resumed. Large sums were provided for a vast public works project–the Public Works Administration.
Roosevelt also obtained from Congress the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938. This set a national standard of minimum wages and maximum hours for workers and prohibited the shipping in interstate commerce of goods made by child labor. It was the last important piece of New Deal reform legislation. Thereafter, Roosevelt and the American people were concerned with events in Europe and Asia, where the aggressive policies of Nazi Germany, Italy, and Japan, known as the Axis powers, threatened to lead to war. In taking office in 1933, Roosevelt had pledged the United States to a “good neighbor” policy. Roosevelt had carried out this pledge in Latin America. Indeed, he tried to follow a policy of goodwill throughout the world. As the threat of war became more ominous during the mid-1930s, both the president and the American public wished to remain neutral.
But at the same time, Roosevelt did not want to see the aggressors triumph. When Japan invaded northern China in 1937, he declared in a speech that war, like a dangerous disease, must be quarantined. War finally broke out in Europe when Germany invaded Poland in 1939. Roosevelt wished to help the democratic nations–Britain and France–without involving the United States in war. But gradually, as the crisis deepened, he took greater risks of involvement. After the fall of France in 1940, Roosevelt, with the approval of Congress, rushed all possible weapons to Britain in order to help the British in the fight against Germany.
In the 1940 election, Roosevelt’s Republican opponent was Wendell Willkie (1892-1944), who held similar views on aid to Britain. Isolationists, who wished the United States to keep out of European affairs, campaigned vigorously against Roosevelt. In spite of their opposition, he was elected to a third term, winning 449 electoral votes to Willkie’s 82. He also received over 5 million more popular votes than Willkie. Early in 1941, at the president’s urging, Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act. This provided further aid to Britain and other nations fighting the Axis.
At the same time, Roosevelt was trying to block Japan’s advances into China and Southeast Asia. The Japanese felt they faced a choice of giving up their policy of expansion or fighting the United States. On December 7, 1941, Japanese planes attacked U.S. air and naval bases at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The next day Congress declared war on Japan. On December 11, Germany and Italy declared war on the United States. With the United States now involved in a world conflict, Roosevelt sought to increase U.S. war production and to lead the country in a great alliance against the Axis powers. As commander in chief of the armed forces, he helped plan major offensives in Europe, leading to the Normandy invasion in 1944. At the same time, the Japanese were gradually pushed back into the Pacific.
Even before the United States entered the conflict, Roosevelt had been concerned with planning a better postwar world. As the war progressed, he hoped that an international organization could be created to prevent future wars. This organization was to be the United Nations. Roosevelt felt that the keeping of peace would depend to a considerable extent upon goodwill between the United States and the Soviet Union. He thus tried to establish friendly relations with the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin at the Tehran Conference (in Iran) in 1943 and at the Yalta Conference (then part of the Soviet Union; now in Ukraine) in 1945.
In 1944, Roosevelt was nominated for a fourth term, running against Thomas E. Dewey (1902-71), the governor of New York. Roosevelt appeared thin, worn, and tired, but late in the campaign, he seemed to gain renewed energy. Again he was re-elected by a substantial margin, with 432 electoral votes to 99 for Dewey and close to 4 million popular votes. But his health, which had been declining since early in 1944, did not improve. After returning from the Yalta Conference, he went to Warm Springs, Georgia, to rest. There, on April 12, 1945– less than a month before the war in Europe ended–he died of a cerebral hemorrhage. As the world mourned Roosevelt’s death, Vice President Harry S Truman took over the duties of the office as the new president.
Example #2 – Disability in Modern Society Opinion
Disability is a mental or physical condition that restricts a person’s activities, senses, or movements. Modern societies have recognized the problems faced by these individuals and passed laws that ease their interactions. Some people, therefore, believe that life for the disabled has become quite bearable. These changes are not sufficient to eliminate the hurdles associated with their conditions. The life of a person with a disability today is just as difficult as it was in the past because of the stigma in social relations as well as economic, mobility, and motivational issues associated with such a condition.
A person with a disability would live a hard life today owing to the emotional issues associated with the condition. His or her identity would revolve around his or her disability rather than anything else that the person can do. It does not matter whether the individual is handsome or talented, like Tom Cruise. At the end of the day, he will always be a disabled man. This attitude obscures one’s accomplishments and may even discourage some people from accomplishing anything.
Other able-bodied individuals would always categorize such a person as a second-class citizen. It would take a lot of will power and resolve to get past these labels and merely lives one’s life. Opponents of this argument would claim that some great inventors of modern society are disabled. A case in point was Dr. Stephen Hawkings, whose mathematical inventions led to several breakthroughs in the field of cosmology (Larsen 87). While such accomplishments exist, they do not represent the majority.
Persons like Hawkings have to work harder because they have their handicaps to cope with alongside their other scientific work. A disabled scientist is more diligent than a normal one because he has two forms of hurdles to tackle. It is not common to find such immense willpower in the general population. Therefore, disability leads to a tough life owing to its emotional demands on its subjects. Modern life has created several technologies designed to simplify movement. For instance, modern cities have stairs, trains, cars, doors, and elevators to achieve this. However, these technologies are not easy to use for disabled people.
Many of them find that they cannot climb stairs, drive cars or even access trains without help from someone else. Therefore, while the rest of the world is enjoying the benefits of technology, a disabled person would still have to overcome these challenges in order to move from place to place. Some opponents of this assertion would claim that the life of a disabled person today is unproblematic because a lot of devices have been developed to facilitate movement and other interactions. For instance, a person with amputated legs can buy artificial limbs or use a wheelchair.
However, some of the best assistive technologies for the disabled are quite expensive, and average citizens cannot afford them. Many of them would have to contend with difficult-to-use devices like wheelchairs, which may not always fit into certain spaces. They would also have to exert themselves in order to use those regular devices. Social relations are a serious challenge for disabled people today. A number of them live isolated lives or only interact with persons who have the same condition. Social stigma is still rife today even though progress has been made.
Friends would simply be unwilling to dedicate much of their free time to help this disabled person move. Additionally, finding a life partner or marrying someone would also be a laborious process because of the physical and psychological implications. If one’s handicap is physical and affects their kinetics, then they would not engage in sexual activity. Alternatively, psychical deformities may be off-putting as many individuals find them sexually unattractive. These social stigmas can impede a disabled person’s ability to enjoy normal relationships with others.
Economic hurdles are also another cause of unfulfilled lives amongst the disabled. Some jobs do not require an investment in one’s image, so these would be tenable for the disabled. However, a number of positions take into account one’s physical image. These include television anchoring, sports, politics, and even sales jobs. The practical demands of these jobs, such as sales and sports, would not allow a disabled person to engage in them meaningfully. Alternatively, the positions may also place too much emphasis on physical appearance to the point of making disabled persons unsuitable for them. While the latter might seem like discrimination, it is a given fact that the world is increasingly becoming superficial.
Companies only want to focus on what sells, so they have little time to be proactive or fair. In essence, these attitudes close the door t many opportunities for the disabled as they pigeonhole them into passive professions. Modern societies have not eradicated the obstacles that persons with disabilities face. This is evident in their attitudinal inclinations as most of them reduce a disabled person’s identity to their inability rather than their accomplishments. Difficulties in mobility and use of technology among the disabled also testify to their hardships. Social stigma concerning their physical attractiveness and demands in friendships also limit their social relationships. Finally, their economic prospects are neutralized by their mobility challenges as well as their physical image. All these hurdles indicate that disability causes its victims to live painstaking lives.
Example #3 – Math Disabilities
There seem to be many problems within the American educational system today. Most of the problems refer back to the differences in the students that undergo the education system. Some of these students are handicapped, some are not motivated either at home or by themselves, and some have learning disabilities. The world of learning disabilities is large and seems to receive the least amount of attention. Learning disabilities are apparent in some children while in others they remain hidden. One example of a learning disability exists in children that speak languages different from English, which is spoken the most in schools today.
Children that speak different languages seem to have the most trouble in math because their memory works differently, their organizational skills are different and they lack the symbolic understanding that English-speaking children possess. Psychologists have also found that there is a link to children with language disabilities, their mathematical skills, and their reading skills. This is especially seen in word problems. When solving story problems, children must understand complex language and solve problems presented in meaningful contexts.(Jordan p. 569)
The most apparent problem found amongst children that are language impaired is their symbolic understanding. This weakness is also found amongst children with other disabilities. The main problem with symbolic understanding is that the children do not seem to realize that things can stand for other things. ?They may fail to come to terms with the notion that one coin can stand for two other coins? (Grauberg p.3) It is understood that children with a problem with symbolic understanding most likely suffer from other learning disabilities.
Such children are most probably learning-impaired in a wider sense, but they are often found in special language units and in special schools for children with language impairments. (Grauberg p. 3) Children who seem to have the most problems with symbolic understanding are the ones that are known as being semantic or pragmatic. These types of children are able to use the symbols that are numbers and letters. However, they can only use them as they learned them causing the children to be unable to see the symbols as constructs which, only stand for a meaning. In general, such children will have difficulty in applying acquired number skills to new situations. (Grauberg p.4)
Some children with very large problems in language development seem to just give up on learning mathematical skills at a very early age. Here the problem of teacher interaction becomes a problem because if the teachers do not spend a lot of time helping and introducing the concepts of symbols to these students at very young ages the students will give up at fail at math later in the future. These children tend to become distracted very easily by their surroundings.
Another problem found in the symbolic understanding is that the children may know a counting system very different from the one that they are learning at their present school. The confusion of the two number systems can be extremely large. “children will have difficulty in accommodating their own, more global and non-verbal working symbol system” (Grauberg p.6) There are ways to help these children with learning mathematics. First, one must begin by concentrating on the cardinal aspect of numbers. Here the relationship between linguistic form and the content is small and simple. Some suggest working with terms that are in relation to numbers and amounts such as a little or a few.
Before precisely specified quantities like “three” or “four” are introduced, it may be useful to work with large nonspecific quantities.(Grauberg p.9) The next step is to have the child associate specific amounts to the numbers such as five apples or seven shirts. Then, one should introduce the written symbols to the children. Some specialists believe that children should write the number and understand that before they speak the number. They suggest that “the children will become familiar with the notion that a quantity can be labeled in writing” (Grauberg p15).
Another issue that children with language developmental problems have is organization. The problem of organization relates itself to the other problems found in the children. A child with added language difficulties will have even greater problems because the strategy of talking a problem through while solving it- essential for most of us when organizing a problem-solving situation- will not come naturally to him. (Grauberg p.61)
Much like children with problems having to do with symbiotic understanding the children with organizational problems will be learning impaired in a much larger sense because while they may look or act as though they understand their work shows that they do not. Teachers can also use patterns to help them learn the symbols. The patterns strategy requires students to examine sequences of numbers or geometrical objects in search of some rule that will allow them to extend the sequence indefinitely. (Thomas p. 204)
Children who have problems with organizational skills have many features. The features are impulsiveness, lack of concentration, clumsiness, and lack of spatial ability. The impulsiveness is seen when the children continue to test their parent’s or teacher’s patience. They will not look further into given information, and they can not sort out the relevant from the irrelevant information. Just as in problems in symbolic understanding if the child does not understand the information or process it quickly enough they begin to show signs of a lack of concentration. Children so clumsy because research has shown that children with a lack of organization physical movements seem slow and they appear to have no rhythm. This results in untidiness and a lack of clarity (Grauberg p.62).
Children with this issue have problems with math because they have problems sequencing, halving, sharing, and classifying the numbers. Children need to learn how to explore the various possibilities of grouping in order to make more efficient decisions having to do with organizing themselves. The main problem within the organizational problem is trying to sort out word problems. The relations between the numbers and words must be understood before the problem itself can be solved. Word problems are very complex even at the easiest level. some knowledge is needed in at least three different areas: the specific aspect of life in which the story takes place, the mathematical procedures that can be applied to the problem, and the logic and language of the story (Grauberg p.81).
The area of spatial organization seems to be the hardest to teach children. There are serious doubts about methods and transfer and there seems to be very little information about the frequency and severity with which spatial disability occurs (Grauberg p. 101). Spatial ability is the ability to see and understand the relationships between shapes, spaces, or areas. This area can be noticed in the child’s early years as they play with toys dealing with shapes and placing. When dealing with word problems a teacher should analyze the problem out loud. This allows the child to hear the breakdown of the word problem. Teachers should explain their thinking as they test the choice of schema and algorithm. (Thomas p. 202)
The final area that effects children with language impairments is memory. Early research on children with MD suggested that they were deficient in two areas of mathematical cognition: retrieval of number facts and the ability to solve story problems. (Jordan p. 1) This area is directly related to the organization. Memory is organized and structured, and the more efficiently it is organized, the more successfully it will function (Grauberg p. 124). Therefore if more problems lie in the child’s organizational skills then more problems are bound to exist in their memory. There are at least two parts to a person’s memory, long-term memory, and short-term memory.
Long-term memory has an unlimited amount of storage space, however; one can not always recall what they are looking for from the storage space. What makes a teacher’s job so difficult with regards to long term memory is that all of the organization that goes on in the long term memory is done in a very personal way so, when recalling information it can be difficult to recall exact specific’s. Learning matter can be offered in a way that the teacher considers well-organized and therefore likely to be remembered and easily produced, but it is by no means certain that all children will accept the organization and store it accordingly in their long-term memory. (Grauberg p. 127)
Short-term memory can also be called primary memory. It holds what we need for the present. Unfortunately, the information that is stored in short-term memory can very easily be thrown away. Its content, supported by consciousness, can be easily accessed, altered, and worked with; but, as the name suggests, any information stored in it is liable to fade away quickly. (Grauberg p. 127) Short-term memory is also called working memory because there is always room for more information.
While memory might cause difficulty to language-impaired children some feel as though it is not a prominent feature in these children others feel that the children can not seem to escape it. A weak memory I not a feature that is peculiar to children with language difficulties. (Grauberg p. 130) Many teachers seem to complain that their student’s memory is their largest problem. One does not need to have been teaching a long time in a school with language-impaired children to find that anchoring facts in long-term memory takes a lot of targeted effort; that the number of times which can be held in working memory is low, and that word-finding problems among the children are widespread and severe. (Grauberg p. 130)
The main problem that lies in children with language impairments is that they seem to have difficulties with vocabulary and auditory tests appear low. In reference to long-term memory and the children’s mathematical skills, the children seem to have the most problem with learning to count. These difficulties may occur for a long time which, can affect all further number work. The children can not recall what certain numbers amount to and they have to keep learning the equation while normal children learn these amounts quicker.
Short-term memory, however, brings up other problems with mathematical skills. Children seem to have problems with all mental arithmetic. They will not be able to keep a number question in mind while they hear it, let alone while they think about it.(Grauberg p. 131) Numerical problems in either written or oral form will give the children problems this is because they often forget the beginning before they get to the end. Following instructions is also a problem for children with language disabilities. The information that the teachers are looking for is unavailable to the students so they can not provide it for the teachers.
While some of the first problems that occur with children who have difficulties with symbolic understanding share those problems that children with memory problems have. However, these problems are made worse by those with memory problems. Children with memory deficits may experience the same problems, but they are made worse because the children find it hard to remember the names of first numbers and, more importantly, they find it hard to remember the names in the right sequence. (Grauberg p. 133)
Much like the other problems that exist in these children the problem of memory can be helped. One has to realize that in both forms of retrieval problems help can only be very indirect; the child needs to learn strategies for self-help. (Grauberg p. 160) of course, this solution is easier said than done. The main idea is to turn difficult “free recall” into a simpler easier “cued recall”. This new “cued recall” can also be called recognition. Making up cue games is also a good way to help. The child can begin to recognize the numbers through their associations in the games. As seen above there are many problems within the educational system that seem to go unadvised. The main problems that occur in children with language disabilities are symbolic understanding, lack of organizational skills, and poor memory skills. These problems can be helped if teachers and parents are willing to put in the time and effort.
Disability can be a physical limitation, but nothing can limit a person’s skills. A disability is basically impairment, it can be developmental, intellectual, sensory, mental, physical, or some other combination of it. Disability can be from birth or it can be caused by an accident or some other unfortunate incident that happens unexpectedly and unintentionally, typically resulting in some physical disability. Physical disability is the most prominent disability that is in our society. People who lost their legs in the accident, different kind of patients lose their body parts due to infection such as caused by diabetes or some other severe disease.
Basically, the meaning of disability is considered that any body part that you cannot use anymore is included in the disability. A person has no control over this unfortunate disability caused by different incidents. If you’re born to do something and you have a passion for doing that thing and suddenly by the gods will you get some of your body parts to disable it doesn’t mean that your goals, your skills, and your reputation get hurt? Talent is the skill that someone naturally has to do something that is hard and this is an ability that someone is born with but skill is something different from talent. A skill is not a natural ability a person born with. This is the thing that a person creates in himself by his efforts, hard work, and giving time to that thing according to his motivation and passion to achieve that specific thing and then gets expertise in it.
‘’Talent you have naturally. Skill is only developed by hours and hours and hours of beating on your draft’’ a quotation by the famous motivational speaker and actor Will Smith. Some people who are born to do something in their life doesn’t matter what life gives them they keep on trying are the people who achieve the high achievements in their life and there are people who make history by their achievement with having disabilities. There is a prominent example of Stephen Hawking who was diagnosed with motor neuron disease and was unable to communicate.
So the story of Professor Hawking makes all of we shocked that Professor Stephen Hawking was only able to communicate by using a small sensor which is activated by a muscle in his cheek and thorough this he achieved major accomplishments which include hawking co-discovered the four laws of black hole mechanics, he contributed to the theory of cosmic inflation, he proposed a theory of top-down cosmology and there were many more achievements he achieved because he was a doer. No matter what life gives him he didn’t make excuses for his disability and stood up for his dreams by using his skills.
Once a time a half year ago, I was passing through the street and suddenly a man with a disability came in front of me to sell his item but it was not of my work. I feel pity for him and get out some rupees outside of my pocket to give him in the name of Allah and he denied to get those rupees and said that despite the Physical disability of my legs God give me hands to work, So why I get these rupees without putting my effort. Then I realized that whatever happens with us is by the will of God and physical disability can’t limit your skills, dreams, and achievements. There are people who have disabilities but they are successful and there are also people having all body parts in working and they are unsuccessful. So the skills are the efforts of a person that can never be destroyed.
Whatever life gives you, if you got skills and you have will power to do anything, you’re going to achieve it. Most people with disabilities don’t consider them disabled. There is a quotation used by the disabled people ‘’ I’m not disabled. I’m differently-abled. ‘’ It is natural that a person with a disability has different options to perform or to enhance their skills and using that specific part of his body he/she can perform even better than those people who are not disabled. A person who has a physical disability like in case he loses his arms or legs or some other part of his body to perform his skills or tasks then they will go to the other option like If he is deprived of arms he will use his legs to write, eat, and to work and there are a lot of examples that we see in our daily life. It’s all about not giving up your efforts and perform your skills by using an alternative method.
In modern times there is a lot of equipment has been discovered that can be used by a person with a physical disability to be independent as possible. Wheelchairs are used by disabling people in that case that they can’t walk. Wheelchairs came in a wide variety of formats to meet the specific needs of disabled people. There are also powered wheelchairs that run on batteries and electric motors for the feasibility of disabled people. The prosthesis is an artificial device that can be used to replace the missing body part to perform the normal functions, which may be lost through trauma, disease, or some other conditions. It is designed by the hands as well as through the Computer-Aided Design. There are limb prostheses, wood, metal hands, body-powered arms, sockets, and wrists, etc.
There are Vision impairment glasses for people who have severe problems eyes. A hearing aid is a device that is used to improve hearing by making sound audible to a person with hearing loss. There are assistive canes for people who have not severe cases and they can walk by using this assistive cane stick used as a crutch or mobility aid. Special walking boots, Special eating utensils, and many more other inventions have been invented nowadays which can help people with disabilities to improve their lives and can do their work as independently as possible. Skills are made by a human by itself through its efforts. These devices can help a person to improve their physical disability but skills, as they are created by the person’s efforts, can’t get limited through a physical disability but however, there can be different ways to perform their skills by using other parts of the body or by using some scientific means. It’s all about the person will power.
Nicholas James Vujicic is an Australian Christian evangelist and motivational speaker born with tetra-amelia syndrome, an extremely rare congenital disorder characterized by the absence of all four limbs. Other areas of the body are also affected by malformations, such as the face, skull, reproductive organs, anus, and pelvis. He was physically disabled but he worked on his skills of speaking and acting which led him to be a successful motivational speaker and actor which shows that his physical disability didn’t limit his skills. It is a kind of impossible thing that a person with such severe physical disability can be a successful Christian evangelist and motivational speaker. A successful example shows that disability can never limit a person’s skill. In 2005, Vujicic founded Life Without Limbs, an international non-profit organization and ministry. In 2007, he founded Attitude is Altitude, a secular motivational speaking company .
At the 2010 Method Fest Independent Film Festival, he was awarded Best Actor in a Short Film for his starring performance as Will. One of the most famous quotations of Nicholas James Vujicic. He quoted that ‘’for every disability you have, you are blessed with more than enough abilities to overcome your challenges ’’. Moreover, the challenges that we face in our lives always strengthen a person’s capability and his will power. A person who faces challenges and find out a solution to his problems always succeed in his life, no matter what life gives him. Nicholas Vujicic also quoted on this ‘’ The challenges in our lives are there to strengthen our convictions. They are not there to run us over’’. Nick Vujicic a man without four limbs says that I’m not disabled and he thought he would never know happiness. But then he found his purpose, and with it, hope.
God gifted a person with different kinds of abilities. Now it comes to the efforts of the person how he finds out his abilities and how he works on himself to enhance his skills, abilities, and no matter what there is a solution to every problem. A successful man always finds a solution to his problems rather than making excuses for it. It can be difficult for a person with a physical disability to perform that specific task but ‘’necessity is the mother of invention’’. If you are supposed to do something, you will eventually get a suitable solution. It depends upon your skills and strength that keeps you on track.
Example #5 – Babies With Special Disabilities
Babies with special disabilities are portrayed by society to be below average in learning potential than a normal healthy baby. Scientists have proved that this assumption is not correct because babies process information from the instant they enter this world. Philosopher John Locke said that “Babies with special disabilities are viewed as blank tablets by society, however, babies with special disabilities are like computers.” These special babies are special to our society and need to be nurtured in their early years of childhood development with the right tools that will be essential for them in the future years of their life.
At birth, a baby’s brain is only one-fourth of an adult’s normal brain size in regards to special and regular babies. The difference is not that big, which leads to the question of how much a baby can really learn if they are given the essential nurturing in learning strategies at an early age? These children can excel if they are taught on a continuous basis from birth to their adult years. Babies are learning how to count at birth now according to John Piaget who is an early childhood scientist evaluating babies with disabilities. I watched a television show recently called “Mysteries of the Genius”, this show explained that people who are defined as genius’ are specially classified at birth, and are mainly portrayed as mentally retarded with a gifted sense of knowledge.
My thoughts on the matter were that children with disabilities cannot be mentally retarded if some of these kids are being classified as genius’, How can a genius be mentally retarded just because they have a special disability? Many recent studies in the study of early childhood brain development have shown that neuroscience has revolutionized our ideas about brain development. Babies can do much more than people thought they could do ten years ago, and they are not blank tablets as a society and other experts have assumed for centuries. These babies have a keen sense of adaptation to the environment that they are more accustomed to.
Their brains are designed to take advantage of multiple opportunities for development and I cannot understand why people would be so harsh on the way that these babies are gifted. It is recommended that parents and professional caregivers working with babies with disabilities should engage in everyday activities encouraging mutual interaction: encouraging sensory play, exploring objects, reading books, and singing simple songs. These examples being the best ways to maximize the baby’s brain development at an early age. These babies should be treated like gold mines because some of these children with special disabilities might hold the key to the future one day, this key to living and survival today is Knowledge.
Example #6 – Movies And Disability
Some will argue that a film, being essentially a means of entertainment, can do little to change a national consciousness. Others, citing the power of the medium, will claim that motion pictures possess this rare and extraordinary ability. These two opposing viewpoints are about to be put to the test with a pair of films that, while different in so many ways, have a number of fundamental similarities. The Miracle Worker” seems to have been ahead of its time in its accurate portrayal of disability. The film shows us that the young Helen Keller (Duke), blind and deaf from infancy, was treated as little more than a family pet before the arrival of her teacher, Ann Sullivan (Bancroft).
One of the central themes is how family attitudes tended to emotionally handicap young Helen. The movie effectively depicts the family’s low expectations of their disabled daughter and gives us a look into how physical disabilities were equated with mental disabilities in an earlier era. The portrayal of Helen and the other characters is accurate and forthright. The filmmakers don’t hold back to protect our sensibilities, and instead, provide a no-holds-barred view of the tragedy and the triumph of growing up and overcoming severe disability.
By the time Annie Sullivan came along in 1887 — nearly blind herself, haunted by her upbringing in an asylum and convinced that people looked down on her because her parents had been Irish immigrants — 6-year-old Helen was nobody’s darling. Frustrated by her inability to communicate, willful and carelessly spoiled by people who no longer wanted to be bothered with her, she threw hurricane-level tantrums that terrorized the household.
Annie taught her to finger-spell; demolished the barrier for Helen between the movements in her hand and the words, objects and ideas they represented; and opened up the world to her. Or did she? Controversy simmered throughout Helen’s life over who was doing the thinking that moved Helen’s fingers. Annie was the brains, her pupil merely the puppet, one contingent insisted, while another believed Helen had plenty of brains herself.
Example #7 – How People With Disabilities Are Viewed And Treated
We live in a society where people are judged for who they are and if they seem to have any type of flaws those flaws tend to make up who the person is. People with disabilities shouldn’t be judged by their disabilities. Our society has come a long way in accepting people with disabilities but we still have more to accomplish seeing as the harsh judgment still exists. We need to be able to live in a society where people do not judge, can accept others for who they are, and help others who may need some assistance or guidance due to a disability, especially children.
They are our society’s future. Just because they are disabled doesn’t mean they are not a part of the whole or that they cannot possibly make a positive difference in the world. As the author of the article, “A Child with Down Syndrome Keeps His Place at the Table” points out that we have made a lot of progress for children with Down syndrome in the United States. Most of that progress he points out is their right to go to school. They have progressed from just being recognized as needing to be “somewhere special”, a place of horrific mistreatment.
Such a place was exposed in a hidden camera documentary filmed by Geraldo Rivera in 1972 for severe neglect and mistreatment of the residence that all had some sort of disability. This place was Willow Brook State School and was located on Staten Island. His exposer to this school was a small part of a large change where advocates for the disabled, committed parents, as well as others, fought for the rights that are presently in place today. Even with the many advances in society there still remains open bigotry though not as much. Though most are discrete and not as straightforward forward the hostile judgment is still there.
The word “retard” is used in schoolyards between students and in movies but is not seen so much today as bigotry but as just being a bit “edgy”. Why as a society do we feel the need to dehumanize one another? Our society makes it very difficult for anyone with a disability to function freely in their own lives and to live without criticism. The author asks the question, “What is it about intellectual disabilities we find so difficult? ” The focus of these disabilities tends to be on the positive qualities such as being “cute” or “happy” or “sweet”.
This is meant to compensate for the disability. I see it as singling out a person because of their disability and using it as a way to make the disability easier to deal with and as a way to handle being around the person. I see this as being a bit degrading and selfish even. I believe that our society has come a long way in being able to accept people with disabilities. I also believe that we still have a ways to go. I have seen the good and the not so good in the way children with Down syndrome are accepted and/or treated because my niece Barbara has Down syndrome.
Barbara does not speak but her school has been wonderful in teaching her to communicate using sign language over the years and recently started using a speech-generating device. The device is to recognize the words she is saying and the words she is trying to say. The medical and educational treatment for children with Down syndrome has really improved over the years even just since the case at Willow Brook State School. Sadly, there are still reports of abuse in state-owned homes and hospitals for disabled individuals. I am sure that there are places that have cases of abuse that have not been reported.
Sometimes people just ignore what is going on because they fear they may lose their job. With the advances in mental health, careless people have to send their children into homes or hospitals. They are able to keep their children at home and receive in-home care and mobile therapy. The schools offer extra help for these children so that they are able to be more focused on getting all the help that they need. The schools also offer special outings and activities that are helpful in their education and to give them more of an opportunity to interact with their classmates.
The author of the article points out that he is a parent of a child with Down syndrome. With the subject being very personal to him he does not sound angry with the way the people in the restaurant were treated. He doesn’t seem to be judgmental in any way. He simply points out what happened and mentions facts relating to the situation. He does offer his opinion that the waiter in the story did the right thing in speaking out and standing up for the boy. Even though the waiter could have lost his job for speaking out, he still did.
I believe that the waiter did do the right thing and as the author pointed out, speaking out for the child shows that society has grown to accept people with disabilities and that they even have compassion for them. Should the waiter be considered a hero for standing up for someone who is being pointed out publicly for their disability? The author asks the same question. Personally, I don’t know if I can think of the act as heroic. I do believe as well that it was most definitely the right thing to do and it did take courage to say something knowing there was a risk of being fired.
I am very curious to know if the waiter’s boss was aware of the situation and if so what was their opinion on what happened? The author did not mention that in the story. I think it would have been important to point out if the boss was sympathetic toward the child and his family or if they agreed with the customer who made the remark. I find it very inspiring that despite the harsh words and uneducated thoughts people express toward people with disabilities, the people with the disability usually do not judge in return.
They clearly see the meanness coming from another person and they don’t have it in them to hold hard feelings. I wish we were all able to have such open and caring hearts. Why do we have such a selective view of things? Why do we have to be afraid of the things that are not “normal” to us? Having a disability does not make you less of a person. Having a disability means that you may have to work harder to do something that seems to come easily to anyone else. No person will ever be “perfect” so there is no reason for society to push the idea that anyone can be.
We are all flawed in one way or another. Our flaws are what make us unique and makeup who we are. The author pointed out that the child being in the restaurant made a statement that he was someone’s child. I don’t think we should have to explain or point out anything. The boy and his family should have been able to walk into the restaurant and sit down and enjoy their meal peacefully, as the man who made the remark would expect to happen for himself or anyone he may have been seated with.
If the boy became loud and disruptive then that should have been the issue not the simple fact that he was there and looked “different”. We live in a very intelligent world filled with many advances in technology yet we are not educated enough nor advanced enough to get along with one another. I think there should be more programs in schools to teach children more about life and basic lessons on being humane. The schools should have classes with specific lessons on mental health and disabilities.
If children are more familiar with these types of things they may be more accepting and less judgmental. For some reason, we tend to fear the unknown and are not always equipped with how to deal with our fears. With having so many issues today with bullying in schools it should be mandatory to have classes educating children on how to treat people, especially people with disabilities, and teach them it is not acceptable. I think being aware bigotry still exists and educating on the issue would make a big difference in getting us closer to a more accepting society.
Example #8 – Walk A Mile With A Disability
As of 5:00 p.m. on October 1 I became a hard-of-hearing (as opposed to deaf) mute. I achieved the hearing impairment simply by wearing earplugs and became mute simply by not saying a word for the rest of that day, as well as the following morning. The first discovery that I made was that my family (and probably everyone else) listens to the television at a ridiculously loud volume. Even though both of my ear canals were blocked, I had no problems understanding what was taking place on the programs that we watched. However, I did run into some trouble around dinner. We (my future in-laws) were saying the blessing, but I had to keep one eye open so I would know when the prayer was over.
Another interesting thing was that while driving with the earplugs in, I became more aware of the vibrations of my truck, the tires, and the bumps in the road. My tires are not the “normal” highway tire-even though they are perfectly legal-and they generate quite a bit of shaking. This shaking is odd to me though because it isn’t so obvious that I notice it any other day, but only when my hearing is impaired. The music in my truck also took on a new role. Usually, I use my speakers to drowned out the moaning of the tires, but now I have discovered that they can be used as a massage.
I have felt them thump against my back before, but that thump absent from sound became an aggressive back pounding. As for my driving experiences as a mute, everyone should try it as a way to defeat their road rage. It certainly stopped my meaningless comments, not to mention I felt better about myself when I got home. My biggest, yet far from profound, discovery in this experiment is related to speaking. Since the speech was no option for communication, I opted for the dry erase board as a form of communication. When writing is the only available form of communication ( I am ignorant of sign language) I tend to pick and choose carefully what is important enough to write down, as well as what is not.
This procedure eliminates useless conversation such as sarcasm, small talk, and meaningless comments, which I have always wanted (I thought) to get rid of anyway. Sure, I like to cut to the chase as much as the next guy, but I have started to think, as a result of my small experiment, that it is such small remarks that allow us to distinguish between one another, and to color the personality. I do not know if the great reward of a conversation absent of B.S. is worth the price of a weakened or watered down personality. Nevertheless, I am almost certain now that a mute person would give anything to be able to speak. I know, sadly enough, that it was all I could do to keep quiet for a measly eight hours. Which leads me to the conclusion that even though I am tempted to feel sorry for mute people, I probably should not since they sit back and watch all of us make fools of ourselves. A famous man once said, “A closed mouth gathers no foot”.
Example #9 – interesting ideas
Social security disability?
It would be the same in every state because you’re not dealing with a state, you’re dealing with the Federal Government. When I became disabled due to an injury on the job, every Dr. I saw, and I saw a lot of them for x-rays, examinations, and a battery of tests and then after that was all done and the Drs. said yes I am partially disabled and could no longer do what my profession demanded of me ( I was an A/C, Refrigeration & Heating Tech.)
I went to the Social Security office and took all my medical papers and was interviewed then went home. Some time went by and when I got a response it said I was to be seen by a Dr. that does exams for the Social Security Admin. I was denied. Again I applied and again I was denied. I finally had to hire a lawyer who got paid a percentage of what they owed me after 3 yrs. if we won, and I finally did.After 3 yrs. I got around $15,000. plus another $5,000. for my 2 kids, not to mention the $21,000. I got from my previous employer for settling. My monthly payments are just over $1,100. a mo. plus another $552. a mo. for my 2 kids.
Disability Insurance? I’m looking to purchase Disability Insurance and am having trouble trying to figure out the legal language. Are there any suggestions on what company to go with or are there major loopholes I need to watch out for? Any suggestions would be helpful!
Disability insurance pays an insured person an income when that person is unable to work because of an accident or illness. The answers to the questions below offer you more information about this coverage. What are the types of disability insurance? There are two types of disability policies: Short-Term Disability (STD) and Long-Term Disability (LTD):
- Short-Term Disability policies (STD) have a waiting period of 0 to 14 days with a maximum benefit period of no longer than two years.
- Long-Term Disability policies (LTD) have a waiting period of several weeks to several months with a maximum benefit period ranging from a few years to the rest of your life. Disability policies have two different protection features that are important to understand.
1. Noncancelable means the policy cannot be canceled by the insurance company, except for nonpayment of premiums. This gives you the right to renew the policy every year without an increase in the premium or a reduction in benefits.
2. Guaranteed renewable gives you the right to renew the policy with the same benefits and not have the policy canceled by the company. However, your insurer has the right to increase your premiums as long as it does so for all other policyholders in the same rating class as you.
In addition to the traditional disability policies, there are several options you should consider when purchasing a policy:
* Additional purchase options. Your insurance company gives you the right to buy additional insurance at a later time.
* Coordination of benefits. The amount of benefits you receive from your insurance company is dependent on other benefits you receive because of your disability. Your policy specifies a target amount you will receive from all the policies combined, so this policy will make up the difference not paid by other policies.
* Cost of living adjustment (COLA). The COLA increases your disability benefits over time based on the increased cost of living measured by the Consumer Price Index. You will pay a higher premium if you select the COLA.
* Residual or partial disability rider. This provision allows you to return to work part-time, collect part of your salary and receive a partial disability payment if you are still partially disabled.
* Return of premium. This provision requires the insurance company to refund part of your premium if no claims are made for a specific period of time declared in the policy.
* Waiver of premium provision. This clause means that you do not have to pay premiums on the policy after you’re disabled for 90 days.
How can I save money? There are two ways to keep the cost of disability insurance down:
1. Electing a longer waiting period before benefits begin. If you have enough resources to cover expenses during the first three months of disability, your premiums will be lower than with coverage that starts after 30 days.
2. Electing a shorter benefit period. In this case, benefits are payable to age 65—the age at which you would normally retire—instead of for a lifetime. However, choosing a benefit period of two-to-five years, ending before normal retirement age, could be penny-wise and pound-foolish. You might save money on premiums, but you could be without coverage when you need it most. Disability of long duration poses the greatest financial hardship.
Can you tell me your personal story about discrimination faced living with an invisible disability?
Answer. I was born with various physical Disabilities and I also have various acquired physical Disabilities. Some of my Disabilities are visible and some of my disabilities are invisible. One of the Disabilities that I have is chronic PAIN which is an invisible Disability. I am somewhat mobile but my pain has FORCED me to use Power Mobility Devices (PMDs) for mobility assistance.
I was at a major store one time and I was needing to use a store electric shopping cart. I told a person that I could not walk but the person seen me walking and did not believe me. The person did not realize that I could not walk far due to pain and could not stand up that long due to pain. The person absolutely refused to believe that I was extremely limited in walking and standing due to pain. (But at other times there has been people in the past that has noticed that I do have trouble walking and has asked me if I am all right.)
Can someone who has an honorable discharge, and is receiving 20% disability compensation, sign a new enlistment and still receive disability at the same time?
Answer. No. The disability payment comes from the VA system. Their criteria for awarding a disability is comparing your health AFTER service to your health BEFORE service. The military branches use a different system. The military branches are concerned about your ability to do the job and your ability to be deployed worldwide. They do not care what the VA says. Let’s your disability was due to a neck operation. The VA will give you a 30% rating due to a decrease in neck motion and what have you. But the Army will look at it and if it is a minor problem that would not prevent you from doing your job and being deployed, it is unimportant.
Now let’s say your disability is insulin-dependent diabetes. The VA will give you a rating based upon the fact you did not have it when you joined the first time. It is a health condition that came upon you during service. The Army will look at it and even though you can do the job, you can not be deployed because insulin has to be kept in a fridge and that prevents you from being deployed to a desert. So the Army will not take you back in. Again, it does not matter what the VA said.
Let’s assume you can go back in according to the Army criteria, you can not receive ANY kind of VA disability payment while on active duty. You go back on active duty, you lose the disability. However, when you get off of active duty again, you can apply for a VA disability again and you may get a higher rating, especially if you incur new problems while on active duty the second time around. That is all part and parcel with the fact you can not get a military retirement AND full VA disability benefits because historically they do not allow concurrent receipt of both benefits.
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