The cold war spawned many different third world rebellions and affected many small countries during its course. The cold war occurred after World War 2 between two main opposing sides: the United States and the USSR. The reason for the conflict between the two world superpowers was the differential views on government and the politically correct society.
The term ‘First, Second, and Third world countries’ applies to their association during the Cold war era. First world countries were the countries associated with the United States and its other non-communist industrial allies. The countries supporting communism allied with the USSR and they were referred to as second world countries. Third world countries had an association with neither the first nor the second world countries. Third world countries remained neutral throughout the Cold War.
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The Cold war was produced by anti-capitalism and anti-communism feelings from the United States to the USSR and visa-versa. The opposing viewpoints started appearing shortly before World War 2. During the beginnings of the Cold war, Joseph Stalin was the leader of the Soviet Union. He led the Soviet Union to major communist empowerment. In 1927, he made a remark to describe the tension that was building.
“The period of ‘peaceful coexistence’ is receding into the past, giving way to a period of imperialist attacks…” “ Our relations with the capitalist countries are based on the assumption that the coexistence of the two opposing systems is possible. The practice has fully confirmed this.” One view on the use of ‘peaceful coexistence’ was that it was a tactic used by the USSR to keep the United States off guard.
The United States accused the USSR of seeking to expand communism throughout the world. The USSR however, accused the United States of practicing Imperialism and with attempting to stop the revolutionary activity. Even when denying the accusation of spreading communism throughout the world, the USSR was supporting insurgent revolutions in Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
After the devastation of World War 2, many western European countries became susceptible to communism. To help prevent this, the United States proposed a program called the Marshall Plan to help rebuild the distraught economies. During 1945 and early 1946, the USSR made efforts to cut off contact with the western countries.
No communications were sent between the communists and the capitalists. The USSR also expanded their communist rule in the countries of Bulgaria, Romania, Hungry, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Albania. A treaty called the Warsaw Pact was created to put several eastern European countries under USSR military command. The Warsaw Pact was created in response to the formation of NATO.
Throughout the Cold war, Anti-communism feelings within the United States led to a series of actions delivered by the government. McCarthyism spread throughout the country. McCarthyism is the term for the incrimination of people suspected of being or helping the growth of Communism. During the inaugural address of John F. Kennedy in 1961, Kennedy stated a pledge toward communists and its allies. “Let every nation know, whether it wishes us hell or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty.” He proposed efforts to recruit allies within Latin America.
“To our sister republics south of our border, we offer a special pledge- to convert our good words into good deeds – in a new alliance for progress- to assist free men and governments in casting off the chains of poverty. But this peaceful revolution of hope cannot become the prey of hostile powers.” These ideas of preserving capitalism resulted in the declaration of the Truman doctrine, proposed by President Truman.
The Truman doctrine was the policy of the United States to send troops to any nation that was threatened by communism during the cold war era. O.K., Armstrong, the Missouri representative delivered a blunt and devastating speech aimed directly toward communist countries on February 22, 1952. “…Communism must be defeated. It must be destroyed. Its virus must be eradicated. Its grip upon the people must be broken. Its victims must be liberated.
Unless this is done, freedom will die, slowly but inevitably, all over the world.” Many people, including President Reagan, saw the USSR as an “Evil Empire”. But also believed that the Russians respected military strength first and foremost. Therefore, Reagan set out to extensively strengthen America’s military capabilities. This belief was the basis on which the start of the Arms race began.
The Arms race was the race between the United States and the USSR to build and have a larger army, navy, and air force, than the other country. President Eisenhower delivered his farewell address on January 17, 1961, stating: “…We can no longer risk emergency improvisation of national defense; we have been compelled to create a permanent armaments industry of vast proportions.” “… Three and a half million men and women are directly engaged in the defense establishment.
We annually spend on military security more than the net income of all United States corporations.” During the progress of the cold war, the Russians had built hundreds and/or thousands of intermediate-range missiles. These, in Russia, were of no threat to the United States, but when they were placed in Cuba, the United States came into imminent danger. This led to the development of the Cuban Missile Crisis.
The Cuban revolution brought the communist powers into the Western Hemisphere as Cuba was the only communist country in the west. Fidel Castro came into power in 1959. Cuba then severed diplomatic ties to the United States and reinstated new relations with the USSR. The Soviet Union then presented Cuba with nuclear missiles. President Kennedy addressed this problem in a statement delivered on October 22, 1962.
“It shall the policy of this nation, to regard any nuclear missile launched from Cuba against any nation in the Western Hemisphere, as an attack by the Soviet Union on the United States.” This led to the Cuban missile crisis. The Cuban missile crisis was the number of days in which nuclear missiles were placed in Cuba. The United States threatened to invade, but the USSR agreed to withdraw the missiles from Cuba.
During the length of the cold war, often, many previously third world countries were drawn into the fight between the two superpowers. In 1945, the United States and the USSR divided Korea in order for the surrender of the Japanese troops. The resulting independence of Korea led to the competition of communism and nationalism. The USSR pledged support to Kin Il Sung and the “People’s Korea” in the communist north.
The United States pledged support to Syngman Rhee and the Republic of Korea (ROK) in the nationalist south. China also gave support to the “People’s Korea” in the north. Russian troops withdrew from Korea after a period of time, due to the fear of the effects of their presence on United States-Soviet relations. After China’s intervention within the Korean War, American troops were withdrawn from South Korea. An Armistice was signed on July 27, 1953. There were over 110,000 American casualties. As to the present day, Korea is still divided into its Communist north and Nationalist south.
After France’s loss in the Indochina war, Vietnam was split into two portions, the North and the South. The Viet Minh concentrated in the North while the French and their supporters went to the southern half. The USSR and China helped supply North Vietnam with war supplies but did not support directly with troops.
The United States believed strongly that if Communism overtook all of Vietnam, all of Southeast Asia would follow in suit. The American government, therefore, sent troops and war materials into Vietnam and tried to suppress the communist north. After mass protests at home, the troops were withdrawn. Shortly after however, the South Vietnamese surrendered.
In conclusion, the cold war affected many third world countries negatively. Many third world countries participated in civil wars amongst its people, only as a result of the rivalry between the United States and the USSR. The opposing viewpoints between the two nations had caused an outbreak of civil wars, crises, and standoffs.
In the post World War II era, a war arose between the Soviet Union and the United States, but in reality, there was never really any documented fighting between the two nations, thus spawning the catchphrase Cold War. Even though both countries were ready to go to war in the blink of an eye and almost did, the powers-that-be never got the nerve to authorize a nuclear war that would have made World War II look like children play.
This was a war fought in the political ring and was also a war that did not start at the end of World War II, this war started during the war against Hitler and lasted for forty more years before peace became predominant over the crumbling Soviet Union. Many events occurred in this political heavyweight bout, and both sides can be blamed for the extremity the tensions escalated to, and this Cold War would have been tough to avoid taking into account the political beliefs of the countries at hand.
During the war, once the Allied powers from the west joined forces with Stalin’s Red Army, trouble was inevitable. Luckily for the world, America had a great leader and foreign diplomat in Franklin D. Roosevelt while England countered with Winston Churchill. This duo created a steady working relationship with Stalin, thus creating the Big Three and the Grand Alliance. Even though it was far from a perfect relationship, all three diplomats realized the task at hand, the mandate of stopping Adolph Hitler and the Nazi regime of Germany.
Sadly, this priority overwhelmed the Big Three, and no solution was ever conjured up on how to handle the Post-War situation in Europe and Asia following an Allied victory. Understandably, stopping Hitler was far from guaranteed, but any plan that was taken by the Allies in Europe never even considered the implications of how to handle the war-torn countries of Eastern Europe afterward, an area that the Soviets had suffered many casualties and other losses to free from fascist control.
The few problems with Churchill and Roosevelt is that they both tended to do things their own way, sometimes leaving Stalin out to dry, and also relied heavily on their own diplomatic skills, leaving other politicians out of the foreign policy matters for each country. While many United States Government officials were not fans of Stalin, they all realized the urgency in having him on their side of the fight.
In reality, no one in the government knew how to handle Stalin except for Roosevelt, which creates one of the first major events of the Cold War: the death of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. With Roosevelt dying, the foreign policy of the United States was about to do a complete 180 in reverse. Suddenly, all the cabinet and legislative members have a significant role in the diplomatic world, a world they had previously been shut out of for over a decade. In the middle lies a man who had not a clue about what he was getting himself into.
Harry Truman was about to get in way over his head, and absolutely being Roosevelt s fault, Truman was about to get into a situation he was almost completely unfamiliar with. Poor Truman had been briefed but only once in the matters involving the war, and the decisions he was about to make would shape the world forever. With Roosevelt being a pacifist with Stalin, a decent working relationship evolved between the two, and some glimmer of hope can be seen to this day about what could have happened if Roosevelt did not die and kept up the good standing with Russia.
Imagining Stalin s reaction after the Yalta Conference with Roosevelt to that of the Potsdam Conference just months after Roosevelt s death with Truman at the helm is very aggressive towards Communism in Eastern Europe is almost comical if the severity of the situation is not understood. This must be noted as one of the building blocks of the Cold War with Russia because this marks the official point where America s stance towards Stalin and Communism changes drastically and the time where Truman begins his diplomatic journey with the forces in the Soviet Union, one that will engulf him for the rest of his tenure in office.
This also must be noted as being America s fault. A country s attitudes cannot visually and verbally change so radically so quickly. Roosevelt should have briefed Truman heavily on dealing with Stalin. America could stay on Stalin s good side, leaving some remote chance of having a settlement work itself out after the war. An angry Stalin is much harder to reason with than a content Stalin, especially taking into consideration that he was absolutely insane, something you can t play with carelessly.
The next event that shaped the world s history and marked the official beginning of the Cold War was the dropping of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima. After talking with Russia and getting their consent on joining the war on Japan, the United States again acts wrong and hastily by dropping a device that blew up the city of Hiroshima. The agreement was with Russia that on August 8th, the Soviet Union would declare war on Japan.
Taking this into account, the United States went ahead and dropped the bomb on August 6th, two days before. In another bold and careless move, the second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. This bomb was dropped before the Japanese even received an ultimatum from the United States about an unconditional surrender before they will destroy another city with one of their new weapons.
That aside, the pertinent issue is that America did not even talk to Russia about their plans to drop the bomb before it was already done. So, the Red Army had to use the resources, raw materials, and not to mention the man-power to move their troops over to Japan from Eastern Europe, something that was taking in the ballpark of three months. Once they officially got there, the war is over, and the United States gives them a bold statement by ending the war so violently and quickly while letting the Russians know that the U.S. does not need or want their help anymore.
Also, the Russians probably realized that the Americans do not want them anywhere in Asia, where Communism could spread, in fact, the United States did not want to have to share occupation of Japan with the Russians, something that probably frustrated Stalin. The Americans also wanted to demonstrate the power of the bomb, and give Stalin a reason to be fearful of the powerful United States, so no troubles will arise in the post-war era.
If only the United States would have conversed with Stalin briefly about their plans, maybe dropping the bomb would not have been so daunting and unnecessary. Shunning the Soviet Union to end the war with Japan without any further interactions in Asia was the first Cold War maneuver of many to come from both sides.
The United States was out to better their own country, and all the while not promoting any kind of unity between the superpowers, something that democracy is supposed to be all about. Undoubtedly, one of the more important Cold War origins belonged to the region of Eastern Europe, where turmoil between the Western powers and Russia lasted for decades.
Russia, sacrificing so much to stop Hitler, desperately wanted the countries of Eastern Europe, with an emphasis on Poland. On the other hand, the United States demanded that Poland be a democracy where free elections would be held. This is certainly where the Cold War escalates, as Russia breaks a promise to uphold free elections in Poland in the late 40 s and early 50 s, something that does not sit well with Truman and his government.
Through this whole debate, Stalin vehemently states that the United States is not being sympathetic to the Soviet Union. For all that the U.S.S.R. gave up during the war, they felt Poland should be theirs, but more importantly, they felt that Poland was a major security issue. The past two World Wars saw Russia being invaded through Poland, and they felt that this could simply not happen again, therefore, they wanted control so they could establish military and political defenses to any country wanting to attack Russia.
This, along with the same reasoning behind other Eastern European countries, including a separated Germany, became a major debate of the Cold War where tensions almost lead to war. Russia felt that the West should establish their own capital in West Germany and let the Russians have Berlin since Berlin falls in East Germany, yet another major Eastern European conflict.
This was more Russia s fault for having such heavy tension in this area, but one can certainly understand where Russia is coming from in wanting more control over this volatile region. On the other hand, breaking a promise to hold free elections, especially in a region where popular opinion is believed to would rather have a democracy is certainly an undeniable problem for both sides of the Cold War.
Hostility in Eastern Europe was unavoidable, especially with the lack of communication during the war over the plans on what exactly to do with this area after 1945. Other events that transpired in the beginnings of this long and potentially devastating Cold War was two documents in particular produced by the American Government. With forced pressure from the interior government, Harry Truman and his administration took an aggressive stance on Communism, at any and all costs.
The first document was a speech by Harry Truman given in the spring of 1947. The document was considered a Cold War Biproxy and has gone down in history as laying a foundation for foreign policy and is called the Truman Doctrine. The main goal for this was to back up anyone fighting Communist aggression. At any chance of stopping Communism from spreading, the United States was prepared to stop any movement by Communist countries into free countries throughout the world.
It was truly the first document proclaiming the United States as the World Policeman against Communism and just amplified the fact that America is no longer an isolationist country and our involvement in the global spectrum became very evident. The other very significant document in American Cold War foreign policy was NSC-68, a document brought together by the National Security Council in 1950, a relatively new organization set up to create a department of defense, as well as the Central Intelligence Agency.
This document just expanded thoroughly on the Truman doctrine and packed the muscle behind America s new foreign policy. NSC-68 called for an immediate upgrade of our defense systems. This was a pure military move and would cost over $35 billion dollars a year. The threat of massive retaliation started to surface from this as well, and the threat of a nuclear war was ever-present, especially with the Russians successfully testing an atomic bomb in 1949.
This just called for an increase in nuclear armament, and if a war broke out, this document would guarantee that if the United States would have to fight to the death, they would, and they would also go down in a blaze of glory if necessary. This marked the first guarantee of a massive military response to any Communist forces wanting to test the waters of democracy. This was also about the time where the rollback theory came into play, and Americans debated about not just stopping but penetrating any Communist movements.
These bold documents from the United States marked the beginnings of the height of the Cold War that would come about roughly ten years later, where if a large scale battle broke out with Russia or China, human and land losses would be atrocious. The origins of the Cold War would be one-sided and incomplete if it did not include the actions that were occurring in Russia.
An unorganized government, led by a drunken and insane leader who makes diplomatic decisions at four in the morning is certainly a cause for action. The fact must be brought forth of the human casualties suffered in Russia by the government and the military. Individuals did not enjoy the freedom to think for themselves in Russia, and if a Russian decided to speak out or question authority, he would be killed with no remorse.
The fact of the matter is that many millions of Russian citizens were being massacred by their own government. That certainly is a large reason for concern. Any alternative scenarios to avoid any Cold War conflicts would have ended with these atrocities. The United States could not have negotiated for Russia to cease these actions, so even though America could have reacted better to some events during and after the war, Russia still would not have been easy to deal with when it came to their own country, not to mention Eastern Europe.
The Cold War was more than likely inevitable, but it probably could have transpired more peacefully and definitely not on such a grand level. Someone that crazy as Stalin was and consequences so heavy as letting Russia into Eastern Europe could not be ignored, and the Americans had every right to stop the advancement of Russia into Poland.
The Polish would not want to suffer those horrendous acts of oppression, and if the United States wanted to be the policeman of the world and stop these human rights violations, then Russia is the perfect place to start. The United States certainly did not always act brilliantly, and indeed they caused plenty of their own problems by a lack of good communication, but Russia was just as much to blame for the tensions throughout the world during the origins of the Cold War in the late 1940 s to early 50 s.
The Cold War was the time period from 1945 to 1990 where there were constant tension and struggle between the United States and its allies and the Soviet Union and its allies. Actual military conflict never occurred, but there were great amounts of hostility and rivalry between the two sides, as well as intense clashes of economic and diplomatic policies.
After almost a century of peace, feelings of uneasiness and distrust settled between the two countries after the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917 when the Communists gained control of Russia, established the Soviet Union. The newly developed Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, known as the USSR, declared ideological war against all western capitalist nations.
Disapproving of this new type of government, the U.S. tried to intervene, sending over 10,000 troops from 1918-1920. They also refused to officially recognize the state until 1933. (Encarta 1997, 1) Fighting together against Germany during World War II created an alliance, although it did not last for long. The friendship rapidly began to dissipate due to disagreements over the reconstruction of Eastern Europe.
The Russian leader, Joseph Stalin, wanted to increase his hold on the area and institute Communism upon its people, and it was up to the U.S to lead the fight against it. Feelings of distrust heightened when both sides failed to honor promises and agreements previously made. The two countries had gone from wartime allies to bitter enemies. (Cayton, Perry, Reed, and Winkler, 1999, 535)
In 1945, the U.S wanted to open Europe for free capitalist trade, but the USSR disagreed. The Truman Doctrine was issued in March of 1947, which stated that the U.S. would defend all free peoples who are resisting subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressures.
Russia was on a mission for world conquest, and the United States vowed to intervene wherever communism threatened (Cayton, Perry, Reed, and Winkler, 1999, 535). The term cold war was first used by Bernard Baruch in a speech referring to the Truman Doctrine, and thus it came to be known as The Cold War. In 1948, the United States passed the Marshall Plan, which allotted $13 billion to rebuild war-ravaged Europe, but Eastern Europe was forced to turn down the aid under Soviet pressure.
Tensions continued to worsen between the two superpowers and in 1949 the capitalist forces set up a military alliance called the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The eastern communist forces followed by establishing the Warsaw Pact in 1955. Also in 1949, the Cold War broadened with the explosion of the Soviet s first atomic bomb, and a new rivalry began in the race to create sophisticated military weapons. In 1953, Communist North Korea invaded South Korea and Truman sent military aid.
Three years later, the war ended and the border remained intact. Also in 1953, Stalin died and Truman left office, but the Cold War continued on. The Cubans became a Soviet ally in 1959 which would lead to great problems in later years. ( Cold War Chronology 1999). In 1961 the Berlin Wall was built in an attempt to protect Communist East Germany from outside forces. The race to gain control of newly developing countries in the Eastern Hemisphere continued with growing intensity.
The height of the Cold War occurred in October 1962 during the Cuban Missile Crisis. The USSR placed missiles in Cuba, which resulted in a direct confrontation between the Soviets and the U.S. For 12 days, the 2 powers came frighteningly close to nuclear war. President Kennedy threatened to retaliate with nuclear weapons and forced the new Russian leader, Nikita Khrushchev, to back down and dismantle the missiles as well as promise not to invade China (Johnston 1998, Cold War. ).
The United States continued the fight against Communism in entering the Vietnam War in 1964, which lasted for nearly 11 years and ended in the loss of nearly 57,000 American lives and a defeat. The conflict added to the hostility between communist and capitalist. In 1973, the two powers had agreed on a state of d tente in an effort to slow down the costly arms race and competition for control of Third World countries (Encarta 1997, 2), however, this policy did not last for long.
The USSR invaded Afghanistan in an attempt to preserve their Socialist regime, and the rivalry again flared with a vengeance. Adding to the tensions, newly elected President Ronald Reagan publicly called the Soviet an evil empire, ( Cold War Chronology, 1999) and initiated aggressive foreign policies in an effort to curb Communism. Between 1980-89, the focal point of the conflict was the intensification of the arms race, and the race of the space program, which popularly became known as Star Wars.
In 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in the USSR, and thus began the easing of the conflict. NATO and the Warsaw Pact formed treaties, the Soviet troops in Afghanistan were removed, and the Berlin Wall was finally taken down in 1989 (Johnston 1998, The Cold War). An official end to the Cold War was declared in December 1989. Eastern European nations were freed, the two Germanys became one, the arms race was cut back, and Communism was overall discredited (Encarta 1997, 2).
The Cold War was an intense conflict that lasted for almost 45 years. It began with trying to prevent the spread of Communism and developed into things such as the race for nuclear weapons, Star Wars, and several close conflicts such as the Cuban Missile Crisis, and the Korean War. The Cold War was a frightening period in history, there was always the possibility of disaster hanging in the air.
In this paper, I will discuss what actions and thoughts added up to cause the cold war. The cold war lasted from September 1, 1945, to about December 25, 1991. That is about forty-five years, which is an extremely long time. The cold war was a global competition basically between two sides, the Free World, which was led by the United States of America, and the Communist World led by the Soviet Union.
The struggle took place through indirect military conflict, and direct competition in the areas of economics, diplomacy, culture, space exploration, and political theory. It also involved nuclear stand-offs, espionage, and global competition for other nations. The cold war has established the framework for most international and national policy decisions.
The United States’ goals were to defend Western Europe, contain Soviet and Communist expansion, and to prevent nuclear war. The Americans had an estimated twenty-four million veterans participating in the cold war and spent over twelve trillion dollars on it as well. The results for America were that we maintained the achievements of our victory in World War II, avoided/prevented global nuclear war, and unified Germany.
We also directly freed 400 million people in ten different European nations from the bondage of Communism. We did this in the Soviet Union, East Germany, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Rumania, Bulgaria, Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania. The United States also indirectly assisted in the freeing or relieving of tension/control on the peoples of Albania, Yugoslavia, Finland, and Mongolia.
Basically, the two pick players in the cold war were the United States and the Soviet Union. At the end of World War II, the relations between these two countries had deteriorated. They became rivals and the tension built up into the creation of the cold war. Things especially heated up between the two when the Soviet Union would not accept the offer from America to give reparations for after the war.
This aid was offered through the Truman Doctrine, which happened in March 1947. What it stated was that American aid was being offered to European countries that bordered onto Communist countries. The Marshall Plan, in June of 1947, which offered aid outside of Europe to stop the spread of Communism-called containment.
Then the USSR set up Comminform in September 1947. Stalin said was a news agency, but really it was a means of resistance to the Marshall Plan in Western Europe and to consolidate Soviet control over the countries of Eastern Europe.
The Soviet ambassador to the United States was Novikov at the time. Novikov suggested that the United States wanted to form a Western European alliance directly against the Soviet Union. He felt that the Truman Doctrine was the first step towards this goal, but it had been too harsh to attract any European support. Then he said that the Marshall Plan represented a more appealing tactic to involve the Western Europeans in the creation of an anti-Soviet alliance.
However apparently the United States was not just pressuring Western Europe, but Eastern Europe as well. This partially, made the Soviet Union very angry. Maybe if the Marshall Plan had been limited to just Western Europe, maybe it would have been less threatening to the Soviet Union and might not have had such repercussions, as well. Once the Marshall Plan was in place the Soviet government moved quickly to gain its control over Europe.
Then there was the whole arms race, which took place mainly between the Soviet Union and the United States, again. The USSR got extremely annoyed not to know about America’s atom bomb in 1945. However, the USSR got their own atom bomb in 1949 and then both sides began to stock up on weapons to arm themselves.
The Soviets took the American bombing on Japan as an American motive to intimidate Josef Stalin of the Soviet Union. The existence of nuclear weapons prevented an all-out war, possibly World War III, between the Soviet Union and The United States. Both sides realized that since they both have nuclear weapons what good would it be to use them because they would destroy each other.
So basically there were numerous things that took place that added up to the creation of the cold war. Nobody can pick out one event and say that it caused the cold war, because it was definitely more than one thing.
Example #5 – The Impact Of The Cold War On The Cold War
As the Cold War started to intensify, President Eisenhower began to worry about the strength of the US economy. The Dulles Brothers, along with the president viewed the communist threat through the same prism. They then decided on foreign policy to fight against communist expansion. Picture The Cold War affected the Dulles Brothers greatly.
They were taught, from a young age that Soviet leaders were plotting to take over the world and that they would use any means to ensure victory which meant the end of civilization. Therefore, they should be resisted by every means, no matter how distasteful. The Dulles Brothers admired this worldview. They crystallized the Cold War paradigm and wanted to stop the Soviet Union from taking over the world and expanding communism.
Click Here to find out more about Communism “The Cold War isn’t thawing; it is burning with a deadly heat. Communism isn’t sleeping, it is, as always, plotting, scheming, working, fighting”. -Richard M. Nixon John and Allen have spent decades of work defending the interests of America’s biggest multinational corporations. They were among the visionaries who developed the idea of corporate globalism- what they and other founders of the Council on Foreign Relations called “liberal internationalism.”
Eisenhower was the one who chose John Foster to be secretary of state. He also gave Allen the job of being head of the CIA. This gave the two figures immense power and control over the US and they were greatly respected by the citizens, despite the fact that they had an obsessive hatred for socialism.
Eisenhower gave them the opportunity to do whatever, so long as it goes by their views. “With a glance, a nod, and a few words, without consulting anyone other than the president, the brothers could mobilize the full power of the United States anywhere in the world.”
Example #6 – The Cold War Battle
The battle of the Cold War was the first time in U.S. history in which military technology had developed to a point that mutual annihilation was ensured. The presence of two global superpowers, each diametrically opposed to the other on the basis of political belief meant that there had to be a new way of dealing with foreign affairs.
Pure isolationism would not work because of Soviet leaders and their desire to actively export their brand of communism to the world. This competed with American interests which simultaneously rued pursuing another world war and which had no desire to see such an oppressive brand of politics from rapidly taking over the globe.
As such, the foreign policy known as Containment developed, which helped exhaust the Soviet economy and prevent an active war from breaking out between the Western world and the Communist one. Containment as a foreign policy was instrumental in bringing about the demise of the Soviet Union as evidenced by its unique birth and nature, its effects on the Soviet Union, and Ronald Reagan’s escalation of it during his Presidential term.
The use of Containment as a foreign policy during the Cold War is to examine a long and varied history of foreign policy initiatives that were tremendously varied because of the differences in foreign policymakers (and Presidents) that espoused them. The beginnings of American-Soviet relations were anything but hostile. Despite the public opinion of Communism, Roosevelt and Stalin really did share a fondness for each other.
Stalin was outspoken about his fascination with Roosevelt, making sure not to hide his fondness for FDR which amazed [his fellow diplomats] because his character was so harsh that he rarely bestowed his sympathy on anyone from another social system (Montefiore, 1012). Roosevelt also claimed on his fireside chats that he got along with Stalin quite well and that the Communists were allies in their fight against Hitler.
On one hand, the media foundation had an impact on sweetening the relationship, building up “a surge of articles, books, and movies [instructing] Americans to bless the Kremlin” (McDougall, 154). Then again, just 50% of Americans guaranteed that they would be open to thinking about the Soviet’s partners after the war (McDougall, 155).
The beginnings of the arrangement along these lines got themselves borne out of the doubt that Americans felt with Communists standing out from Roosevelt’s rehashed claims that the Communists were great individuals and that they had no motivation to stress over anything awful occurring. However, the Soviets immediately demonstrated that they were determined to expanding their very own capacity while taking as much from the West as they could.
Socialist covert agents penetrated American bureaucratic systems and implanted themselves in upper levels of administration to the suspicious caution of the general masses, most broadly in the Manhattan venture (Montefiore, 1038). The American open and lawmakers were naturally panicked, and the political system for defaming the Soviets had been set.
They were never again observed as considerate partners’ expectation on keeping peace inside the world, however as asset hungry oppressors, giving it their best shot to send out their particular image of governmental issues. It rapidly turned out to be evident that Stalin was not content with the reparations that came after the war.
The Soviet government was giving it its best shot to help along growing Communist transformations in different nations, supporting “Greece where Communist extremists offer for control, Turkey which the Soviets squeezed for fringe amendments and maritime entry through the straits, [and] Iran where they positioned troops infringing upon Allied accords” (McDougall, 159).
In this condition, American authorities got themselves progressively under strain to force some sort of stopgap on Soviet development without raising clash to the point of the war. Undoubtedly, the quick strategy of the time in those befuddling after war years was to just embrace a “what’s yours will be yours, what’s mine will be mine” approach with Russia with the end goal to stay away from genuine military battling between the two forces (McDougall, 158).
The emergency, at last, reached a crucial stage when Britain declared that they would never again have the capacity to monetarily bolster Greece and Turkey, basically leaving a power vacuum which would have been filled by the Soviet’s if the western world did not act to confine their entrance (McDougall, 162).
The prospects were clear; if the Americans did not act to stop Soviet development, at that point it would proceed unchecked spreading crosswise over weaker countries in Asia, Africa, and southern Europe (McDougall, 163). Conclusions of the two nations between one another started to acrid as well, prompting an expanded want to embrace some sort of control arrangement.
The Soviet supposition of authority American remote arrangements was not helpful for amicable relations once the war finished. Control ended up ending up more appealing as a strategy the more the Soviets and Americans questioned one another. Stalin reliably played his nation off as submitting to Western requests and in that capacity painted himself as the poor focus of out-of-line requests.
As a general rule, the United States “acknowledged Stalin’s maintenance of the grounds he had snatched while a partner of Hitler, acknowledged his favored Polish limits [and] offered the USSR a veto in the Security Council” (McDougall, 157). American’s could basically not trust that they were simply the foes in the relationship or get themselves ready to overlook that Russia was a ruthless tyranny kept running by a tyrant plan on overwhelming every last bit of land he could get.
The circumstance compounded when Stalin proclaimed that any participation between the “warlike colonialist camp and the peace-adoring communist camp” was inconceivable and this was the motivator for the Soviet people groups to expand their endeavors at industrializing and mobilizing (McDougall, 159).
Western governments at long last comprehended that there would be no simple method to manage the developing Soviet risk, particularly when assuaging a pioneer who was clarifying that he would wind up hungrier for power the more he was mollified (McDougall, 165).
American feeling of the Soviets had unmistakably declined when it was comprehended that the Soviets were not going to stop their activities at any point in the near future. The Soviets had possessed the capacity to keep an eye on American and British nuclear research ventures, sending vital data back to Moscow so the Soviets could build up their own bombs, a prospect that scared the separate governments (McDougall, 159).
Stalin’s activities at Yalta just served to intensify the circumstance as he declined to bow to any Western requests for the surrender of intensity and constrained the British and the Americans to give him command over East Germany (McDougall, 157).
The Americans additionally understood that Soviet nationals were “anxious people groups under the Kremlin’s thumb” and wanted opportunity from their severe abuse and focal arranging of their administration (McDougall, 168). The Americans knew and comprehended this was a prosecution and that the Soviets would effectively undermine the collaboration between the Western world’s legislatures and its people groups.
In this manner, Containment at long last solidified into a total remote arrangement framework that was a result of a few variables. To begin with, the breakdown of European and Asian powers after the overwhelming physical pulverization created by WWII implied that they would never again be a practical contender for checking Soviet political extension.
The solidness of their money related frameworks left them open to developing Soviet military influence which they had demonstrated they were able and willing to utilize (McDougall, 165). Second, Stalin’s conduct at Yalta demonstrated toward the Western world that he was not willing to acknowledge requests that would restrain his capacity or stem the fare of Stalinist legislative issues to different nations.
He was just ready to be conciliated and this incensed American political authorities and nationals who felt that the little confidence they held in Soviet government officials had been broken by over and over forceful activities and talks (McDougall, 157). Third, Hitler’s attack of Europe had demonstrated that military power was the main dialect that tyrants could get it.
Any liberal pacification would just serve to reinforce their certainty and patriot talk would be utilized to set Soviet residents against American ones paying little mind to America’s position on Soviet issues (McDougall, 157). At last, the developing Soviet military joined with their procurement of long-run rockets and atomic weapons implied that American’s could never again exploit being at a significant separation from any world war.
The Soviets would have the capacity to assault America without requiring one Soviet trooper to step foot on American soil, consequently driving American military authorities to concede that power had now leveled between the two superpowers (McDougall, 165).
The informal approach had been made, and it was marked into law with National Security Council reminder 68, in this way upholding the “quick development of atomic and traditional powers with the end goal to bring U.S. control in accordance with its duties” (McDougall, 165).
It served to give a measurable, composed technique in which military and open authorities could stem the developing intensity of the Soviets while as yet dodging any genuine military clash that would without a doubt demolish the two superpowers. The arrangement spoke to American voters since it transformed the expectation the US put into the United Nations into displeasure against the Soviet Union for endeavoring to maneuver the world once more into an overwhelming world war.
It additionally helped Americans that an equalization to remember control between mainlands was important to U.S. security with the goal that the development of one district was checked by the advances of another (McDougall, 166).
Maybe the most essential factor in the presentation of the notice was a discernable sense that the Soviet government was “submitted fanatically to the conviction that with the US it is alluring and fundamental that the inner concordance of [the] society be disturbed, [the] customary lifestyle be devastated, [and] the worldwide expert of [the] state be broken” (McDougall, 160).
Stalin and his legislature were prepared to do whatever was important to advance conflict inside Western governments and set the nations against one another while subverting Western organizations.
The utilization of NSC 68 was not without debate. It legitimized and sanctioned the huge uses that were important to keep up a tremendous military complex that was equipped for scaring the Soviets. It additionally requested higher duties and “government intercession in science, instruction, business, and work” (McDougall, 169).
Some contended that the innate imperfection with the reminder was that it embraced war-time approaches without a real revelation of it; implying that there would be not a single end to be found and that the Soviets and Americans would continually be in a condition of uneasiness, stressing over the activities of the other. It was likewise politically unapproachable and was viewed as an important part of the American outside approach until the administration of Ronald Reagan.
The program itself additionally experienced a few structures, waxing and melting away as far as military quality, molding itself to fit the perspective of what the President saw fit (McDougall, 170). Truman’s perspective of the remote approach introduced the Marshall Plan, NATO, and the Truman Doctrine (McDougall, 170).
The Korean war under Truman achieved a forceful development of military power that at that point fell altogether amid Eisenhower’s residency (who depended on atomic prevention and key unions to reinforce American quality abroad). Kennedy and LBJ pushed atomic stalemate and occupied with wars in underdeveloped nations, which went about as intermediaries for American and Soviet power.
The Cold War was a “competition” between the Soviet Union and the United States of America, occurring from approximately 1945 through 1991. The Cold War received its name because it did not evolve into armed warfare or physical conflict. The 46-year-long war began immediately after the conclusion of World War II.
Some believe it was Joseph Stalin who started it by saying, “He hated westerners in the same way as Hitler hated Jews.” In contrast, others believe that it was America who had started the war, by stating, “Among democratic countries it was only in the USA that presidents were elected against communism.” To others, the bombing of Hiroshima, which took place on August 6, 1945, sent a signal to the Soviets that the USA had used the atomic bomb on Japan, and would not hesitate to use it in other countries.
The war, characterized by the icy relationship between the two countries, included a number of aspects: the economic impact on both sides, the Space Race, the strong military coalitions, the sophisticated weapons development, and the steep financial costs.
The Cold War ended in 1991, during Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev’s tenure. Gorbachev introduced Glasnost, the allowing of western goods to be imported, and perestroika, the easing of the government’s control on the economy.
Example #8 – The Cold War: an Era of Fear
Truman had just demonstrated the raw power of the nuclear bomb, in order to end World War II, in 1945. The cost of the war had immediately changed; the world had seen that whole cites could be obliterated within seconds. This would send a paralyzing shock through the world. After World War II the world was split between two economic idealities, Communism and Capitalism.
This would drive America and The Soviet Union into the Cold War. The Cold War was an exceptionally distinct war that manifested a fear within Americans that was beautifully captured in the literature and films made by the people that experienced the Cold War.
Many Americans were immensely pleased that their country had risen from the horrible World War, victorious. They were ready to return to a peace that they had once known. During this time books like Stuart Little and Goodnight Moon had become exceptionally popular among the American public. These novels were very children-oriented and conservative just like society at the time. They did not have a shred of war within the pages of these books.
These books captured the mindset of a typical American, wanting to get past the war and clear their minds of the atrocities that their country had just witnessed. Though the time they were trying to return to was not the same as the one that they were in just before the war. Before the war women were gaining many rights and freedoms they hadn’t had before, but America was returning to a more traditional time. This meant that women’s rights would be reeled back. America had started to conform.
The American middle class went through a transformation and were conforming to the guidelines set by movies like It’s A Wonderful Life. This film had the image of a perfect family, with a beautiful housewife and a hard-working man. The American public would be greatly influenced by the emergence of television. Television allowed social norms to be broadcasted to the whole nation.
Television also strengthened the importance of a happy family, because a family within this time had only one television that was centered in the living room, which had not been evolved for the viewing of television. William Whyte described the working man’s thoughts perfectly with ‘I love my wife; I love my family; I never let them get in the way of business’ in The Organization Man. Conformity would become abundantly important once the Cold War had begun.
The county had been left in the inexperienced hands of President Harry Truman. Though the Soviet Union had been America’s trusted allies and were highly praised by the American public throughout World War II, they were still communists. An ideology that America could not live alongside with. “All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others” is a great mock of the communistic ideology that was written by George Orwell in Animal Farm.
The world had been split between communism and democracy. Truman established the Containment Doctrine in 1945. This doctrine attempted to contain and stop the spread of communism through Europe. The border between the democratic countries and the countries that had been infected by communism would be known as the Iron Curtain. The Cold War would be a fight between the world’s two superpowers, which would take place in counties that were between revolutions. These conflicts would be known as proxy wars.
The Korean War would be the first confrontation that the United States would be involved in. In the 1950’s democratic South Korea, supported by America, and communistic North Korea, supported by China and the Soviet Union went to war. The 38th parallel was the border between South and North Korea before the war. The United States provided 88% of the soldiers sent by the United Nations.
Both armies drove deep into enemy territory but they were both unsuccessful in winning the war. After three hard years of war, neither side was able to reach victory. The war reached a stalemate in 1953. The 38th parallel would become the border once again. Many books of the Korean War would be written long after the war. During this war, something had been scaring the American public.
The Red Scare had emerged in the United States of America. Senator Joseph McCarthy was a huge catalyst for the Red Scare. During the period many people were being accused of subversion. The communist scare had gripped the country so tightly that neighbors and family members were turning against each other.
The Red Scare spawned a book called I led 3 lives, Citizen, Communist, Counterspy which enticed the American public greatly; it then was converted into a 117 episode show. McCarthyism led to the Hollywood Blacklist, in which screenwriters, actors, directors, musicians, and other entertainers were denied employment because of their respected beliefs. The Executive 9835 was signed in March 1947 by Harry Truman.
This order sparked investigations of government officials. McCarthy and many others went on a witch hunt looking for anyone who would break the norm and they would accuse them of being a spy or in support of communism. If McCarthy could have his way he would have turned America into a totalitarian government. Conformity was essential in this era, for if you neighbor saw you breaking the norms and thought you were a communist, you would be reported and probably arrested, this scare led to many types of literature, specifically espionage literature.
Throughout this time the market was being flooded with espionage literature and movies. The authors and directors were praying on the fears of the American public. The execution of the Rosenberg’s made the threat of espionage very real to the American citizens. The first James Bond novel had been published during this period of fear.
James Bond became so popular because it made the American people confident that their government had spies in the Soviet Union that were outsmarting the Soviet Union. Ian Fleming conquered the espionage market with James Bond. Many of these espionage novels would have a Soviet spy defect to the American side so that the American public would feel superior to their Soviet counterparts, The Hunt for Red October would be a great example of this.
Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy by John le Carre made the concept of a double agent very enticing. Our Man in Havana takes a more comedic approach but it is still one of the most popular espionage books of the time. These books reinforced America’s superstitions and had citizens trying to find the communist in their neighborhood.
Espionage was not the only thing the American public had to fear. They all knew that the United States was at mercy of a nuclear strike at any time. At first, the American public had no idea what a nuclear deterrent was. A nuclear deterrent ensured that if either side were to fire missiles, the opposing side would immediately fire a set of their own.
This lead to the mutually assured destruction theory that said that stated that neither side could fire a single missile because they knew that it would mean that neither side would survive the aftermath. It would be an irreversible annihilation of both parties involved. It essentially prevented a nuclear war between the Soviet Union and The United States of America. This fear of the bomb was another fear that the authors of this time period used to their advantage.
The bomb threat was becoming an immense fear in the American public, and the literature and films didn’t help that. Many books portrayed an accidental nuclear strike that could end both nations if the president couldn’t convince the soviet premier. A great example of one of these books would have to be Fail-Safe written by Eugene Burdick and Harvey Wheeler.
This book made it a point to try and convince the American public that the bombs were incredibly dangerous and that both governments should try and dismantle their nuclear stockpiles. It was an incredibly engrossing novel that had many citizens looking in the sky, making sure that there weren’t any soviet planes in the sky. The film Dr.Strangelove took a comedic look at the same situation that Fail-Safe put the American audience in.
“Gentleman you can’t fight here, this is a War Room” has to be one of the funniest lines in any movie. On the other hand, there were books like When the Wind Blows which takes a totally unique approach to the nuclear war. It is presented in a comic book style and it supplies loads of dark humor. It follows an elderly couple that is oblivious of the nuclear strike that has hit Britain.
They then suffer from radiation sickness, a fairly new concept too many people at the time. These books and films implanted the certainty of annihilation because of these nuclear bombs. There is one other type of books regarding the Red Scare.
Americans were afraid of the Soviet Union marching in and destroying everything that was American. These types of books were the most irrational types and were likely not going to happen unlike the previous types of literature. There hadn’t been anything that actually happened to spark these types of books and movies, yet they became very popular because no one wants their country to be invaded. One of the most popular books would have to be the Manchurian Candidate written by Richard Condon.
A famous politician becomes brainwashed during his tour in Korea. For periods of time, he is wiped from anything that makes him American and listens to the orders that were given to him and then forgets it after. A popular film arouses called The Thing from Another World the movie is about an alien that crashes on Earth and needs to drain blood from its victims to survive.
At first, the symbolism can be lost but if looked at closely the Thing is a representation of the Soviets that are going to invade America and drain it of itself. The film The Russians are coming is a comedy but it is the most obvious in pointing out that American citizens were very afraid of a Russian invasion.
The most famous of all proxy wars would undoubtedly be the Vietnam War. The United States of America believed that if one state were to fall to communism than the rest would be infected with it. The Vietnam War would span from the 1950s to 1982. The war would span through four separate presidents’ terms. The war was between the democratic south, against the communistic north.
At first, the French were in and they were trying to contain communism but they later pulled out in 1954. The United States supplied money and military advice to the South Vietnamese Forces. When Lyndon B. Johnson replaced Kennedy he sent US forces in 1965. America was confident that their Marines would have the firepower to take Vietnam. The number of American troops would skyrocket to half a million by 1968. Many of the casualties weren’t reported so that the US citizens would still back the war.
There had been a truce that both sides mutually agreed on during the month of January, but in 1968 the Viet Cong broke it and launched the largest attack of the war on several different cities. Though the American forces came out victorious from the Tet Offensive it would be a turning point in America’s involvement in Vietnam. Richard Nixon would come to the office soon after.
Nixon installed a policy known as “Vietnamization”. Nixon would fly B-52s loaded with nuclear weapons to the Russian border as a part of his mad man theory. He would try and make himself look like a mad man, therefor unpredictable so that other countries would not provoke the United States. These events would launch a huge amount of Vietnam related literature.
Vietnam provided so much writing material for authors; some of them actually were enlisted in Vietnam. The most popular first-hand account of Vietnam would be Dispatches written by Michael Herr. Many of the popular Cold War authors sung the praises of this book like John le Carre. Dispatches revealed the experience of a soldier in Vietnam that many Americans had not had a clue about.
Many Vietnam veterans have come out and said that it is one of the most realistic accounts of Vietnam. Another popular book written during the Vietnam war would be The Quiet American by Graham Greene. It follows the story of a British journalist that is in love with a Vietnamese woman. This book is considered an anti-war book. This book discusses the atrocities that some American troops took a part in, therefor the American public labeled it as un-American.
Most of the books written during this time were documentaries or first-hand experiences, unlike the earlier Cold war literature that sold books with the fear that certain annihilation in Americans. Most of the books during this period of time were very grim and anti-war because on the homestead the many Americans were opposed to the Vietnam War. Hippies were defiantly breaking the norms that were set at the beginning of the Cold War.
There were two types of counter-culture books. One of them had futuristic views of the world that were bleak and confirmative. These books would give the counter-culture something to try and prevent. George Orwell’s 1984 is a great example of this. 1984 gave a future where the government kept an eye on you at all times.
The government would launch attacks on their own citizens and blame it on a made upcountry. The other type of book was one that described it like The Electric Kool-Aid Test by Tom Wolf. Tom Wolf would go on and describe orgies that women would have with men. These books described the freedom that these people had. Vietnam and Counter Culture literature would be the last of the Cold War-related literature.
The Cold war was a war, unlike any war anyone had ever experienced. Cold War literature was unlike any literature anyone had ever experienced before. The Cold War brought many heterogeneous ideas that no author before had because the ideas weren’t possible before. The fear was unlike any other yet the authors of this time period were able to capture it within the pages of their books perfectly.
The pages within these books are a time machine into the past. When learning about history, people aren’t very excited because they know the result but the Cold War is a whole different time because before everyone knew that win or loss you would still live, maybe not the same way as before but alive nonetheless, but if even one warhead were to be launched, the enemy would launch all of theirs, ending both countries and probably the Earth.
One major war ended and another to begin. The Cold war lasted about 45 years. There were no direct military campaigns between the United States and the Soviet Union. However, billions of dollars and millions of lives were lost. The United States emerged as the greatest power from World War 2. (Give Me Liberty 896) The country boasted about having the most powerful navy and air force.
The United States accounted for about half of the world’s manufacturing capacity, which alone created the atomic bomb. Capitalism is superior to the Soviet’s idea of Communism because the American’s idea of capitalism has thrived, which is still used in today’s era. While communism caused the Soviets to crash and virtually non-existence.
“Cold” war is different from a normal war which is made up of battles, like the World War. The chance of conflict was more important in this war. (Oxford dictionary) Even though they did not battle each directly or physically. However, they did though Korean, Vietnam, and Afghanistan. Two sets of ideas clashed against each other.
The United States with a belief in a capitalistic government, along with the idea of democracy. Then the Soviet Union’s belief in a communistic market form and totalitarian form of government. These two separate ideas created conditions for a Cold war. The U.S was willing to commit itself to the defense of the idea which led to the increase of American invaders in the world.
Example #10 – The Policy of Containment During the Cold War
During the Cold War, the United States engaged in many aggressive policies both in America and abroad, in pursuance to fight communism and the spread of communist ideologies. Faced with a new challenge and global responsibilities the U.S. needed to preserve what it had fought for in World War II. It needed to contain the communist ideas flowing from the Soviet Union while preventing communist influence in America, without provoking World War III.
The United States successfully utilized containment by the application of 3 methods, the Berlin airlift, the Truman Doctrine, and the use of naval blockade. The Berlin airlift was one successful containment method in which the united states responded to the soviet blockade of Berlin, successfully bringing food and medical supplies to allied controlled areas of Berlin.
In June 1948, the Soviets blockaded all exterior access to Berlin from the west. This reprisal move was intended to send a sign to the U.S. and its Allies that the Soviet Union did not tolerate western interference in its territories. In response, President Truman made a decision that would allow the U.S. to deliver supplies to the Berlin people without fighting the Soviets.
His proposal called for American aircraft to airlift supplies to West Berlin. This plan was immediately accepted, and the Berlin Airlift began flying thousands of food and supplies to Berlin daily. In May of 1949, the Soviets lifted the blockade and allowed the free flow of supplies into West Berlin. Doing so caused the Soviet Union to lose in what was essentially a public relations war.
This dispute proves that the Berlin Airlift was a successful containment method. The Truman Doctrine was another successful method of containment in which President Truman declared the US should give military support to countries threatened by Soviet forces or communist insurgency.
In August of 1945, the Soviet Union invaded Korea, which had been under Japan’s control since 1910. Fearing that the Soviet Union would seize the entire peninsula, the United States quickly moved its own soldiers into South Korea. Japanese arms forces surrendered to the Soviets in the north and to the Americans in the south.
In an effort to avoid a long-term controversy regarding Korea’s future, the United States and the Soviet Union agreed to divide Korea along the 38th parallel. In 1950, the Korea Peninsula was divided between an American-based government in the south and a Soviet-based government in the north. When North Korean soldiers invaded South Korea, the Truman administration took advantage of the opportunity to defend a noncommunist government from invasion by communist armed forces.
Determined not to allow another country to be defeated by communism, and interested in supporting its anti-communist credentials, the Truman administration decided to provide military support for South Korea. The war continues for several years and finally ends in 1953, very close to the original borders.
The Truman Doctrine was a successful method of containment in which because the Truman administration decided to defend South Korea and its democratic ways, it effectively contained another nation from the communistic ideologies of the Soviet Union. The application of naval blockade performed by the U.S. was yet another successful method of containment. In January 1959 Cuba becomes a communist country under the reign of Fidel Castro.
As of May 1962, the Soviet Union secretly started to move thousands of soldiers, missiles, and nuclear warheads to Cuba in intent to bomb America. Kennedy took recognition of the Soviet’s secret plan and chose to perform a naval blockade to ban the Soviets from bringing in any further military supplies to Cuba.
After further negotiation, Khrushchev and Kennedy agreed on the withdraw of the weapons, and therefore improved relations and moved on, creating peace and avoiding further use of nuclear warfare. The use of naval blockade supported the US policy of containment by keeping the communist Soviet Union from bombing the US.
In conclusion, it is indisputable that the policy of containment was one of the most important factors in the Cold War. From the declaration of the Truman Doctrine to America’s support in the Korean war, containment was the driving force behind all of these critical events and decisions. The United States successfully utilized containment by the application of 3 methods, the Berlin Airlift, the Truman Doctrine, and the use of naval blockade.
Example #11 – interesting ideas
The cold war started in the year 1947 and continued till 1989 or December 1991. However many people still differ about the start and the end of the war. Some consider the initial cause of the war to be the rising tension between the Soviet Union and the United States that worsened in between 1945 and 1947. It finally ended with the fall of the Soviet Union on the 25th of December in the year 1991.
It got termed as Cold War because there weren’t any instances of open hostility between the Soviet Union and the United States. The war was instead manifested in the form of nuclear weapons, military alliances, proxy wars, espionage, and propaganda among other things. Some of the most important instances in the cold war were the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Berlin Blockade, and the other wars such as the Koran war, the Vietnam War, and the Soviet-Afghan War.
The idea that the Cold War period revolved around only two blocs, or even only two nations, has been challenged by some scholars in the post-Cold War era, who have noted that the bipolar world only exists if one ignores all of the various movements and conflicts that occurred without influence from either of the two superpowers. Additionally, much of the conflict between the superpowers was fought in “proxy wars”, which more often than not involved issues more complex than the standard Cold War oppositions.
In the 1980s some commentators thought Japan would become a superpower, due to its large GDP and high economic growth at the time.
After the Soviet Union disintegrated in the early 1990s, the term hyperpower began to be applied to the United States, as the sole remaining superpower of the Cold War era. This term, coined by French foreign minister Hubert Védrine in the 1990s, is controversial and the validity of classifying the United States in this way is disputed. One notable opponent to this theory, Samuel P. Huntington, rejects this theory in favor of a multipolar balance of power.
I actually don’t think that that would make a good thesis.
I don’t know what level of academia you are trying to complete this for, but your thesis is impossibly vague. The tensions between the U.S. and the Soviet Union during the ’50s and ’60s were due to a litany of events and ideologies that are so numerous and complex that whole volumes have been written by Ph.D.’s about it.
To say that the tensions increased because of the various civil wars taking place in the world: French Algeria, Hungary, Syria, Vietnam, etc. and the Cuban Missile Crisis is to completely overshadow other causes such as the space race, the nuclear arms race, the death of Stalin and his replacement by Khrushchev, the “hard-line” international policy adopted by Eisenhower, the Chinese Revolution, and so many others.
A far better thesis would be to say something like: “The differing positions held by the United States and the Soviet Union on the various civil wars during the middle of the twentieth century as well as their direct confrontation during the Cuban Missile crisis led to a major rise in political tension between the two superpowers and contributed to the longevity of the Cold War.”
When writing a thesis you MUST do two things:
1.You have to be specific, your thesis is broad and covers way too many topics. The thesis I have written above is specific to the civil wars and the Cuban Missile Crisis only.
2. You have to include analysis. You have to say WHY these events were important. Sure civil war and Cuban missiles increased tensions, but so what? almost everything during the cold war had some effect on the politics of the United States and the Soviets. My thesis above includes the phrase” and contributed to the longevity of the Cold War.” this is where I tell the reader why these events matter in the course of history and where I stop simply giving historical facts and attempt to PROVE A POINT! That is the difference between a “C” and an “A”.
The prominent authors, Michael G. and Michael J. Sheehan provide a similar perspective on the origins of the Cold War. They summarise the Cold War, as an ideological conflict between Communist and non-Communist countries that started after World War II.
The Soviet leaders aligned with the United States and the Western European countries to fight the Germans; however, the Soviets supported communism, a political and economic system of governance that they believed would overtake capitalism, which was practiced everywhere in the Western world. By 1947, the United States had formulated a policy to prevent the Soviet Union from exporting communism to other countries.
As stated in the book “The Wizards of Armageddon” Fred Kaplan gives us a remarkable insight into how the Cold War unfolded. In this book, he states that for more than forty years, the two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union directly threatened each other with nuclear weapons.
*This got a 40/40 in my AP World History class last year, my teacher was the hardest teacher and would practically look for ways to mark you down. The only notes she wrote were “Where exactly” about closing of trade routes, but I’m not sure, it’s been so long. Enjoy!*
After World War two, there was an emergence of two superpowers that had once been allies but ended up enemies due to very different ideologies. This clash of concepts between the Soviet Union and the United States led to a period of conflict and tension between capitalism and communism. This competition for superiority posed a serious threat to the entire world: nuclear warfare. The ideological clash between communism and capitalism that began in 1917 was one of the very early events leading up to the Cold War, although the United States and Imperial Russia had been enemies since 1900. There was never a direct military engagement but there was a half-century of the military build-up.
The world’s largest colonial empire and the world’s leading economic power were marked by mutual distrust and ideological tension. Because Russia was unable to compete industrially with the United States, they wanted to close off part of east Asia to trade, but the United States demanded open trade. After winning the Russian Civil War the Bolsheviks proclaimed a worldwide challenge to capitalism.
During the war, the Soviets believed that the British and the Americans had intentionally delayed a second front against Germany, although they had been in no position to carry out Stalin’s request to invade northern France. The Soviets suspected that they had decided to let Russians bear the worst of the war, but would intervene towards the end to influence peace settlements and dominate Europe as well. These misconceptions left unfounded feelings of tension and hostility between the two superpowers.
Both the USSR and the United States had very different ideas of how to establish postwar security. Americans assumed that if U.S.-style governments and markets were established, states could resolve their differences peacefully. The key to the U.S. vision of security would require a rebuilt capitalist Europe and U.S. economic and political leadership of the postwar world. Soviet leaders understood security in terms of space. Stalin was determined to use the red army to control Poland, dominate the Balkans, and destroy Germany’s capacity for another war, but this strategy risked a confrontation with the U.S.
In Europe, food shortages and shortages of other necessary consumer goods were very common.
President Truman’s advisors thought that the Soviet Union wanted to weaken the position of the United States in a period of postwar confusion. In 1947 the British government announced that it couldn’t finance Greece in its civil war against communist-led insurgents, which drove Truman to announce his policy of containment and rallied Americans to spend 400 million dollars to intervene in the Greek Civil War with his famous Truman Doctrine speech. European economies failed to recover from wartime destruction, and communist parties were winning large votes in free elections.
This caused American policymakers to worry that the economy in western Europe would allow communist parties to seize power. The Truman Doctrine was then complemented by the Marshall Plan, a pledge of assistance aimed at countering threats to Europe’s balance of power.
In retaliation to western moves to reunite Germany, Joseph Stalin built blockades to block access to West Berlin, and the soviets blocked off all waterways and railroads. Truman maintained supply lines to the enclave by flying over the blockade in B-2 Bombers, which no one would risk shooting down. Faced with the Chinese Revolution the Truman administration quickly escalated their containment policy.
After Stalin’s death in 1953, there was a slight relaxation of tensions, but the Cold War remained an uneasy armed truce. In 1961, the East Germans built the Berlin Wall to prevent the movement of East Berlin people into West Berlin.
The Cold War took so long that everyone from Nixon, Eisenhower, Truman, and Kennedy, who gave the okay to invade Cuba, was involved in the U.S. Also, everyone from Stalin, Khrushchev, Fidel Castro, Gorbachev, and Rhee was involved in the USSR, Korea, And Cuba.
It is a very lucky thing that tensions ended before a nuclear war. Between the U.S. and the Soviet Union they could’ve wiped out the entire world, and none of us would be alive. Although communism still exists in the world, it is no longer such a large threat to capitalism.
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