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Cleopatra Essay

Cleopatra Essay

Example #1

Cleopatra is an amazing woman, She was known for many great talents and great achievements. She was a very determined Macedonian queen. She went to many great lengths to keep her grip on the power she was left by will. It was said that Cleopatra was witty, charming, and highly intelligent. Through the research I have collected I will prove to you that Cleopatra was an amazing woman.

I will do this by uncovering the facts of her fathers? death, and how she took control of Alexandria, Her Early life, Her family life, Her consorts, and her love affairs with both Julius Caesar and Mark Antony. Without further ado, I present to you my Essay.

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Cleopatra, the Egyptian Queen was born in the year 69 B.C in the city of Alexandria, Egypt. When she was born her father held a place as leader of the city. Her father Ptolemy Auletes was the only guardian known during Cleopatras? early life.?(Cleopatra website) It is not said what happened to her mother. It is a lot of times mistaken that Cleopatra was a very beautiful woman when in reality she was not very attractive at all. As far as Cleopatras? early life there is not much recorded. Her life was not very public until the year she turned 18.

Cleopatra came from a rather large family. She is the middle among many brothers and sisters. Unfortunately, she was the only girl in the family to live past the age of 18. Her father Ptolemy Auletes raised Cleopatra; Her mother is unknown. Cleopatra had 5 siblings all ranging in age, Cleopatra falling in the middle. Cleopatra was also the middle sibling among the girls.

The oldest in the family is Cleopatra’s sister Cleopatra VI; the second is Bernice IV, then came Cleopatra. The last girl to be born in the family is her younger sister Arsinoe IV. None of the Cleopatras sisters lived to be past the age of 18. Her oldest sister Cleopatra VI, Died as a child. Bernice The second daughter was beheaded. The father Ptolemy Auletes was responsible for Bernice’s murder; the reason was never made clear.

This left Cleopatra and her younger sister to be the only females left in the family. Among her other siblings, she had two younger brothers. The oldest boy’s name is Ptolemy XIII. Her second brothers? name is Ptolemy XIV. Their father Ptolemy Auletes raised them all together in the palace.

Cleopatras? father Ptolemy died in the year 51 BC. At age 18 Cleopatra was left with a kingdom to rule on her shoulders. The children in the family, being Cleopatras? younger brothers and sisters were left to be raised by Pompey, a Roman leader. Pompey was a close friend to Ptolemy Auletes (the father). Cleopatra was extremely young to be left with such a big responsibility, but she was determined to make it work.

In the same year, Cleopatra has left the kingdom, she was forced to have a consort. According to Egyptian law, it had to be either a brother or a son. This left Cleopatra with little options. She soon was married to the oldest boy in her family, her brother Ptolemy XIII. At the time of the consort, Ptolemy XIII was only at the age of 12. Soon into marriage?

Cleopatra dropped Ptolemys? name from every legal document, paying no attention to the law saying that the male presence is first among any CO-regents. Cleopatra also had her own portrait printed on the money used during the time. When Cleopatra received CO-regent she dreamed that Rome and Egypt could be ruled under one.

As soon as some men named Pothinus and Achillas realized how Cleopatra was taking over they got together and made a plan. Soon they had overthrown Cleopatra for her brother Ptolemy XIII, the men believed he was much more to deal with. Soon after Cleopatra was overthrown and Ptomely XIII took over the two men became Ptolemys? council of regency. On top of overthrowing Cleopatra, they also drove her to flee from Alexandria. She fled to a city called Thebaid.

During the time Cleopatra was fled she formed an army out of Arab Tribes to try and gain back her power. During this time, however, Ptolemy had a sneaky plot of his own. During the year of 51 BC- 49 BC, Egypt was suffering from bad harvest and lack of grain growth due to the drought that had been happening.

Ptolemy knowing this and knowing how all the Egyptian cities relied on the shipment of grain they got, which was promised to them by Cleopatra, signed a document saying that grain could only be shipped into Alexandria. He did this in hopes to deprive Cleopatra of her supporters from foreign cities. By doing this he gained the trust and control of the Egyptian cities, for the people had thought it was Cleopatra who stopped their shipment. Ptolemy now had complete control.

During this same time, Julius Caesar had won a civil war against Pompey. Pompey being the guardian of Ptolemy and Cleopatra fled to Alexandria in hopes to get some support after his loss. He returned to find no Cleopatra, and Ptolemy and Pothinus not wanting to be on the losing side had Pompey beheaded. They also believed this would please Caesar.

Within only four days, Julius Caesar heard the news and arrived in Alexandria. Ptolemy greeted Caesar, with the gift of the savored head. Caesar was outraged. He was disappointed because of the death of a great Roman leader. However, the death of Pompey was not the main reason for Caesar’s visit, he was there to find out what was going on between Ptolemy and Cleopatra. Once he found out about Cleopatra being driven out he commanded she return.

When Cleopatra found out about Caesar’s visit to the palace she searched desperately to find a way to sneak into the palace without Ptolemy knowing. The same day a rolled rug was delivered to Caesar with a 19-year-old Cleopatra wrapped inside.

Caesar was surprised to have her arrive the way she did. Cleopatra knowing how much Caesar disliked Ptolemy and his men, Cleopatra begged for him to help her gain control of Alexandria back. Within a short time of discussion between the two Caesar agreed to help out Cleopatra.

The same night Caesar agreed to help he fell under Cleopatras? spell. They became lovers. It did not take Ptolemy long to hear the news. He was outraged. He stormed out of the palace screaming to everyone he had been betrayed and that Cleopatra was trying to take over the kingdom.

He did this hoping to stir up the Egyptian Mob. At once Caesar had his men Capture Ptolemy and brought him back to the palace. Shortly after a Great War started when Pothinus had Ptolemys? men try to attack Caesar. For doing so Caesar had Pothinus executed. Ptolemy and Achillas, Ptolemy’s other council member dies mysteriously.

The Death of Ptolemy made Cleopatra the sole ruler of Alexandria just like Caesar had promised he would make happen. Once again she was a force to have another consort because of the law. This time she married her other brother Ptolemy XIV, who was 11 at the time.

Many people believed the only reason Caesar worked so hard to make Cleopatra the sole ruler was because she bribed him with some the Egypt?s vast resources, others believed it was out of pure infatuation. Soon Cleopatra became pregnant with his baby. Once Caesar found out she was pregnant he took her on a trip up the Nile. Cleopatra was treated as a pharaoh. In 47 BC Cleopatra gave birth to the baby boy Caesarion.

In the year 46 BC Caesar returns to Rome. A year after his return He was granted the 10-year dictatorship. To celebrate he brought over Cleopatra and Caesarion. This upset many people. They did not approve of Cleopatra. The people were even more upset when Caesar claimed Caesarion as his child. He also planned on marrying Cleopatra despite the fact that they had a law against marrying foreigners.

All their plans came crashing down when Caesar asserted in the year44 BC. Cleopatra realized she and her son were in great danger when she realized Caesar did not mention either of them in his will. Upon finding this out she fled back to Alexandria.

Upon her arrival, back in Alexandria one of Caesar’s close friends Mark Antony paid a visit to Cleopatra. Shortly after meeting her, he feels in love. A few weeks later Cleopatra had her consort/brother Ptolemy XIV assented so her son could take the place as CO-ruler. Cleopatra grew very concerned about who would be in control of Rome next. She knew it would either be Mark Antony or Octavian, a well-known man in Rome at the time. When Octavian went back to Italy very ill she knew Antony was the man to watch.

Mark Antony invited Cleopatra to travel with him. Cleopatra was thrilled. She wanted to keep Antony close and she knew just how to get to him. She knew all about his vulgar past and new how much he loved vulgar woman. She put on a show for him, she dressed in very revealing clothing and had herself fanned by her maids. Many did think it was very vulgar but luckily Antony loved the display. He loved the idea of a blue-blooded Ptolemy woman. At the time Mark Antony was married. However, Cleopatra and Antony spent the winter of 40 BC together.

In the spring he returned home. The same year his wife died. Later her married A woman named Octavia. With Octavia, Antony had 3 children all girls. At the same time, Cleopatra had given birth to twins which Antony publicly declared to be his. Their names were Cleopatra Selene and Alexander Helios. Through Antonys whole marriage with Octavia, he had Cleopatra as a mistress.

In 34 BC Antony gained control of Rome. He brought Cleopatra as well as their children to the ceremony where they were given their royal titles. Cleopatra was called the queen of kings. Her son Caesarion was the king of kings, her CO-ruler. Antony and Cleopatras? other kids were given titles of kings or queens of other Roman cities.

In 32 BC Antony finally divorced his wife Octavia. This forced the western part of the world, which Octavia was staying to recognize his relationship with Cleopatra. Octavian, Octavia’s brother was very upset with Antony and made plans to go to war against Antony. He tried for many years but was not successful for a long time. Finally, in the year 31 BC, he defeated Antony. Upon doing so he captured Cleopatra. For she had no power without Antony, he did not mention to leave her the kingdom in his will. Octavian took Cleopatra in as his own slave. Caesarion was strangled. The other kids Cleopatra had with Antony were left to be cared for by Octavia, Antony’s ex-wife.

Cleopatra did not like the fact that she had to be a slave for Octavian. She was so embarrassed. In the year 30 BC, she committed suicide. She could not take the embarrassment. She died at the age of 39. She lived a short yet somewhat sweet life.

In Conclusion, Cleopatra was an amazing woman. She went through so much to keep her grip in power. She survived a lot and was well known for many of the things she did and was involved in. Being the ruler of a city at age 18 is amazing. She used her intelligence to always find ways to outwit everyone else.

The deaths, the consorts, her love affairs, and her ruling all build up to show how much of an amazing woman she really is. She did achieve her dying with which was to never be forgotten. She was one of the most remarkable rulers that ever lived. She is known as the last Pharaoh.


Example #2

Cleopatra Queen of the Nile Egypt, which is located in northeastern Africa along the southern shore of the Mediterranean Sea, has had many famous rulers. One of the most famous is Cleopatra. She is famous for her love affairs and the fair ruling of the Egyptians. In 69 B.C., the year of Cleopatra’s birth, the land of Egypt was both a prosperous and poor country. It was poor because most Egyptians were farmers and laborers, who were living in extreme poverty.

At the same time, it was also prosperous because the land was rich and produced large quantities of food. While these quantities kept the common people fed, Egypt?s rulers and wealthy nobles traded the entire extra. Because of this, Egypt’s rulers and wealthy nobles were rich in gold and other precious metals and stones and enjoyed very lavish lifestyles.

From 305 B.C. to 30 B.C., the Ptolemies ruled Egypt as a monarchy. For the common Egyptians, little had changed since olden pharaohs except that the royal family was now Greek. The Ptolemaic kings and queens were unsympathetic and cared little for the suffering of the Egyptian people. Most common people had nothing to look forward to in life.

They continued working in the fields, on building projects, or in the state-owned mines. All of these bad conditions made the Ptolemies unpopular with the Egyptians, but it wasn’t the only reason. The Ptolemies also refused to recognize or worship traditional Egyptian gods and refused to learn the Egyptian language. These actions created a cultural barrier between the Egyptians and their rulers. Cleopatra VII was born in 69 b.c.

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Her parents were Ptolemy XII and Cleopatra Tryphainia, probably his sister. Cleopatra’s childhood was very luxurious. When her father died, he willed that Cleopatra rules jointly with her brother, Ptolemy XIII, who was 13. Ptolemy XIII was too young to rule so his advisor had the real power. Cleopatra’s joint rule was cut short due to the fact that Ptolemy XIII’s advisor resented Cleopatra and took every opportunity to make her look bad. He accomplished this by blaming her for food shortages; people avoiding paying taxes, and other big problems.

Cleopatra was finally forced to flee the country. Cleopatra asked for Roman help to return her to the Egyptian throne. She asked Rome for help because it was so powerful. The help she received was from Julius Caesar. When Julius Caesar first came into Egypt, the people thought he was attacking and rioted. Caesar then settled down in the royal palace to wait for the rioting to stop. Cleopatra came to him at the palace in a rolled-up blanket.

She seduced him, and Caesar decided to help Cleopatra with her royal problems. Caesar helped Cleopatra by demanding that Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIII marry and rule jointly again. Ptolemy XIII’s advisor agreed to Caesar’s demands but didn’t keep his word. The advisor ordered the Egyptian army to surround the palace. Cleopatra and Caesar were trapped along with a small force of Roman soldiers. Ptolemy XIII and his advisor were trapped also.

During this, Arsinoe, Cleopatra’s sister, proclaimed herself the ruler of Egypt. When Caesar heard that the advisor was involved in Arsinoe’s proclamation, he had him executed. With Roman reinforcements, Caesar defeated the Egyptian army. Ptolemy XIII’s body was later found in the Nile River. In the course of these events, Caesar had helped Cleopatra regain the throne. Caesar had helped her because he knew she would be a good Roman ally.

Because of this, he reinstalled her on the throne with a great ceremony. He then tried to please the Egyptians by following the custom of having Cleopatra marry 12-year-old Ptolemy XIV. This time, the New Pharaoh didn’t have any advisors, so Cleopatra was really the only ruler. Then in 44 B.C. when Ptolemy XIV wanted to rule, Cleopatra had him poisoned. Now she was truly the only ruler. All this time, Caesar had stayed in Egypt with Cleopatra.

When Caesar did finally go back to Rome, Cleopatra was pregnant. After Caesar had a victory, he wanted Cleopatra to see the festivities. According to the Roman historian Suetonius, “he called her to Rome and did not let her leave until he had laden her with high honors and rich gifts, and allowed her to give his name to the child which she bore.”

Cleopatra named the baby boy Caesarion. Cleopatra and Caesarion probably saw Caesar’s festivities, which included a victory parade. Cleopatra’s sister, Arsinoe, was prominently featured in the victory parade. She was dragged in chains at the head of a line of Egyptian prisoners. This treatment of Arsinoe shocked the Romans, and many of them convinced Caesar not to execute her. Caesar then allowed Arsinoe to receive religious protection in the temple of Diana.

Caesar’s death was brought on mostly by the belief that Caesar was trying to become the king of Rome. He was stabbed by a group of senators led by his friends Brutus and Cassius. He died on March 15, 44 b.c. After his death, Cleopatra and Caesarion went back to Egypt. She was left to rule alone, and she began to concentrate on domestic issues after Caesar’s death, three men wanted to rule Rome.

They were Mark Antony, Caesar’s longtime friend; Octavian, Caesar’s 18-year-old grandnephew and adopted son; and Lepidus, a popular general. Meanwhile, Brutus and Cassius and the other surviving conspirators had fled to Greece and had raised a large army. Their goal was to defeat Antony, Octavian, and Lepidus and restore a republican government in Rome.

Brutus and Cassius lost at Philippi to Antony and Octavian. Brutus and Cassius then committed suicide. When Antony wanted supplies he asked Cleopatra for them. She came to see him on a really fancy ship, or barge. Antony and Cleopatra became lovers and she bore him twins. Although Antony left Egypt to marry Octavian’s sister, Octavia, she didn’t hate him and continued to rule as usual.

One thing that made Cleopatra popular in Egypt is that she was fluent in Egyptian. She also went to great lengths to observe the Egyptian religion. She tried to portray herself as Isis (a goddess) because the Egyptians thought that a queen was Isis. She also gained respect for her love of learning. When Antony came back in 37 b.c., Cleopatra supported him.

She helped in his military campaign, after which she became pregnant. Meanwhile, Octavian heightened the resentment of Antony amongst the Romans. They thought that because Antony started wearing Egyptian clothes and adopting Egyptian customs, he was insulting Roman fashion and beliefs. Because of this, Antony was thought to be Osiris (a god) by the Egyptian people. After fighting a long time at Actium against Octavian, Antony and Cleopatra retreated, leaving some soldiers who eventually surrendered.

In the confusion after the Romans won and came into the city of Alexandria, someone told Antony that Cleopatra was dead. That information was incorrect. After hearing this, and believing it, Antony committed suicide. Antony then died in Cleopatra’s arms.


Example #3

Cleopatra is said to be the most beautiful woman in the history of the human race, who successfully ruled the hearts of the most powerful men during her time. One article states,” Ever since the age of women-worship and chivalry the Egyptian queen has been one of love’s martyrs. She is a good woman to Chaucer and figures in his Legend.

Being all save dull and stupid that a loving woman ought not to have been, having loved and been loved until death. That was the medieval cardinal virtue; without in holy writ, it was the saving grace”(Stole). She was a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty, a Greek family of Macedonia origin. She ruled Egypt after Alexander the Great’s death during the Hellenistic period and was the last pharaoh of Ancient Egypt.

The Ptolemies spoke Greek throughout their dynasty and refused to speak Late Egyptian. This is why Greek and Egyptian were used on the official court document, such as the Rosetta Stone. Cleopatra learned to speak Egyptian and represented herself as the reincarnation of the Egyptian goddess Isis. The BBC episode of Cleopatra discusses her time as the Pharaoh of Egypt. It also talks about her relationships with Julius Caesar and later Mark Antony.

In this essay, I will discuss Cleopatra’s early life, her complications with her brother and being the last Egyptian Pharaoh as well as the roles of Julius Caesar and Mark Antony during her ruling, and her death.


Example #4

History is full of reputable individuals. The stories of their lives will forever live in our history books. Whether being remembered for their strength, courage, or honor, or even for their treachery, we remember those who came before us. If one character could stand out in Egyptian history, none other would be so worthy as Cleopatra would.

Cleopatra was an intelligent, political, and ambitious woman who changed the history of Egypt. She was only seventeen years old when, by the will of her father, Ptolemy XI, she was forced to inherit and share the throne of Egypt with her twelve-year-old brother, Ptolemy XII. In accordance with Egyptian law, the two were also married.

The disagreement between the two began early in their reign. Julius Caesar, seizing the opportunity to take over Ptolemy’s forces during this moment of weakness, soon defeated the young king and befriended Cleopatra. She had wanted the throne to herself, believing that she was “the successor of the pharaohs and like them descended from the sun god Ra.”

Egypt and Cleopatra are terms so closely related they are almost synonymous. However, Cleopatra did not have any Egyptian blood in her; she was purely Greek. Cleopatra would become the last ruler of the Ptolemy dynasty, which was founded by Alexander the Great, a Macedonian general who strived to unite the East and West under one great empire.

Cleopatra wished to continue his mission, but to do so, she would have to win over the Romans. It was at this time that she started to use her stunning beauty and charm to her advantage. Caesar himself would become her first lover. She distracted him from his Roman duties for many weeks and when he finally left her, she was pregnant. At this point, Cleopatra might have thought she had all she needed: a son and possible heir to Caesar, her key to the Roman throne. However, with Caesar’s assassination in 44 B.C., she abandoned her plan and awaited another political struggle to arise in Rome.

It is amazing that Cleopatra, but a woman, believed that she could overthrow Rome, a huge world power. Her determination to renew the power of the Ptolemy line in Egypt enabled her to carry on with her plan. It was at this time that Cleopatra turned to Marc Antony, lieutenant to the late Caesar. Marc Antony was a very notable man with many military achievements. He was a respected authority in Rome and lived by Roman virtues. However, he also had a weakness for self-indulgence, and it was this that Cleopatra preyed upon.

She immediately tried to seved that she could overthrow Rome, a huge world power. Her determination to renew the power of the Ptolemy line in Egypt enabled her to carry on with her plan. It was at this time that Cleopatra turned to Marc Antony, lieutenant to the late Caesar. Marc Antony was a very notable man with many military achievements. He was a respected authority in Rome and lived by Roman virtues. However, he also had a weakness for self-indulgence, and it was this that Cleopatra preyed upon.

She immediately tried to seved that she could overthrow Rome, a huge world power. Her determination to renew the power of the Ptolemy line in Egypt enabled her to carry on with her plan. It was at this time that Cleopatra turned to Marc Antony, lieutenant to the late Caesar. Marc Antony was a very notable man with many military achievements. He was a respected authority in Rome and lived by Roman virtues.

However, he also had a weakness for self-indulgence, and it was this that Capt and chased Antony and Cleopatra into hiding. Within a few months, he caught up with them, forcing Antony to commit suicide. Upon hearing that her beloved was dead, Cleopatra, too, killed herself by pressing an asp to her neck. She and Antony were buried together in 31 B.C.

What had caused her attempts to go very wrong. Perhaps it was her ambition and determination. Had she forfeited her plan at Caesar’s death, she may have lived out her life peacefully just as Egypt’s queen. However, she was so intent on ruling an empire that she gambled and lost her kingdom and her life. Despite how her life ended, history does not remember Cleopatra as a failure.

When I hear the name Cleopatra, the first thing that comes to mind is feminine power. She can very well be one of the first notable women in history. She was very powerful. She could even command the will of Julius Caesar himself. Some will remember her as a weak woman who let her emotions get the best of her. I disagree. She was very strong and knew what she wanted very early in life.

Even when it seemed hopeless after Caesar’s death, she carried on with her plan. Aside from her plan to rule a universal empire, she was a very capable ruler of her own country. Cleopatra was the only ruler of the dynasty left by Alexander the Great that even bothered to learn the Egyptian language, the native language of her people. True, she was born a Greek of Macedonian descent, but she was Egyptian in every respect. She ruled her country as an Egyptian; as Pharoah, just like all the Ptolemy’s before her. Cleopatra was the last Pharoah of Egypt.


Example #5

Cleopatra’s Wiles Mother, lover, warrior, femme-fatale. Mother of a country, lover of all that brings beauty, warrior of the state, femme-fatale over all men; this was Cleopatra Queen of the Nile. Cleopatra’s intelligence, wit and beauty are still remembered and written about to this day. Born a Greek, Cleopatra adapted to the Egyptian ways and even learnt their native tongue, a feat which had not been ccomplished since the Ptolemies had first ruled.

Although not a “true Egyptian”, she utilized her tremendous aptitude and cunning female ways to gain and provide, for her country that she so loved. Cleopatra was a born ruler and did so with a flourish that would later be her undoing.

Although evidence throws a person in both directions it is a simple wish for us to believe in the fact that a woman held so much power over the opposite sex in the past with her beauty. Up to this point Cleopatra’s beauty has been the only topic discussed, but her appearance was far from the only thing that kept her royal bottom in the highest seat in Egypt.

Cleopatra was a woman who was always thinking and always one step ahead of the domineering men of her time. A woman of incredible charisma and intelligence; she spoke nine languages. (Shankman webpg) The first show of her ability to achieve her desires came when she was put on the throne in 51 BC and made to rule with her brother Ptolemy XIII.

After a three year reign with Ptolemy in the shadow of her ruling, Ptolemies advisors finally convinced him to overthrow the throne and send Cleopatra into exile. (Comptons Encyclopedia Cleopatra)Not so easily thwarted Cleopatra amassed an army on the border of Egypt and snuck through the gates ina rolled up in a carpet in order to get an audience with Caesar, whom was inside Egypt.

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Cleopatra then used her feminine charms and cavorting ways to captivate and convince Caesar to help her regain her throne. Caesar and Cleopatra from that night on were lovers. This relationship greatly benefited Cleopatra in the sense that she had Rome’s alliance as long as Caesar was hers.


Example #6

Cleopatra is certainly one of the successful and respected queens in the history of ancient Egypt since she brought huge influence on the society, governance, politics, and even on women. Her romantic stories and death are always celebrated throughout Egypt and she governed Egypt and created it relatively influential during her regime. Cleopatra was a third born daughter, born in Alexandria in 69 B.C and her father was Ptolemy XII. Ptolemy XIII, her younger brother, got engaged in the kingdom governance with Cleopatra.

Her life history is among the greatest stories in history, not only due to her exceptional romance, but since she was greatly in love of Egypt (Grochowski, 2005). While in power, Cleopatra influenced most women through her education, love, governance, and invasions. Her role in the society is felt in the modern society of Egypt and her encouragements and achievements serve as an inspiration to all women.

Cleopatra is recognized by most historians as the last Pharaoh of Egypt and started her journey to the throne after her elder sisters and father died. Her father was much hated all over Egypt and he went to Rome for exile many years before his death. Throughout the two centuries after the death of Cleopatra’s father, Ptolemy XII, the Ptolemies were in cooperation with Romans, but the powers of Ptolemies were declining and the Roman Empire was growing since they were attempting to overpower Ptolemies.

There was a need to regain their strength and Cleopatra took power in 51 B.C when she was only 17 years old. She understood the religion which existed in Egypt and she was very bright. She was an insightful politician with an exceptional charisma, but was not good-looking and possessed mannish qualities.

Ptolemy XII, the father of Cleopatra, died in 51 B.C and he left the will that he allowed Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIII, her younger brother, to rule the kingdom and Cleopatra was directed to wed her brother and deputy ruler because of the Egyptians’ traditions and customs.

These customs directed that all female leaders should have a partner who may be either son or brother and her younger brother was just 12 years of age during that transition. Cleopatra excluded the name of her brother from all managerial records and created her personal name and portrait included in all legal tender, discarding Ptolemy XIII’s existing powers.

Cleopatra governed alone for almost three years, but the guiders of Ptolemy XIII cheered by Pothinus started working against Cleopatra. In 48 B.C, they overpowered Cleopatra and took over power and she ran for refuge in Syria together with her other sister, Arsinone IV (Bianchi, 2011). However, she did not surrender her throne effortlessly and she started building an army on the border of Egypt to be equipped to attack and overrule her brother.

Cleopatra formulated a strategy to meet Julius Caesar on her personal conditions looking for a political coalition and a way of going back to the throne. She planned to be covered inside a carpet that was intended to be delivered to Julius Caesar. When the carpet was unwrapped, she came out and directly charmed him and during the same day, Caesar was seduced by Cleopatra, although he was married. They eventually became lovers and Cleopatra was connected with the Roman Empire.

The death of Cleopatra is among the most celebrated and well-known ever and after she prepared burial for Antony, she was captured as prisoners with her children, but they were taken care by the authority. She did not want to be embarrassed and this led her take her life. The Roman Emperors began to govern Egypt and Cleopatra is considered the last Pharaoh because after passing away, Egypt was changed and became Roman province.

Queen Cleopatra created huge impact on the Roman Empire and acted as an inspiration to all women in Egypt and other parts of the world. She also left huge impression of the Roman Empire since she portrayed an ineradicable representation of women as reliable, shrewd, and strong-minded.

Additionally, she further inspired different interests in the society and strong impact remained in art history. Cleopatra played a great part in the production of a new art culture and practices. Queen Cleopatra’s life and influence will remain permanently in the area of art history and women’s leadership in Roman Empire and her influence as spread to some parts of the world (Harrella, 2011).

Cleopatra possessed different royal and feminine influence all over the Ptolemaic era that embraced society, invasions, authority, women, leadership, and role modelling. She portrayed several excellent characteristics of a role model that embraced, but not limited to, her objective, aptitude, personality, and royalty.

Her role model features particularly included shining academically, politically, romantically, and understood different languages. It is obvious that Cleopatra was a relatively role model for all women during the Ptolemaic era and even in this generation.

Cleopatra also portrayed special characteristics that were respected and inspired traits of the position of women in the community of which included promoting schooling, independence, and hierarchy position of women during the Ptolemaic dynasty and in the current world. Egyptian traditions greatly treasured education of which the Ptolemy era highly valued and reinforced this custom. Women were inspired by Cleopatra to create courage and importance of schooling.

Cleopatra possessed different effects on society of which included her personal change, the manner in which she was represented in the society, and a religious ceremony. The Queen was recognized as a woman with objective, dynamic, influential, and a mother of positive strength of power. She had also exceptional ability and knowledge that helped her as a woman to be portrayed by society as an outstanding person.

Colourful traits of Cleopatra had a major influence on the women’s role in the traditional society and the current women’s position. She obtained high standard as a respected, motivated, and dedicated women of her monarchies to be strong-minded and determined as they go after their objectives in life through their schooling, professions, affection, and talent.

Cleopatra obtained the same educational status like male Pharaoh that emphasizes comprehensive ‘enkukleios paideia’ that signifies encyclopaedia and this Cleopatra’s status allowed women to realize their importance in their society.

She also inspired women in field of mathematics, geometry, and science which took her in significance and interest in the group of well-known learned individuals consisting of Sosigenes (astronome), a physician, and Dioscorides that motivated most women to take part in these fields (Gascoigne, 2011).

She showed the abilities of women after inflicting an effect on the government when she brought strategies along with Antony to offer greatly reliable, optimistic, and constructive policy, along with his intelligence in several administrative positions and decisions.

She also had an impact on the government through her straightforward approaches of ruling because she had certain inborn abilities of a Ptolemy, reliable governing, resolution, and adequate resistance, and these helped to motivate the powerful queens of that time and upcoming leaders.

Cleopatra possessed different royal influence on women and society, for instance creating her personal coin, engaging herself in a religious ceremony, and the manner in which she was represented in the society. Cleopatra had a distinct portrait coin that represented her personality and individualism.

She also got involved in a religious ceremony which allowed her to receive respect and honour from her kingdom. Bearing in mind all Cleopatra’s accomplishments and encouragements, most societies took her as an outstanding person since she influenced women to realize and participate in the society.

Queen Cleopatra had a significance royal and womanly influence on women in the past and in Ptolemaic era. She possessed encouragements and achievements as a role model on the role of women and even women’s romance of which motivated the scripts of her romantic stories. Cleopatra as well had a royal influence on the fields of governance, war, and invasions, together with the manner in which the society portrayed her.

Cleopatra remains as a major female historical representation that significantly had an impact on the Ptolemaic dynasty through acting as a representation of women, role model, romantic figure, governance, education, and her role in the society, and was an intelligent Queen which adequate skills and knowledge in challenging role in politics, a woman’s leadership with the sensuality to draw the outstanding traits of heroes, and the ability to understand and apply it.


Example #7

The story of Cleopatra VII Philopator is still a myth to a lot of historians. Most of her traces have been lost or destroyed (Ebers 5). She is mostly remembered as a temptress who lured powerful rulers into accepting her wishes and her reign was marked by chaos and drama. This paper gives an account of Cleopatra’s life from her ascension to the throne to how she met her solemn death.

Born in 69 BC, Cleopatra rose to the throne after the death of her father, Ptolemy XII, the Egyptian pharaoh at that time. She was only 18 years old then and she first ruled Egypt together with her brother Ptolemy XIII (Roller 4). As soon the siblings ascended to the throne, Ptolemy XIII connived with his advisors to remove Cleopatra from power.

As a result of the threats imposed on her, she decided to seek asylum in Syria. She later returned to Egypt with the help of Julius Caesar, a rival of Pompey, the Roman general. Caesar had been welcomed to Alexandria by Ptolemy XIII after he had orchestrated the murder of Pompey.

Soon after Caesar’s arrival in Egypt, Cleopatra forged an alliance with him and persuaded him to oust Ptolemy XIII from power. After months of battle between Ptolemy XIII’s troops and those of Caesar, reinforcements from Rome arrived that saw the defeat of Ptolemy XIII.

Caesar then restored Cleopatra as the rightful heir to the throne (Tyldesley 97). The relationship between Cleopatra and Julius Caesar flourished and together they bore a son whom they named Caesarion. After the assassination of Caesar on the 15th of March, 44 BC, Cleopatra named Caesarion as her successor.

After the murder of Julius Caesar, conflicts ensued in Rome between his allies and assassins. Among Caesar’s allies was Mark Antony and Octavian. As these battles became intense, both groups sought help from Egypt. Cleopatra agreed to help Caesar’s allies and summoned troops to Rome.

This saw the defeat of Caesar’s assassins. Mark Antony and Octavian then agreed to share power as Roman rulers. Antony later called upon Cleopatra to discuss more about the aftermath of Caesar’s murder. When they met in Tarsus, Antony was seduced by Cleopatra’s charm and they started a romantic relationship which resulted in the birth of twins.

The bond between Antony and Cleopatra continued to strengthen and resulted in the return of most of Egypt’s empires that had been conquered by the Romans. Antony later left his wife for Cleopatra and declared Caesarion as the son of Caesar and the rightful heir (Tyldesley 172). His actions did not resonate well with the Romans and in late 32 BC, Octavian declared war on Mark Antony. The Battle of Actium in 31 BC saw the defeat of Egyptian’s forces by Octavian.

After receiving rumors that Cleopatra had committed suicide, Antony pierced himself with his sword and died (Tyldesley 186). The rumors turned out to be false and Cleopatra later buried her lover’s body. She then locked herself in her room together with two of her female servants and on around 30 BC, she met her death by allowing an asp to bite her (Tyldesley 193). Afterwards, Octavian established his Roman authority over Egypt. He had indeed defeated Cleopatra, the last pharaoh of Egypt.


Example #8

Cleopatra lived from 69 BC to 30 BC in ancient Egypt. Her full name was Cleopatra VII Philopator and she was the last active ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom. The name Cleopatra comes from the Greek name Κλεοπάτρα (Kleopatra) which means “she who comes from glorious father” or “glory of the father”.

She was a member of the Ptolemy dynasty and she was the seventh person in that dynasty to be named Cleopatra. She was a daughter of Ptolemy XII. The Ptolemys were not of Egyptian ancestry but were Macedonian Greek. Cleopatra also had two brothers, Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV. As was customary in ancient Egyptian times, the daughters and sons of the ruling family often married one another.

This was so they could continue to control and rule Egypt for many generations within the same royal family. Eventually, Cleopatra’s father, Ptolemy XII dies in 51 BC. Upon his death he wanted the throne to pass to Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIII. As a result, Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIII married and ruled Egypt together. Cleopatra was determined to rule on her own and her brother’s guardians knew this. As a result, they revolted against her and made her leave Alexandria in 49 BC.

Cleopatra, still wanted to rule Egypt by herself, and so she decided to make a plan to create a relationship with Julius Caesar, a Roman leader, to help her make this come true. In 48 BC, Cleopatra made an impression on Caesar, not because of her beauty, but most likely because of the audacity of her plan of approaching him to help her to take over and rule Egypt. It may also have helped that Cleopatra at the time was one of the richest women in the world if not the richest.

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In 47 BC, Cleopatra become Caesar’s mistress and Caesar uses his army to defeat her ruling brother Ptolemy XIII. Caesar then makes Cleopatra and her younger brother, Ptolemy XIV, the new rulers of Egypt. A year later, Cleopatra gives birth to Caesar’s child whom they name Ptolemy Caesar but also call him Caesarion.

Cleopatra joins Caesar in Rome along with their son and her brother Ptolemy XIV. In 44 BC, Caesar is assassinated because his enemies in the senate saw him getting too powerful. Shortly after that, Cleopatra leaves Rome and returns to Egypt with her son and her brother. Soon after her brother, Ptolemy XIV, dies of poisoning. Many think that this poisoning was ordered by Cleopatra so that she could make her son, Caesarion a co-ruler as Ptolemy XV.

In 42 BC, Mark Antony, leader of the Roman forces wanted to attack the Persian Empire and asked for Cleopatra to join him. He did this because he needed her help both financially and militarily. Cleopatra, having lost the protection Caesar provided, needed another Roman leader to protect her.

They form a partnership and she helps Mark Antony with his battles and secures protection for her continued rule of Egypt. She even has Mark Antony send orders to have her younger sister, Arsinoe killed in Rome as she was a rival for her throne. Eventually, Mark Antony and Cleopatra have twins, a boy named Alexander Helios and a girl named Cleopatra Selene.

In 37 BC, Mark Antony marries Cleopatra in Antioch. At this time Mark Antony and Octavian, Julius Caesar’s adopted son, are battling each other for rule over the Romans while attempting to still expand the Roman empire. Over the next several years their relationship grew worse and worse.

In 31 BC, they ended up fighting one another at the Battle of Actium. Mark Antony and Cleopatra’s forces were defeated by Octavian and as a result, he commits suicide. Cleopatra realizes that Octavian will always see her as just an enemy so she sends her son Caesarion away and then intends to commit suicide.

Before she can do this though, she is taken captive by Octavian’s forces. Cleopatra is still intent on committing suicide and somehow convinces someone to bring her an asp, a poisonous snake. She then allowed the snake to bite her and as a result she died. More recent studies in 2010 surmise that she died by drinking a mixture of poisons. Regardless, Cleopatra died on August 12, 30 BC.

After Cleopatra’s death her son Caesarion, was declared pharaoh by his supporters. However, he was killed by Octavian’s forces shortly after taking the throne. Soon after that, Egypt was taken over by Octavian and it became the Roman province of Aegyptus.


Example #9

Synopsis I have always been interested with anything to do with Egypt, and thought that Cleopatra would be quite a fascinating topic to study. I was interested in learning more about her life and thought it would be a good topic to gain a better understanding of her. I thought the mystery of her death would be an interesting addition to this assignment.

To do this I wanted to look at the details of Cleopatra’s life and what events led up to her death. The three main theories of Cleopatra’s death is suicide by snake bite, suicide by poison, and the possibility that she was murdered. I analysed this information, along with the information I had gathered about the background of her life and came to the conclusion that she either committed suicide by poison, or she was murdered.

The information is too strong and believable for the poison suicide, however I personally think it is more believable that she was murdered, as people would have more to gain from this, rather than Cleopatra ending her own life over a broken heart. Who was Cleopatra, and how did she die Queen Cleopatra of Egypt is the most well known of all the ancient Egyptian queens.

She was born in Alexandria, Egypt in 69 B. C. during the reign of Ptolemy. Cleopatra was not Egyptian, but rather Macedonian, descended through a general of Alexander the Great. In 51 B. C. when Cleopatra was eighteen years of age, her father, Ptolemy Auletes, ruler of Egypt, died, leaving his kingdom and his will to Cleopatra, for her to become Egypt’s new queen. Little did they know she would be the last, after her mysterious death in 30 B. C. Cleopatra’s cause of death has presented many theories that have been contemplated for many years and continue to be to this day.

The events of Cleopatra’s life have influenced these theories including her very special relationship with Marc Antony, which is to be believed the core motivation for two of the main theories. Suicide by snake bite is the first theory for the mysterious death of Queen Cleopatra, the second; suicide by poison and the third; murder. When Cleopatra took the throne, Egypt was in turmoil.

There was a famine in the land, and the Roman Empire was growing larger and becoming a greater threat to Egypt. In 48 B. C. Cleopatra was removed from her position as queen because of her actions which displeased some of the more powerful court officials. She was overthrown by them in favour of her younger brother, whom they believed would be easier to influence, causing Cleopatra to flee the country. She did not return to Alexandria until Caesar arrived to obtain the country from her brother, Ptolemy in 48 B. C.

She knew important meetings would be held about the country and did not want to be left out of anything, so she had herself smuggled in to meet Caesar wrapped up in a rug. It is thought that Cleopatra and Caesar fell in love at first sight and immediately became lovers. Caesar dethroned Ptolemy and placed Cleopatra on the throne as a puppet ruler for the country, and before long she became pregnant with their son.

They traveled back to Rome together, where many disapproved of Caesar’s affection for her. When the Senate in Rome realized that Caesar was preparing to position himself as the new king, they had him assassinated on March 15, 44 B. C. Cleopatra was afraid for her life and that of her child, so she fled back to her home in Alexandria.

When she returned, she had her brother Ptolemy XIV killed and regained the throne, making her four-year old son her coregent, always watching to seek the next man of power in Rome. In 41 B. C. , Mark Antony invited Cleopatra to Tarsus where they met and became lovers, despite his already existing wife. The two spent much time together and once Antony had finally divorced his wife, the Western part of the world had to acknowledge his relationship with Cleopatra.

By doing this, he put himself at odds with the forces of Rome, and made himself the enemy of Octavian, the emperor. In 31 B. C. Octavian’s army defeated Antony in Greece. He sent for Cleopatra, but was lied to and told that she was dead. When he heard this news, he committed suicide with his own sword. Cleopatra eventually came to him before he died, and stayed with him during his final moments.

After Antony’s death, Cleopatra was taken to Octavian, where she was told that she would be displayed as a slave to all of the countries that she had ruled over. This would bring her great suffering and humiliation so she had her servants bring her a poisonous asp hidden in a basket. Her religion believed that if one died by snake bite, they would become mmortal.

She died on August 12, 30 B. C. , when she was only 39 years old. It has been documented that the snake bit Cleopatra on the arm, but there have also been reports that the snake bit her on the chest. This incident was followed with a note asking to be buried with Antony. However, this method of suicide has been believed to be unlikely because it has too many contradictions.

According to previous accounts, this method did not seem to be in Cleopatra’s nature as she was portrayed as a smart, charismatic woman who had shown great strength and courage. This makes it hard to believe that Cleopatra would resort to a method of death that involved so much pain, instead of researching a quick and painless method.

Along with this is the lack of evidence of a snake in the mausoleum and the temperature for August would have been to warm for a snake to be with her at her time of death. Although the theory of suicide by snake bite has been the most popular over time, there are too many contradictions and missing or incorrect components for this theory to be correct.

The second theory for Cleopatra’s death is that she committed suicide by poisoning herself, again, because of the loss of Antony. It has been known that Cleopatra studied different poisons to find the most effective and it is said that she kept poison in a hollow comb in her hair.

German historian, Christoph Schaefer believes that hemlock, combined with wolfsbane and opium, may have been the deadly combination that led to death of Queen Cleopatra, based on the materials that would have been available to her at that time. It also fits the profile as this would have been the smarter option, because it would have been quick and painless.

The third theory is that Queen Cleopatra was murdered. A criminal profiler found that Cleopatra did not fit the normal profile for a suicide victim, no matter how much she may have loved Antony. Cleopatra was a strong woman, and had nothing to gain by dying, which made the two suicide theories unstable and unbelievable. These facts support the theory that Cleopatra may have been murdered.

Cleopatra was the last Queen to rule before the Roman takeover. This was a time when it was common for rulers to be murdered. It has been speculated that Octavia sent men to kill Cleopatra and commanded them to make it look like a suicide. The fact that Cleopatra didn’t fit the profile for a suicide victim, combined with what could be gained from her death makes this theory more plausible. In addition to this, upon Cleopatra’s death, Octavia became the new pharaoh, which proves he had the motive to kill her.

Cleopatra was a strong powerful, woman, who had an extremely eventful life, and a mysterious, puzzling death. There is no uncertainty that our historical knowledge of Cleopatra will continue to grow. So as we see the world and our association with bewildering situations continually change –the reputation and portrayal of Cleopatra will continue to develop, along with the many theories that give insight into her life and death.


Example #10 – interesting ideas

Cleopatra maintained her position as queen of Egypt essentially by prostituting herself to powerful Roman generals.Ultimately however, her country was annexed by Rome and she committed suicide.

So, you could write your essay from the point of view that Cleopatra was a failure as queen of Egypt, and achieved nothing in the long term.

Mother, lover, warrior, femme-fatale. Mother of a country, lover of all that brings beauty, warrior of the state, femme-fatale over all men; this was Cleopatra Queen of the Nile. Cleopatra’s intelligence, wit and beauty are still remembered and written about to this day. Born a Greek, Cleopatra adapted to the Egyptian ways and even learnt their native tongue, a feat which had not been ccomplished since the Ptolemies had first ruled.

Although not a “true Egyptian”, she utilized her tremendous aptitude and cunning female ways to gain and provide, for her country that she so loved. Cleopatra was a born ruler and did so with a flourish that would later be her undoing. Cleopatra’s seductive, yet absolute ability to keep Egypt in the means of profit and gain was accomplished through her fabled beauty.

A thesis is kind of like the main point of the whole essay, it should also be interesting and to the point. What part of Cleopatra’s life are you going to focus on? It would also really ad something special to your essay if you could connect it to today’s world. I suggest talking about how powerful she was even though she was a woman. Talk about her successes and and obstacles she faced while in power.

You could talk about what Egyptian government was like at the time, how people got into power and such. you could then relate it to how the US has never had a female president and how women in their culture were seen as the superior gender, and in America we are seen as weak and inferior.


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