Writing about recorded history should be a relatively easy task to accomplish. Recorded history is based on facts. Regardless of what time period one may write about, one will find enough information about that time of period. The key is to put everything in a logical and understandable manner. This paper will be about the Civil War. I will try, to the best of my knowledge, to discuss the North’s and South’s positions and Arguments for going to war, their initial military strategies, and their strength and weaknesses. The paper will actually be a summary from chapter 10 of the book Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era By James McPherson, “Amateurs Go To War”.Before discussing the war itself, one must understand the Union’s and the Confederate’s arguments and reasons for going to war.
Let’s start at the beginning when the South was first showing animosity for the North, which eventually led to secessionist ideas by the South. The Compromise of 1850 was drafted in response to the threat of a Southern Convention, because of Zachary Taylor’s decision to carve out two huge territories in the Far West and to admit them in the union as free states. Henry Clay drafted the compromise, which includes eight parts. “The first pair would admit California as a State and organize the remainder of the Mexican cession without “any restriction or condition on the subject of slavery”. The second pair of resolutions settled the boundary dispute between Texas and New Mexico in favor of the latter and compensated Texas by the federal assumption of debts contracted during its existence as the Independent Republic.
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Clay’s third pair of resolutions called for the abolition of the slave trade in the District of Columbia but a guarantee of slavery itself in the District. As if these six proposals yielded more to the North then to the South, Clay’s final pair of resolutions tipped the balance Southward by denying congressional power over the interstate slave trade and calling for a stronger law to enable slaveholders to recover their property when they fled to free states” Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era, McPherson James, (p.70-71). The Northerners hated the fugitive slave law because in the past it was never enforced and it never gave a trial by jury to any runaway slaves. The only testimony heard was that of the slaveholder and he usually recovered his slave.
Not only that, but the slaveholder was compensated $10 for winning the trial because of all the trouble he had to go through in recovering his property. Because of the passage of the compromise, the North had to enforce the law which is hated. As the United States expanded westward, two new territories were carved out and the issue of slavery arose again. The U.S. government let the two new territories decide themselves whether or not to permit slavery. Since it was up to the people to decide the slavery issue, Northern abolitionists enticed anti-slavery supporters to move into the new regions and vote to make Kansas and Nebraska free states. Southern pro-slavery supporters did exactly as the North did to make Kansas and Nebraska slave states.
The two sides clashed with one another over this issue and there was literally a Civil War in Kansas. One particular situation that occurred in Kansas was the sacking of the city of Lawrence. Pro-slavery advocates of the city of Lecompton, Kansas set up a group or a posse that went to the anti-slavery city of Lawrence, Kansas, ransacked, burned, and literally destroyed the city. In response to this attack by the Southerners, the Northerners took revenge. John Brown, a radical abolitionist, decided to do a similar thing to the Southerners. He planned an attack on Lecompton, Kansas. En route to Lecompton he encountered about five pro-slavery supporters, and without remorse, hacked them to death at Pottawattamie Creek in Kansas. The entire country was slowly being divided into two parts and even congress could not do anything to resolve the problems.
Political parties were splitting along North/South lines and even violence was a common occurrence in congress. The last straw, which eventually split the Union, was the election of 1860. On the eve of the election, Southerners had already agreed that if a Republican wins the election, they would leave the Union. Well, history shows that Lincoln, a Republican, was elected and the south truly did leave the Union. During the four months, prior to President Lincoln’s inauguration, President James Buchanan did nothing to discourage secession. It may be even concluded that he was sympathetic to the Southern cause. South Carolina was the first state to secede from the Union, and by February 1861 seven more southern states followed South Carolina’s example. Finally, when Lincoln took the office, all of the federal arsenals in the south have been overrun by Confederate forces.
In Fort Sumter, South Carolina, federal troops were literally surrounded and their supplies eventually ran out. Lincoln made a decision to send an unarmed supply ship to the harbor of Fort Sumter. Lincoln’s reasoning was that if the South fires on an unarmed supply ship, it would be an act of war. If it doesn’t it would mean that the South is bluffing and it really does not want to secede. Well, on April 12, 1861, Confederate troops fired on the unarmed supply ship at Fort Sumter and the Civil War began. The North’s primary reason for going to war was to keep the country together. The South was fighting for “state sovereignty, the right of secession and interpreting the constitution the way they wanted to,” Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era, James McPherson, (p. 310). Slavery was not the reason the Civil War began. Lincoln had argued that it was unconstitutional for any state or states to secede from the Union, which is why keeping the Union together, as one country, was the North’s most important cause for war.
The South was fighting for the “sacred right of self-government”, Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era, James McPherson, (p. 310). The South felt that it was fighting for the same reasons that the founding fathers had fought for in the War for Independence. According to southerners seceding from the Union, all they wanted was to be left alone, and not to be bothered by the North. After Davis? speech to the Confederate Congress he included the phrase “All we ask is to be let alone”, which in turn specified the most immediate, tangible Confederate war aim: defense from invasion.” Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era, James McPherson, (p. 310). Slavery was not a major issue or cause for going to war. Slavery handicapped Confederate foreign policy. “The first Southern commissioners to Britain reported in May 1861 that “The public mind here is entirely opposed to the government of the Confederate States of America on the question of slavery.
The sincerity and universality of this feeling embarrass the government in dealing with the question of our recognition. The North initially stated that the war was not about slavery. Lincoln even mentioned “that he had no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with slavery in the states where it exists,” Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era, James McPherson, (p. 312). The Constitution protected and will continue to protect slavery where it existed. As was stated earlier, the North fought the war to keep the Union together, because of the fact that secession was unconstitutional. Militarily, both the North and the South were not prepared for this war. Although the North was the manufacturing part of the country, it had to somehow change its peacetime economy to a wartime economy.
Most of the arms that belonged to the North were very old and outdated. It had old muskets and cannons that dated back to the war of 1812. Northern leadership was crippled as well. Most of the pristine military academies were in the South, and most of the graduates of those military academies served in the confederate armies. Many of the North’s military leaders were veterans of the war of 1812. Many of the North’s leaders were in their 60s and beyond. “The army had nothing resembling a general staff, no strategic plans, no program for mobilization,” Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era, James McPherson, (p. 312). The Northern navy was in better shape than the army. “Although 373 of the Navy’s 1,554 officers and a few of its 7600 seamen left to go with the south, the large merchant marine from which an expanded navy would draw experienced officers and sailors was overwhelmingly northern.”
Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era, James McPherson, (p. 313). The Northerner’s military strategy was to basically cut the Southerner’s lines of communications, to slowly choke the Confederate army to surrender. The navy did a good job following this strategy. The North set up blockades, which the navy carried out to the best of its ability. The Confederates had quite possibly the best leadership in the war. Although to win, it needed more than best leadership. The South had primarily an agrarian economy. This fact alone was a major obstacle for the South during the war. The South had the men, leadership, and even some ammunition when the war began. The South had to find the resources, employ those resources, and finally put those resources together. “The confederacy had only one-ninth the industrial capacity of the Union. Northern states had manufactured 97% of the country’s firearms in 1860, 94% of its cloth, 93% of its pig iron, and more then 90% of its boots and shoes. Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era, James McPherson, (p. 318).
When it came to the Navy, the Confederates had no navy. Although lacking material resources, “they used tugboats, revenue cutters, and river steamboats to be converted into gunboats for harbor patrol. Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era, James McPherson, (p. 314). The Confederates also came up with the idea of the first submarine. “The Confederacy sent into action the world’s first combat submarine, the C.S.S. Hunley, which sank three times in trials, drowning the crew each time, before sinking a blockade ship off Charleston in 1864, while going down itself for the fourth and last time.” Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era, James McPherson, (p. 314). The Confederacy was also the first to introduce “torpedoes”/land mines. Even though these innovations were developed during the war, they did not prove substantial enough to win the war. Jefferson Davis, the strategy was to take a defensive position rather then an offensive one. “The basic war aim of the confederacy, like that of the United States in the revolution was to defend a new nation from conquest. .”
Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era, James McPherson, (p. 314). Davis reasoned just as Washington did during the revolution, that retreating against a stronger enemy is not bad all the time. It gave time to regroup your forces and build a counterattack against the enemy. Although the south did try this tactic at the beginning of the war, they didn’t follow this strategy at the end of the war. The south had the temperament that they could easily “whip the Yankees” and that they should take the war to them. “The idea of waiting for blows, instead of inflicting them, is altogether unsuited to the genius of our people, declared the Richmond Examiner.” Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era, James McPherson, (p. 337).In conclusion, the lack of adequate resources proved to be a devastating factor for the Confederacy.
Although the Confederacy had excellent leadership at the beginning of the war, later, southern public opinion showed that the people in the South were sick of taking the defensive position and wanted to attack the North. Because of this strategy, the Confederacy lost many soldiers in battles while trying to fight in the North. The South’s last-ditch effort at the end of the war was a promise of freedom for any slave that fights against the Union. Even though the North had inferior leadership, its manufacturing capabilities surpassed that of the South. At first, the North did not have many men enlisted in an army. However, later on, the North had voluntary regiments of men fighting for the Union. The North’s major lines of communication were never destroyed and the Union army was always well supplied. In conclusion, the North won because it had superior resources and industry to sustain the war effort to its conclusion.BibliographyWilliam L. Yancey and A. Dudley Mann to Robert Toombs, May 21, 1861, in James D. Richardson, comp., A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Confederacy, 2 vols. (Nashville, 1906), II, 37.
American history is considered the most inquisitive worldwide. Traditionally, American history started by a declaration of independence in the year 1776. This declaration was due to threats of the British government towards the American self-governed system. Declaration of independence led to a war in 1775 that was to liberate Americans. With help of France in providing military and financial support, the Patriots won the American Revolution. In 1789, war hero George Washington became the first president of the federal government by virtue of the constitution. With the influence of the European community, coping with a scope of central government proved to be a challenging issue for the American people.
In the 1790s, the creation of political parties was initiated, and later fighting for the second independence in 1812. Consequently, this brought about the expansion of US territory westwards. With this, the US managed to overcome modernizers who were solely interested in deepening its economy rather than helping the American people in expanding their geography. Heavy demand for cotton in southern states encouraged slavery of Africans even though it was illegal in northern states. In 1860, came the election of Abraham Lincoln as president and this triggered a crisis in slave states as he dejected the expansion of the slave trade. Amongst the slave states, some of them seceded in forming the Confederate States of America in 1861. This brought about the American Civil War, which was from 1861 to 1865.
In American history, the Civil War is the most momentous event that ever happened in the US. This iconic event redefined the American nation, as it was a fight that aimed at preserving the Union, which was the United States of America. From the inauguration of the Constitution, differing opinions existed on the role of the federal government. It was a belief of Federalists that in order to ensure the unit does not collapse, there was a need for the federal government to hold on to power. Anti-federalists, on the other hand, were of the opinion that the sovereignty of the new states was to remain within their countries. Anti-federalists believed that each state had the right to determine their own set of laws and it is not right to indict them in following mandates of the federal government.
With the advent of slavery, Northern states completely squared off against Southern states. The main reason for this being the economic interests of the north and south which were opposed to each other. In addition, Southerners largely depended on large-scale plantations of cotton, which was more labor-intensive. On the other hand, northerners were more of a manufacturing region that produced finished goods by making use of raw materials. A southern ingrained culture of the plantation era encouraged slavery because it gave them an inexpensive labor source. The compromise of each group was the fear that one could gain an unequal amount of power. For example, northerners feared that if more slave states existed, then they would garner an unequal power in the nation.
The causes of the American Civil war, which claimed over 618,000 casualties, are traceable back to the early days in the history of the US when tensions escalated. The main cause was the difference in economic and social capabilities between the North and the South. The south mainly depended on cotton, which meant the urgent need for cheap labor most probably slaves, as they become a one-crop economy. On the other hand, northerners depended solely on industrial products. This disparity, which existed between the two, was the major difference in their economies.
The second cause was due to the infighting between those who favored states’ rights and those who favored federal rights. The emergence of these two camps that had differences in opinions ignited the war. Third, the American Civil war was caused by an in-fight between those who were proponents of slavery and those who were against slavery. Another cause of the American Civil war was the growth of the abolition movement. The fact that northerners were against slavery led to the increase of abolitionists who were against slaveholders. Lastly, when Abraham Lincoln was elected as president, it catalyzed the civil war, as southerners believed that he favored the interests of the northerners because he was against slavery.
The aftermath of the Civil War. The surrender of General Robert E. Lee on April 9, 1865, marked an end to the confederacy era. However, this did not stop the war completely as some small battles continued to occur. This was later to end when the last general, Stand Watie, surrendered on June 23, 1865. Abraham Lincoln’s vision of reconstructing the nation did not bear much fruit as it failed to become a reality because of his assassination on April 14, 1865. The Radical Republicans imposed military rule on the southerners dealing with them harshly until Rutherford B. Hayes ended it in 1876. In American history, the Civil War is a watershed event and most importantly an event that officially ended slavery.
In conclusion, the Civil War was an important event in the history of the American people. Moreover, its iconic stature is very vital, as the proponents who were against slavery became victors because their wish of anti-slavery was satisfied. In addition, it helped in liberating the people who had different opinions and gave them reasons to live for better ideals.
The Civil War leads to the Glorious Revolution. The civil war lasted from 1642 to 1649. Directly after the civil war came to the Glorious Revolution when James II was overthrown. Facts of history show us that the civil war was one of the main causes that lead to the glorious revolution. Many events occurred during the Civil war, which lead to the overthrow of James II. In 1641, the parliaments passed a law, which limited the royal power. Charles was furious, and he tried to arrest the parliament, but they escaped. A mob of Londoners raged outside of the palace. Charles fled to London and found many followers. People there were loyal to him. From 1642 to 1649, the supporters and opponents of Charles fought in the Civil war.
The ones who were loyal to Charles were called Cavaliers, and his opponents were called Puritans. In 1644, the Puritans found a general who could win the civil war. His name was Oliver Cromwell. In 1646, Cromwell and his new army defeated the Cavaliers. In 1649, Charles was found guilty of treason and sentenced to death. This execution was revolutionary. After Cromwell died, Charles II became the ruler. In 1685, Charles II died, and James II became king. He soon angered his subjects by flaunting his Catholicism and appointing Catholic men in high offices. Seven members of the Parliament invited William and Mary to overthrow James. William and Mary lead their army to London, but James fled to France.
The overthrow of King James II was called the glorious revolution. As we look closely into the facts of history, we realize that many events were linked together. The glorious revolution could not have happened if it had not been for the civil war. The civil war time began the limitation of royal power, and without this, the subjects would have not been able to overthrow a king. Another reason the civil war lead to the glorious revolution is that Charles was executed during the civil war. If Charles had not been executed he might have still been king, so the overthrow of James couldn’t have happened.
Small battles to big battles, no matter where it was fought, many of our soldiers died, for there side. There were many problems that lead to the Civil War. One issue was the spread of slavery to the west (the territory where they won from the Mexican War). The South claim that the slaves were properties and wanted to take there properties with them. The North didn’t want that to happen. Also, they wanted to make new states into slaves states and some into free states. Since they couldn’t compromise there where conflicts between the two sides. The South wanted to break away from the states and make its own country. So then they declared war. The North wanted to fight because they know that if they do win they can reunite with each other.
Then if the South do win, they will be the Confederates States, which is there own country. There where many things going on at the same time. Small battles where fought and slaves where free during the process and many soldiers were caught and became prisoners. At the Northside, they had slaves joining the army in free will, and they where cooks, laborers, and etc. But at the end of the war about 10 percent where fighting. Many poor people say that it was a rich man war and a poor man’s fight. Well, this was true. Many of the rich people of both north and south paid there way out of it or if they had 20 or more slaves they wouldn’t have to join the army. The South had many volunteers and some had to be sent back home because of the lack of weapons. The North had plenty and they had soldiers coming when another soldier is gone.
The North general was Grant but there was more general before him. The South had Robert E Lee and he was one of the best generals ever. They graduated from West Point and once fought together during the Mexican War. At the end of the war, they finally get to meet each other and it was a war that’s going to last. They fought and fought and the North brought everything at the South and the South just defend themselves and in times they fought back and took some soldiers. But yet the North was too much for them. At the last battle, the South brought everything against the north and it lasted 3 days. The biggest Southern army every with the best general every lost trying to invade the North. There the South surrendered and the war was over.
Elsewhere during the war was destroyed and many lives where taken. The small things that happen for one showed many people that this is harsh and very cruel. One general took his troops and marched a longs way destroying everything they could to show the people that the war was bad. This worked and many people wanted the war to stop. Many peopled died because of disease, starvation, illness, and shots to the head. This was one of the bloodiest battles ever fought between the two sides. After all of this ended, the two brother state finally reunite and hopefully, it will get better. There were many strategies by the north general and South and I`ll also talk about the two general themselves. Also about the emancipation proclamation.
The two men where very smart. Robert E Lee graduated from West Point in the top two of his class. The North offer him to join the union army to fight for the North but he was loyal to his state so he went to Virginia and fought in the South’s army. Graduating 2nd in his class in west point shows that he’s a very intelligent man and that he had many things up his sleeves. He would know when to attack when to retreat, he knew what the other general was going to do before they did it and basically he had the knowledge that many general never had. Even dough he had a small number of soldiers compared to the North he still took many lives away and that showed that he had the skills of many men put together. Grant was one of the greatest generals in the North. He wasn’t like the other general, he kept on coming against Lee’s army and nothing couldn’t stop him, he wound just keep on coming and coming.
Grant never gets drunk, the only time he would get drunk is when he’s not with his wife but other then that he was sober. Grant had a strategy and that was where ever Lee went he would go and follow him. During the wilderness battle, grand lost 17,000 men and he had more coming. He fought and fought and would give up. He was determined to take the north into victory. The wilderness battle was a useless battle, it took 7,000 men in ten minutes. There was no gain in that battle only loss, this was just a waste of well-trained soldiers. After Grant’s win at the last battle, he was such a kinda general. He could have had anything he wanted but instead, he decided that it was a good fight on both sides. Grant took all the south’s weapons, made them sign a paper so that they wouldn’t fight anymore, and he also let them free. He gave Lee’s army more then enough food to last them until they get home. If Robert E Lee won he’ll probably do the same.
The Emancipation Proclamation was to influence people to free the slaves. Lincoln can hurt the south war efforts by taking away its worker and let them free or join the Union army. Another thing was that it kept the European nations like Britain from being allies with the south. But then he believes he didn’t have the constitutional rights to free all the slaves. He was also scared he might lose support in the north and this includes some army officers. The good part that the Emancipation Proclamation did was that it freed slaves in the south that hasn’t been conquered, it had to do it that way because he’s freeing slaves as a war power of the president. He would go to areas that were at war and he would free slaves from there also.
Also, this one fellow, started to go at war as well he brought slaves and fought anyone in there way and gave slaves weapons, and fought against the South as retaliation but they were no match for the South army, and they failed. The Civil was was a very memorable battle and it brought our nation together. The part that I don’t get was why can’t we all just get along. Wouldn’t it be easier to get alone with each other than losing all those people? That was then and this is now. Whatever happens in the past surely brought out nation together and together we will stand strong. Memories and the days gone, we take our time and celebrate for the people who died for our country to make it one nation that we are proud to be in.
The American Civil War was arguably the most important war in the history of the country. The War of Independence may have allowed American to become its’ own country, but the Civil War resulted in something even more important than that, the end of slavery in the southern states. All of the issues that caused the Civil war were based around slavery, such as states’ rights that involved how slavery would be handled in each state and trying to preserve the Union since the south seceded from the north due to their lust for slavery. The war ended up being the deadliest in the history of the country with over 700,000 people being killed as a result of battle or from diseases that were obtained during the war. The north was better prepared for the war than the south due to various reasons.
One was the fact that the north was industrialized, while the south largely relied on agriculture. Being so heavily industrialized, the north was better equipped to fight the war since they could construct better guns, cannons, or even ships to create blockades to prevent the south from getting help from other countries and not everyone in the south was supportive of the war. The north also had a much larger population than the south, and since African Americans were allowed to fight for the Union, their army was larger. Arguably the most important aspect of the northern victory was that it had superior leadership in the form of Abraham Lincoln.
The American Civil War, also known as the State’s War, was a conflict that arose mostly from the issue of slavery, but deep down was due to economic differences between the North and the South. The South seceded from the North and created their own self-government due to their belief in the lack of state’s rights versus the federal government and what they saw as a weakness in the Articles of Confederation. While the Confederacy of the United States depended on slave labor for their economy in regards to plantation farming of cotton, tobacco, and rice, the Union, whom represented the United States of America, was a booming manufacturing industry due to railroads and machinery that allowed them to easily surpass the output of the South’s. This even expanded to violence on the U.S. Senate when Congressman Preston Brooks attacked Senator Charles Sumner over the head for accusing the South of violence.
Eventually, popular sovereignty would be cited for new territories added that would give the new land the right to approve of slavery or not. While under the new Constitution that cited the Articles of Confederation, many believed that the federal government had too much control over the states. The South particularly, felt that their independence was being taken away and they should have to right to accept federal acts or not. Particularly after congress passed a high protective tariff that would benefit them and hurt the South. The tariff was to increase the cost of British textiles, which the South greatly leaned against because they sold all their cotton to mills in England. The North was producing the same products as the South and wished the pass this “unfair taxation” so that the Southerners would have to buy goods from them. In opposition of this, was John C. Calhoun who felt that the compromise betrayed the South. Because of the booming industry in the North, they held a numerical majority. He called for the right of “nullification”.
Example #7 – What Caused Civil War?
Abraham Lincoln’s election of 1860 was the start of something new and very different for the nation. Lincoln, a former member of the Whig party but now a member of the republican party, understood how divided the union was and believed it was his duty to keep the union together, at all costs. Although this election was not the actual start of the Civil War, it was the start of different ideas and conflict between the parties that would soon lead to a breakout. This election made it clear that the division would become greater and eventually start a war.
Along with Lincoln’s election, there were many other events that led up to that start of the civil war, including Uncle Toms Cabin, The Kansas-Nebraska Act, Bleeding Kansas, and the actual start of the war with the attack on Fort Sumter. The main event that occurred and is known to have begun the idea of having a war is the book that was written entitled Uncle Toms Cabin. This book was written by Harriet Beecher Stowe, and according to The Sixth Edition: The American Promise, she had never been to a plantation and was a white northerner (364).
This book exposed the truth behind slavery and the conditions that the slaves had to live in. Due to the slavery being in the south, the southerners shut down what was said about them and pronounced the information to be lies. The southerners stood together but they no longer received condolences from the free states due to the tragic and detailed description in Stowe’s reading. On the other hand, the northerners believed the information to be true which confirmed their opinion and helped them stand taller by their anti-slavery ideas. Although the two groups stood closer together with themselves, they stood farther apart from each other. This separation of the two sides is what is believed to have started the controversy, which is why Lincoln said to Stowe as he met her in the White House, So you are the little woman who wrote the book that made this great war (364).
As this meeting between Lincoln and Stowe occurred a decade after the publication, many events occurred during that time and it was believed to have all started with this exposure of the way slaves were treated. Even though it is believed that the start of the war was from Uncle Toms Cabin, there were many other events that occurred in between the publication of this book and the beginning of the fighting that led up to the outbreak. One of these events is known as the Kansas – Nebraska Act, in which a railroad was the incentive for it. Stephen A. Douglas, Illinois Democratic senator, wanted a railroad for Chicago but any railroad that ran west would pass through a region that Congress in 1830 had designated a permanent Indian reserve (365). This Indian reserve would be named Nebraska, which was a huge area between the Missouri River and the Rocky Mountains, and the Indians would soon be thrown out.
As this land became open and no longer had Indians, it would have to collect southern support so that the Nebraska legislation would be passed. This support helped not only Nebraska but also the southerners due to this new land becoming part of popular sovereignty which would allow the people going there to choose if the land would be for or against slavery. This act caused the government to push the Plains Indians farther west, and make way for farmers and railroads (365). There was a huge division between this land, and this large piece of land started out as only Nebraska but turned into Nebraska and Kansas due to the different beliefs for slaves. This separation caused further tension for the result of having a war. The conflict of the anti-slavery and the pro-slavery in this newly separated land caused an event which is known as Bleeding Kansas.
Bleeding Kansas was similar to a small civil war in one area of land, Kansas. This small breakout started when multiple hundreds of pro-slavery men invaded the center of the free state settlement entitled Lawrence. Due to this invasion, a fight broke out between the anti-slavery and the pro-slavery. There was also a division with the north and south that was connected to Preston Brooks, who was a member of the house of South Carolina. The day after the fight broke out in Kansas, May 22, 1856, he beat senator Charles Sumner in order to make him resign his position in the House. This treatment put on a northerner and performed by a southerner was a reflection of how the south handled their situations. This torture emphasized and solidified the horror that was mentioned in Uncle Toms Cabin. This small violent act gave us a taste of what would soon happen on a much larger scale and with everyone involved.
As we got a little taste of what a war between the northerners and the southerners was about, it started to become more real about five years later. Fort Sumter was located at the Charleston Harbor entrance in South Carolina, this was a small island where about eighty United States soldiers stayed. This was the place that history would be made, and the true beginning of the civil war would start. Lincoln had to make a big decision of whether or not to relieve the fort, although there was a dilemma that he had to consider. He had to investigate what risks would come with relieving the fort which was risking war, but he also wanted to consider the plan he had of defending federal property and avoiding military force.
As this decision was difficult for Lincoln to look at and make, he turned it over to Jefferson Davis who wanted military action but had people telling him that it was almost like walking into death and no longer having the support of the north. As Davis thought about the decision that was now put on him, he soon decided that the Confederate troops needed to take the fort before the others would show up to Charleston and relieve if themselves. As the Confederate troops took the fort, they took Fort Sumter after a bombardment that lasted thirty-three hours. Although the Confederates had Fort Sumter, the idea of war was also present and came with it. Five years later from Bleeding Kansas on April 12, 1861, the civil war officially started.
With each of these events came many different ideas that made the idea of the civil war come closer to reality. The election of Abraham Lincoln started even the smallest thought of war eventually coming, due to what he believed. He wanted to be a free nation and not have slaves, but with his one very strong opinion also came the south who all also had strong opinions about being for slavery. This election caused the nation to become stronger and more passionate about their beliefs because they wanted what they believed in to be put into play everywhere. Uncle Toms Cabin was important to the division that was already in play because it exposed who the south was and what they would do in order to have their slaves. Harriet Beecher Stowe did not hold back when it came to explaining the treatment these slaves had to deal with every day.
This deep explanation caused the north to believe further into being anti – slaves because of how horrifying and terrible they believed this treatment to be. It also caused the south to deny what was being said about them with proof of it being true and it expressed who they were to the north. This book caused the north to become stronger for their opinion and did not want to have anything to do with having slaves. There was also the Kansas – Nebraska Act that expressed how this idea was so powerful and moving for the people, that it caused one piece of land to split into two dues to the northern and southern ideas. Along with the Kansas – Nebraska Act came Bleeding Kansas which gave us a small taste for what the actual war would be like when it came to playing.
This idea of anti-slavery versus pro-slavery became personal and a member of the house, Preston Brooks, decided to beat Charles Sumner to force him into resigning and the decision of pro-slavery being put into play. Yet this idea did not work as Brooks had hoped and Sumner got places back as a senator soon after he resigned. This was a major event that led to the attack on Fort Sumter which began the true civil war. The start of this was is very significant because it did truly start with this attack but, yet it had started before when Lincoln came into play. The start of the civil war was long-awaited, and it had a lot of buildups which caused this war to be one of the most significant wars in history.
Example #8 – The Overall Impact of the American Civil War
Stephen Oates’ description of the reasons for the horrific Civil War clearly elaborates on the examples that contributed most to the making of the war. His description of slavery makes it clear that the United States was a country that believed in freedom; hence could not tolerate the existence of slavery in the nation. Attempts to save the country from the brutality of slave traders, the country opted to engage in wars that led to bloodshed on both sides of the divide. Slavery, therefore, was a key factor that contributed to the Civil War (Oates, 1973).
Oates describes the transformation of the United States from a loose confederation of states into an indivisible nation. Apparently, the United States was not for the idea of the union that was formed; thus eroding the unity of nations. The union was superior in manufacturing, railroads, financial resources, as well as food production that wore down an increasingly divided Confederacy. The army groups also contributed to the Civil War through their consistent attacks on their enemies. For instance, the war in the Deep South was intended to destroy the enemies’ resources as well as their morale. The effect of the army was greatly felt as cities were ruined and people were destitute. Although the impact of the war was horrible, it led to the death of slavery and the transformation of a country into an indivisible nation (Oates, 1973).
The availability of weapons was a contributing factor to the historic Civil War. Both sides had access to single-shot rifles that were effective in firing bullets. Moreover, machine guns were introduced during the conflict; thus playing a decisive role in the war. The weapons used by the conflicting parties had an emotional impact on society as people were being slaughtered and the number of deaths increased day by day. The weapons that were manufactured by stable economies led to thousands of deaths, marking the period of the bloodiest time of combat in American history (Oates, 1973).
Example #9 – American Revolution Vs Civil War
Today’s large the United States was not acquired easily or without any conflicts. The country has a long history of its massive size. In the history of the United States, the westward expansion and the Civil War have a massive impact on the current United States. At the same time, westward expansion has an enormous impact on the Civil war as well. Because at present historians believe that the Civil War was caused by Slavery which became an issue through the Expansion of the United States toward the west. I believe that whatever is the reason for slavery but the bottom line of the Civil war all come back to Slavery. Slavery is the only reason to tear America into pieces within the 8 decades. So, technically it can be said that the Civil war caused by the westward expansion.
The United States gained a huge amount of territories between the American Revolution and the Civil war. And, all began in 1768 when Daniel Boone explored Kentucky for the first time. And that was the first expedition to the west to know what existed in the west. Along with the Native American and African-American slavery had existed in the fur-trading and farming settlements that dotted the French Illinois country, the region surrounding the confluence of the Ohio, Missouri, and Mississippi River. In 1783, to raise revenues, the newly formed U.S. government claims native American land which is considered to be the Indian lands to be sold to the settlers. In 1783, the Ordinance of 1785 came out establishes a division for all the western territories from the Ohio River which leaves the state of Pennsylvania.
Two years later, the Ordinance of 1787, made a system of laws within the territories that forbids slavery and provides the assurance for certain civil rights among them. This means the new states would be created out of the westward lands and then admitted into the Union. And that was passed by the government under the Articles of Confederation (shortly after the American Revolution). From the Northwest ordinance which had occurred in 1787, becoming a state the population of territory has to reach a specific amount of number, and then they can apply for statehood. The states from the Northwest Territory could not be slave states. That was the first time when the national government stood against the spread of slavery which was influenced by the ideas of the Declaration of Independence.
After a couple of decades later or so, in 1803, the United States purchased the Louisiana territory from France for 50 million francs and the cancellation of debts of a total of 18 million which doubled the size of the United States. And because of that, the United States entirely removed existed Frances from North America after purchasing the Louisiana territory. During that time, slavery existed in the east part of the country before the United States started to move towards the west. Because, in the east, there were lots of Migrants and settlers who lived and needed slaves and there was nothing in the west. In 1783, 1795, and 1803, the United States gained popular sovereignty over the Ohio, Mississippi, and Missouri Valleys, which joined the ranks of imperial powers, that refers the European American settler groups, and Native American nations seeking to draw boundaries to secure autonomy, and establish effective sovereignty in the interior of the North American continent.
Slavery had been central to British, French, and Spanish efforts to establish territorial dominance situated within the North American continent in the latter half of the eighteenth-century. Until the 1760s, African American slavery and European American settlement within the North American continent was confined to New Orleans and its immediate wild areas, along with a few scattered French, British, and Spanish outposts. The reason slavery was confined in the south is that Eli Whitney Build the cotton gin, where the slave people were needed to work in there. Also, the lands of the south part of the united states were cultivable and agriculture was a big thing there. The government used to earn lots of profits, especially from agriculture. When the planters and merchants began searching for a viable cash-crop in the early 1790s, slavery flourished in the Natchez (Native American) country under Spanish and the Planter rule.
And eventually, the Natchez District found a cash-crop in cotton by producing a little over 3600 pounds which is over $4500 and that considered being a huge amount of wealth during that timeline. Here one thing to add is that the French Revolution from 1789 to 1799, polarized the Enlightenment heritage and illuminated slave struggles with brutal immediacy. Before the Louisiana Purchase, in late 1802, then the vice president Thomas Jefferson wanted to plan an expedition through the Louisiana territory. And to accomplish is the goal, he asked his private secretary and military advisor, U.S Army Captain Meriwether Lewis, to plan to prepare for an expedition. The reason he wanted to run the expedition was to take a survey on the natural resources within the territory of Louisiana.
Also, he told them to explore the Pacific Northwest so that they can discover and claim it before the European could. In June 1803, Lewis selected William Clark to be a joint commander of the expedition which would be corps in the U.S. Army created solely for the expedition. After the Louisiana Purchase, the people from the east part of the country began to shift from the east to the west so that they can live more comfortably. Because the west was considered to be the fortune changer. A few years later another conflict started and that was the war of 1812. Some historians say that the war was the second war of independence because it was fought against British colonial Canada that joined by Tecumseh, the Shawnee leader of a confederation of native tribes. And this had lasted for almost 4 years but it was said that there was no clear victory of this war.
The attraction for moving west increased a lot from after the war 1812 till the Missouri Compromise. Only after 1815 would planters from the Atlantic states expand rapidly into the southern interior and the Mississippi and Missouri Valleys. Until then, the growth of slavery in the greater Mississippi Valley grew from the same sources that had fed its expansion in the four decades that preceded American rule. Through 1815, slavery in the Ohio, Missouri, and Mississippi Valleys continued to develop along with patterns and firstly established with the expansion of slavery into the lower Mississippi Valley in the 1760s. It would not be until after 1815, that slaveholders and slaves from the Atlantic states migrated into the southern interior and the Mississippi and Missouri Valleys in significant numbers.
Until then, the area and the lands that grew and expanded in the lower Mississippi Valley was the Caribbean plantation complex, which was mainly fed by the migration of Caribbean planters, northeastern merchants, and the international slave trade (both legal and illegal). The inseparable histories of slavery and empire in the interior of the North American continent pre-dated the expansion of the United States and the migration of slaveholders and slaves from the Atlantic states. Slavery’s great, initial expansion and then growth in the Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio Valleys occurred in the four decades between the Seven Years’ War and the Louisiana Purchase, a period that witnessed a significant expansion of the Atlantic plantation complex, along with new imperial, settler, and Native American conflicts in the borderlands of North America.
As it was mentioned that the attraction for the west was to get a better fortune from the resources of the west. And the tendency of moving towards the west increased during the Land Act of 1820. Because of that, the westerners could buy a minimum of 80 acres of land at a price of 1.28$ for each acre of land. Many migrants during that time dreamed to improve their lives by utilizing the land that they bought. The mineral which is found over the trans-Mississippi West encouraged people to leave behind their houses and business to have a better fortune. After 1819 the united states physically expanded and the new threat popped up is that whether the new states are going to be the slave states or the free states. Then the Missouri compromise happened. The Missouri Compromise came out in 1820 that sought to resolve the problem of whether the new states would be slave states or free states.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787 strictly forbade slavery in the northwest territories. There was more controversy over slavery. Southern states were concerning about losing power in the Congress because there were more free states than slave states. Because of that, the free states got the majority in numbers because the northern states were antislavery and the slave states got a minority in the House of Representatives. The cotton gin caused an increase in slave labor in the southwest part of the United States. The northern states were trying to free the slaves which reduced the number of slave states in the southern part and added more of the free states. To keep the balance of free states and the slave states Missouri Compromise was passed in 1820. It basically maintained the balance of free and slave states in the Union.
The U.S Congress approved the Missouri compromise to outlaw slavery within the Louisiana Purchase territory north of 36°30’ latitude. The Compromise admitted Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state to keep them even. Which tried to obey the ordinance of 1783 and intended to stay away from future problems by forbidding slavery the certain latitude line. In 1823 over 20,000 Indians had adopted in the were living in the missions of California. Their mission was to colonize the Far West, the main tool in Spanish and Mexican. And their missions expanded all over the California coast including some parts of Texas and New Mexico. At the same time, the Franciscan missionaries tried to move all those Indians so that they could build a new town in that area. .And in 1830, the Indian Removal Act pushed the Indians into more trouble. Because the Cherokee was one of many Indian nations forced to leave their lands and
move across the Mississippi in the early 1800s. When the state of Georgia was trying to force the Cherokee off of their land, the Cherokee Leaders wrote to the white opinion-makers to persuade those people to intervene on behalf of the Cherokee. Indian Removal Act granted President Andrew Jackson funds and because of that, the authority agreed to remove the Indians by force if necessary. He intended a determined effort to coerce the Indians off their tribal lands where they used to live. Moreover, they had to leave them all heritages and their own lands. At the same time(Timelined) The Congress establishes the Indian territory, which covers the present day of Oklahoma, Nebraska, and Kansas fo smaller than the all lies west of the Mississippi that whites had promised.
During the 1830s-40s, the addition of Texas to the Union was a big issue. Mexico wanted to acquire Texas, but Texas wanted to remain its own country. March 1836, Mexico invaded Texas and Texan forces at the Battle of the Alamo. And the became a rallying cry by the Texan forces. Texas gained its independence from Mexico after the Battle of San Jacinto. And for the Mexican-American War, U.S. President James K. Polk wanted to expand the United States to the Pacific Ocean. The United States planned to buy California from Mexico but Mexico did not want to sell. At the same time, Mexico upset over a border dispute with Texas and the United States. Mexico claimed the border was at the Nueces River. The United States claimed the border was at the Rio Grande. Polk sent General Zachary Taylor to the disputed. And that resulted in having the Mexican-American War.
Texas was a republic for nine years because it wanted to be admitted to the U.S. as a slave state. It was finally annexed in 1845 as a slave state which led to the Mexican War and more controversy over slavery. Some northerners wanted to gain Mexico territory to be free of slavery and Congress declared that. By prohibiting slavery in that region northerners wanted it to be open to slavery. Because there were lots of Agricultural Lands those needed labors. In contrast, after the American Revolution, the northern states become more industrialized and all abolished slavery was all abolished. After the Mexican-American war, the United States gained a vast amount of territory. Because of that, the free states began to get outnumbered and at the same time, the southerners started to see that their representation being taken away. To resolve that issue the compromise of 1850 happened which was proposed by Henry Clay.
Before the Missouri compromise, California request permission to join the Union as a free state. After that, in 1849 the gold rush in California happened where people from all over in the United States rushed over there including the slave and the slaveholders. Moving toward the west increased in a huge amount. Within a few months, California got lots of people to live over there and got rich really fast. So, California applied for permission to join them in the union. Next year, California wanted to be a free state after realizing that they did not want any slaves and slave owners in that part of the United States. Because the slave owners used their slaves to mine gold in California which seemed California irrational. At the same time, California did not want any conflicts with the slave owners by prohibiting slavery or competing for slavery.
That is why California wanted to become a free state without any kind of quarrel with the slaveholders or slave owners. Because of the compromise of 1850, the dream of California came true where it had become a free state and all the slaves from there had to move. Apart from allowing California to be a free state the compromise gave power to the Rest of the Mexican Cession to determine the vote of the popular sovereignty which refers to the residents have to decide whether they wanted to be a slave or free state. In that motion, the southerner also received the law called Fugitive Slave Law that allowed them to catch all the slaves who escaped to the west during the gold rush of California and return them to the south where they escaped from to avoid the controversy in California.
Because of the Compromise of 1850, Utah and New Mexico opened to a popular vote on slavery, and the slave trade was abolished in D.C. Moreover, that concluded by having Enforcement of Fugitive slave law. Basically, The Compromise of 1850 tried to maintain a balance between free and slave states and territories. In the mid-185os the question of slavery’s expansion into the western territories became an issue in both northern states and the southern states about the future. Because of that Kansas territory was most representative of the debate for northern and the southern states.
The Kansas Territory was in the northern part of Louisiana Territory, so according to the Missouri-Compromise, it was not supposed to be a slave state. But, some politicians wanted to establish a railroad through Kansas to have better transportation between the west and east since people started to move towards the west. In order to build the railroad, they have to have support from the southern states. For this reason, Missouri-Compromise was revoked which allowed people in the new territories to decide on slavery through popular sovereignty. All the northern abolitionists and the slaves from the south moved and went to the Kansas territory so that they can distract the vote of the territories and that ended up having the act of fighting which is called “Bleeding Kansas”.
Many southerners including Missouri slaveholders, opposed supporting to the organization of the Nebraska Territory unless it was open to slavery. Eventually, the Kansas-Nebraska act was proposed by Stephen A. Douglas. According to Nebraska and Kansas would enter the Union with the principles of popular sovereignty. And the act nullified the Missouri Compromise by allowing slavery in the “forever free” territories of the Louisiana Purchase. In addition, the States’ Rights issue was revitalized. Historians think that the Great Plains states of Kansas and Missouri were key in the battle for slave-owning states in their admittance to the Union. In 1856, open warfare broke out between the pro-slavery and the anti-slavery. And during that time lots of people died and a rival legislature was established. Also, all kinds of election violations came out.
The Dred-Scott Decision was an attempt by the Supreme Court to end the controversy over slave or free states. He was a slave whose master had taken him into free territory and made him free. With the help of Northern abolitionists, Scott sued his master for his freedom claiming “once free, always free”. So, the Supreme Court decided that African-Americans were not citizens of the United States, they had no right to sue the United States, had no rights at all because the slaves were property and property could not be taken away from the government. The court also said to him that the Missouri Compromise was not constitutional because Dread Scott could not limit the owner’s property by being free through moving to the free states. So, This did not end the controversy of slavery. Apart from that the northern states concerned if the court makes slavery outlaw in their states which would possibly end the popular sovereignty, in other words, the limiting of democracy.
Before the election of 1860, the John Brown’s Raid Happened where he planned to begin his slave uprising by seizing weapons at the federal armory in Harpers Ferry, Virginia and arming slaves but his plan failed. Because of that he was captured and executed. Actually, he was a fiery abolitionist preacher and wanted to help with uprising slavery to end the slavery once for all. After his execution, the northern slavery abolitionists took him as a martyr but most Americans saw him as a terrorist which was not true. The abolition of slavery was the principle of the American Revolution. In the election of 1860, the Democratic Party broke over slavery, with the party fielding two candidates. The Republicans nominated Abraham Lincoln of Illinois. Lincoln won the election by sweeping the Northern states while failing to gain a single electoral vote in the Deep South.
Influenced by South Carolina, the states of the Deep South decided that limitation of slavery in the territories was the first step toward the total abolition of slavery. After that, South Carolina seceded from the Union. And day by day seven states with South Carolina (Mississippi, Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana, and Texas) left the Union. Overall ten states broke up and wanted to create a new country on their own in the name of Confederate States of America (CSA). So, Lincoln hoped to maintain the union without having any war with them. Later, he wanted to resupply the U.S. Army at Ft. Sumter in Charleston Harbor. Because the Confederate states fired on the fort. Then Lincoln asked 7500 volunteers to put down the rebellion which prompted Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas to join the Confederacy. And in the end, the civil war had come.
Example #10 – interesting ideas
What is the civil war?
Answer. If you’re really asking about THE Civil War, the one in America was an attempt on the part of slave-holding southern states to secede from the United States and form a new country, the Confederate States of America. The South had other grievances against the North as well, but it seems very unlikely that, if slavery had not existed in the country, the disagreements would have reached the point of secession and war. It lasted almost exactly four years, from April 9, 1861, to April 12, 1865, and culminated in the abolition of slavery and the return of the Confederate states to the Union.
There was also a Civil War in England in the 1640s, in which the conflict was not regional but political and religious, with the Puritans, in general, taking the side of those wanting increased power for Parliament and the High Church (more Catholic-leaning) wing of the Church of England favoring the King. (This summary is no doubt oversimplified.) It culminated in the deposition and execution (in January 1649) of King Charles I, but in 1660, after the death of Oliver Cromwell left the Parliamentarian side without an effective leader, the country invited Charles’s son, another Charles, to return and be King.
Names of new things that were created during the Civil War?
Answer. Which civil war do you want? Folks need to remember that there have been many civil wars throughout history. The English Civil War, the Spanish Civil War, the Greek Civil War, the Russian Civil War, The American Civil War, the Ottoman Civil War. Not to mention the fact that revolutions are civil wars because they are fought by people of the same nation (or empire).
Assuming you mean the ACW (American Civil War), as it seems so many folks from this country just say the Civil War on here as if ours was the only one, then you may wish to read “The Civil War: Strange & Fascinating Facts” by Burke Davis. In particular, you want to look at Chapter 3: Firsts. It includes all kinds of firsts, technological, economic, political, etc. Among the technological listed are:
- Railroad artillery
- Snorkel breathing device
- Naval torpedoes (actually the ACW torpedo was a type of mine and not a self-propelled explosive device)
- Antiaircraft fire (cannons and muskets were used to try and shoot down observation ballons)
- Repeating rifles
- Telescopic rifle sights
- Revolving gun turrets (on naval ships)
- Workable machine gun
How did generals affect the civil war? Hi, im writing a research paper on the civil war and im having writer’s block please help me.
Answer. Which civil war. Answers is an international community and there have been hundreds of civil wars throughout history. Just a few years ago, about two now I’d say, I saw someone post “Question about the Civil War” and when you went into it the details revealed it was a question about the Spanish Civil War. But anyone reading the question before going in could have thought they meant the American Civil War, the English Civil War, the Greek Civil War, or the Uruguayan Civil War among others. Edit: ACW, ok.
A good general inspired the men. They would be willing to go to heck and back for their general. The men wanted to follow their general. Just seeing a good general pass through camp could have a positive affect on the men. The death of a good general would cause the morale of the men to fall. And if that death came during a particularly heated moment in battle then the men could falter, the line break and a general retreat begin unless there was another good general there to take over and rally the men. Look at how General Lee was viewed by his men, after he came to command the Army of Northern Virginia the men came to love him. The story “Lee to the Rear” shows just how much as when Lee was in a position where he was in jeopardy the men would refuse to move until he had moved out of danger. There’s also the story of how after Gettysburg when the men learned Lee was taking responsibility for the defeat they stated it wasn’t his fault but they’re for letting him down.
There are various stories about the men just wanting to get a glimpse of Lee as he passed through the camp. The same is true of Jackson, his men were more than willing to follow him into battle. A bad general was the opposite of a good general as the men had no faith in their general. Thus their morale was already low as they didn’t want to follow the man. This meant that unless a bad general had good officers under him there was a chance the men would break and retreat without losing their general. Or a bad general made serious mistakes that got men killed in futile attacks or because they decide no attack can come from a certain direction. Burnside successfully leads a campaign in North Carolina in early 1862, but he was commanding just a brigade at that time. By the fall of 1862, Burnside was in command of the Army of the Potomac, a significantly larger command than what he’d had in NC.
His plan for taking Richmond was a good one, but it had a fatal flaw, the pontoon bridge that Burnside relied too much on on. Upon arriving at Falmouth, opposite Fredericksburg, Burnside discovered he didn’t have the pontoons for his bridge. Instead of backing the army up and using a known ford, or listening to one of his generals as to the discovery of a place they could cross at near Falmouth, either of which would have put him on the western bank of the Rappahannock before Lee arrived with the Army of Northern Virginia in any force to face him, Burnside waited for his pontoons to arrive. This let Lee dictate the battlefield and dig in which resulted in one of the most one-sided battles in the war to that time. And Hooker the following May dismissed the Wilderness as an impassable tract of land that would prevent his right flank from being flanked. Jackson found a way through the Wilderness and very nearly rolled up the entire Army of the Potomac.
Of course losing a general in battle, good or bad, always had an effect on the battle. Officers were the targets of opportunity, kill an officer and you can disorient their troops. The effect is greater the higher ranking the officer is. Another thing to consider was if a general would over or underestimate the number of troops they were facing, causing them to move too cautiously or recklessly. Or if after a defeat if they would stop to lick their wounds while planning their next move. McClellan had the nasty habit of overestimating the number of troops his army was facing, which caused him to move slowly, which in turn could either let his opponents escape or get properly reinforced. And after a battle, especially if it was a defeat, he would back off and plan his next move, allowing both armies time to lick their wounds.
Grant, on the other hand, pushed forward. Look at Grant vs Lee. Lee was actually defeating Grant in most of the battles they fought each other in, Lee won something like 13 or 14 battles to Grant’s nine. Had that been McClellan then Grant would have stopped to decide his next move. But instead, Grant chooses to keep moving forward. Lose a battle and Grant would turn left or right, whichever direction would keep his forward movement up, but he’d keep going rather than retreat and lick his wounds. In doing so he was keeping the heat up on Lee and forcing him to use up men and ammunition he couldn’t afford to lose.
Can someone please explain the importance of the American civil war to me?
Answer. While the ostensible cause of the American Civil war was the debate between “State’s Rights” and the limitations of Government authority over the States, the context of that broader argument was based on the issue of slavery, and it was for the protection of slavery ( as a specific “State’s right) that the South began the war by first seceding after the election of the “abolitionist” Abraham Lincoln as President in 1860, and then commencing offensive military action against the Union by bombarding Fort Sumter guarding Charleston Harbor in South Carolina.
As Lincoln said, “a people cannot be half slave and half free”, and the American Civil War eventually resolved the issue of Slavery in the United States, but the post Civil War polices that sought to punish the Southern States with economic sanctions caused many Southerners to revenge themselves on their now-freed black fellow citizens, creating what we now call “racism” and violent racial prejudice; not only in the South but in other States of the Union as well. These issues were not directly addressed by the government or American society until almost a century later when the US Congress finally passed civil rights legislation in the 1960s. The social divisions that were created by Slavery and the Civil War still remain a prominent moral and political issue that still affects and influences Presidential elections and national policy to this day.