Cellular Phreaking The cellular/mobile phone system is one that is perfectly set up to be exploited by phreaks with the proper knowledge and equipment. Thanks to deregulation, the regional BOC’s (Bell Operating Companies) are scattered and do not communicate much with each other. Phreaks can take advantage of this by pretending to be mobile phone customers whose “home base” is a city served by a different BOC, known as a “roamer”.
Since it is impractical for each BOC to keep track of the customers of all the other BOC’s, they will usually allow the customer to make the calls he wishes, often with a surcharge of some sort. The bill is then forwarded to the roamer’s home BOC for collection. However, it is fairly simple (with the correct tools) to create a bogus ID number for your mobile phone, and pretend to be a roamer from some other city and state, that’s “just visiting”. When your BOC tries to collect the calls from your alleged “home BOC”, they will discover you are not a real customer; but by then, you can create an entirely new electronic identity, and use that instead. How does the cellular system know who is calling, and where they are?
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When a mobile phone enters a cell’s area of transmission, it transmits its phone number and its 8 digit ID number to that cell, who will keep track of it until it gets far enough away that the sound quality is sufficiently diminished, and then the phone is “handed off” to the cell that the customer has walked or driven into. This process continues as long as the phone has power and is turned on. If the phone is turned off (or the car is), someone attempting to call the mobile phone will receive a recording along the lines of “The mobile phone customer you have dialed has left the vehicle or driven out of the service area.”
When a call is made to a mobile phone, the switching equipment will check to see if the mobile phone being called is “logged in”, so to speak, or present in one of the cells. If it is, the call will then act (to the speaking parties) just like a normal call – the caller may hear a busy tone, the phone may just ring, or the call may be answered. How does the switching equipment know whether or not a particular phone is authorized to use the network? Many times, it doesn’t. When a dealer installs a mobile phone, he gives the phone’s ID number (an 8 digit hexadecimal number) to the local BOC, as well as the phone number the BOC assigned to the customer.
Thereafter, whenever a phone is present in one of the cells, the two numbers are checked – they should be registered to the same person. If they don’t match, the telco knows that an attempted fraud is taking place (or at best, some transmission error) and will not allow calls to be placed or received at that phone. However, it is impractical (especially given the present state of deregulation) for the telco to have records of every cellular customer of every BOC.
Therefore, if you’re going to create a fake ID/phone number combination, it will need to be “based” in an area that has a cellular system (obviously), has a different BOC than your local area does, and has some sort of a “roamer” agreement with your local BOC. How can one “phreak” a cellular phone? There are three general areas when phreaking cellular phones; using one you found in an unlocked car (or an unattended walk-about model), modifying your own chipset to look like a different phone, or recording the phone number/ID number combinations sent by other local cellular phones, and using those like your own.
Most cellular phones include a crude “password” system to keep unauthorized users from using the phone – however, dealers often set the password (usually a 3 to 5 digit code) to the last four digits of the customer’s mobile phone number. If you can find that somewhere on the phone, you’re in luck. If not, it shouldn’t be TOO hard to hack, since most people aren’t smart enough to use something besides “1111″, “1234″, or whatever. If you want to modify the chipset in a cellular phone you bought (or stole), there are two chips (of course, this depends on the model and manufacturer, yours may be different) that will need to be changed – one installed at the manufacturer (often epoxied in) with the phone’s ID number, and once installed by the dealer with the phone number, and possible the security code.
To do this, you’ll obviously need an EPROM burner as well as the same sort of chips used in the phone (or a friendly and unscrupulous dealer!). As to recording the numbers of other mobile phone customers and using them; as far as I know, this is just theory… but it seems quite possible if you’ve got the equipment to record and decode it. The cellular system would probably freak out if two phones (with valid ID/phone number combinations) were both presents in the network at once, but it remains to be seen what will happen.
Example #2 – The Significance of Mobile Phones in Today’s Society
The cellphone has become an essential device for everybody. On the streets, train, supermarkets even driving a car, you can see people on their phones. If you forget your cellphone at home, probably you’re going to come back to get it even if you are late to work. The importance of the cellphone in our life has changed over the years. This device was invented to communicate with people easier than before. For example, in an emergency, you can call for help in any situation, and the cellphone has an emergency button, which connects you to emergency services and allows them located you via satellite.
Cellphones allow you keeping in touch with your friend and family at all time, making a phone call, or texting a message, but with the development of new technologies, smartphones are capable of storing data, listening to music, taking pictures, sending e-mails, surfing the web, making business deals, watching television and updating the social networks. With this relationship between the Internet and the necessity to be connected 24/7, the cellphone has become an indispensable tool in many aspects of life.
Mobile and social networks. You can access the different social networks from your cellphone. Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, etc, are icons that appear on the screen of your cellphone since you buy it. This social network helps you to keep in touch with your friend and relatives, sharing a picture or posting a status, allow your friend or followers to know where are you and how you feel. People avoid making a call or having a conversation face-to-face, limiting itself only to place a photo on Facebook, like or comment a post or Twitter, or checking Facebook’s profile of friends, but what happened with the personal contact.
Social networks are helping to make the right connection? To have access to the social network so easily helps to lose contact with the people around us, and let you fall into addiction to these networks. A lot of people spend much of their time reviewing new posts on Facebook and Twitter without thinking how much time they have wasted on it and that they could have done more important things during that time.
Mobile and Business. Companies using mobiles to contact the personnel at all times, whether in or out of the office. A cellphone makes a member of the business reachable at any time. On the other side, employees use their cellphone to be focused and update on any change or operation in the company. The recipe and send emails and use new-age tools and applications to do presentations or modify documents. Also, Mobile phones provide programs that allow users to organize and schedule their day in order to maintain productivity and meet goals and deadlines.
Although cellphone and access to the Internet help companies to organized and control their business operation there are some disadvantages in this situation. The fact that you can be contacted by your co-workers at all-time makes an important question about the line between your private life and office work. Phone calls or important emails can disrupt important moments that you share with family and friends. There is no way to disconnect from your work and enjoy your free time.
Mobile and Entertainment. Besides people use their phones to connect to social networks, they use it for entertainment. With a cellphone you can surf the Internet, watch the news in real-time, listening to music, or watching videos, even many phones offer the option to watch TV and movies. These devices are a good option when you are bored, but what happens when they interfere with our interpersonal relationships. On many occasions as hanging out with friends, eating out, watching a movie at the cinema, etc, people forget that they have someone at their side and focused on their cell phone.
In a conversation, the other person may be playing some new application that he has just installed on the phone, tuning out the people who are actually in the same room as him. Although the phone is a good tool to entertain us in leisure time, you cannot allow it to affect your social relationships. Be aware that technology can be turned off, and that it’s important to connect with people in person.
Over the past decade, the increasing importance of cell phones has made them almost a necessity for most people. It offers many services that make their user’s life easier than years ago but also affect social relationships. Like other technology it is not good or bad, it is how it’s used and who I’s used with. The greatest challenge is figured out how to achieve a balance between personal and social relationships and the benefits of the use of a cellphone.
The use of cellular phones has spread like wildfire in the last ten years. It has become a part of everyday life for many American citizens, and a good number of people depend on them to carry out daily operations. Unfortunately, many of these daily operations occur while the individual is driving. As a result, many accidents have taken place in the last ten years due to the use of cellular phones while on the road. This leads me to believe that if people can’t concentrate on the road while talking on a cell phone they shouldn’t talk at all while driving. Rather than restricting access, the goal should be to provide in-vehicle information systems and safer means of using your cellular phone while driving.
I understand that restricting cell phone usage while driving altogether isn’t the best means of solving the problem. Many good aspects come from cellular use in the car. For example, accidents get reported to 911 rapidly, traffic updates occur more often because citizens call and report backups, and drivers who need to be taken off the road because of being intoxicated or just plain reckless will be located quicker and easier.
I do, however, believe that more safety precautions need to be taken for individuals who will be talking on their phones while driving. Phones are being created by Erricson, Motorolla, and Nokia today in which offer a hands-free cell phone so that you can keep both hands on the wheel while driving and talking. Some of these come in the form of headsets and give the user a voice-activated sequence, which allows you to talk into the speaker, and the number will instantly be dialed.
Already this has eliminated the chance of your hands being off the wheel and depleted the act of dialing the phone. Both which allow you to keep your hands on the wheel and eyes on the road. One of the most recent advancements in cellular technology comes from [Brightcell Technologies]. It is called the Triflex Hands-free phone kit. The Triflex turns your cell phone into a speakerphone. It works by plugging in a DC adapter to your car’s cigarette lighter or power outlet. You place your phone in the cradle of the kit and a special connector in the base recharges your unit, saving battery power and converting your conversations into speakerphone mode.
Because of inadequate reporting, there is insufficient data to show the magnitude of safety problems relating to the use of cell phones. This is because only two states have a section on accident reports dedicated to whether or not a cell phone was present in the car at the time of the accident. Minnesota and Oklahoma are the two states in which have received decent records on the safety-related problems with cell phone use while driving.
In just one year the number of accidents relating to cell phone use increased in Oklahoma by 26.5 %. Driver inattention is the most frequently identified factor among cellular telephone users. The next most frequently noted conditions are failure to yield and following too close. Based on these facts alone, it is easy to see that cellular phones and driving don’t mix too well. Until we have more safety features given to us that go along with cell phones, we shouldn’t mix the two.
I learned that safety means necessary in achieving safe driving while talking on the phone could be accomplished through the application of good engineering and human factors design practice. The recommendations made were as follows: Improving data collection and reporting, improving consumer education, initiating a broad range of research to better define and understand the problem, addressing issues associated with the use of cellular phones from vehicles to access emergency services, encouraging enforcement of existing state laws to address inattentive driving behavior, and lastly, using the National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS) and instrumented vehicles to study optimal driver/vehicle interfaces.
If the majority of these recommendations were made, driving while using your wireless technology would be much easier and safer. Many accidents could be spared if only the proper safety precautions would be made. In conclusion, because of the rapid growth and demand for cell phones, many more accidents are occurring daily. Cell phone use in cars serves some good purposes too and has become a part of life to some individuals, so it’s simple to see that we can’t just ban them from cars altogether.
But it doesn’t mean that we can’t take greater steps in the advancement of safety features for wireless services in those same individual’s cars. If all of the recommendations made earlier took place, then people could definitely talk on their phones while driving and be completely safe from their previous flaws in inattentiveness.
Example #4 – Should Cell Phones Be Allowed in School Classes Or Not?
Do you think that schools should allow cell phones in class? Some people think that cell phones should be allowed in school. On the other hand, some people think that cell phones should not be allowed in school. I think cell phones should not be allowed in school. Cell phones distract students during class. You can also lookup answers to questions and cheat. Someone can also spread rumors and misinformation about someone and cyberbully them. I think that we should not use cell phones in class because they distract students in the class.
It would be hard for teachers to teach if people are always on their phones and not paying attention. People could go on Snapchat, Facebook, or Twitter and they could be talking to other classes and are not paying attention. I think that we should not use cell phones in class because you can look up answers to questions on your phone. They can write down answers in their notes on their phone and then look at the answers. If some people were friends, they could text each other the answers they got on a paper.
I think that we should not use cell phones in class because someone can spread rumors, misinformation, and cyberbullying on phones. Someone could put on Snapchat, Instagram, and Twitter and they can take a bad picture of someone and write something bad and start a rumor. Someone could start typing mean things to someone during school and they cyberbully while they’re in school. Phones can be silenced during class and used only in appropriate places but, some kids would still use them in class and be distracted.
People won’t cheat if you keep an eye on them but, whenever you look away some people will look up the answers. Although you can teach people to not spread rumors and to stop cyberbullying, there will still be some people who spread rumors and cyberbully. Schools should not have phones in school because they distract people. Phones in school are also bad because people can look up answers. In conclusion, cell phones should not be allowed in school. Do you think schools should allow phones now?
Example #5 – Ethical Aspects of Cell Phone
Mobile phones have both a negative and positive impact on society, but the negative impacts are weighing more than those positive. Nowadays, more and more people use cell phone technology to get access to anything in the world, but this can create many security threats in society. Many people use the current cell phone technologies to get access to mobile banking, mobile wallet and social medias thinking that they are safe but, there is a loophole in our mobile technology which can be easily interpreted by talented computer programmers who knows hacking because our technologies have not yet advanced to compensate the needs for the growing world.
Our cell phone technology is still far behind than we are expecting. Even though mobile phones have provided a new era of communication for the world to have live interactions with other people far away from us.
Mobile phone usage can result in a significant threat to the health of users. Many concerns have been raised on the cell phone radiation that causes other severe health hazards in humans. Mobile phones normally use microwave frequency for communication during its usage. Radiofrequency (RF) which is emitted by mobile phones has a bad effect on human health. They also emit radiofrequency in between, while they are in standby mode.
The high-level radio frequencies (RF) emitted by mobile phones can cause heating of body tissues and also there is a high level of electromagnetic energy which is similar to those found in gamma rays and X rays, which can iodize the body tissues in human beings. Thus the high level of radiofrequency (RF) emitted by mobile phones can result in an increase in the body temperature and damage of the body tissues. Moreover, cell phones have become an instrument for constant interruptions in the business and social environment.
The ringing of the phone during a strategic meeting session may interrupt the smooth and regular business of the meeting (Solway, 2010). Also, children tend to check some of the sites which are banned, children. Thus cell phones can significantly influence a child’s social and psychological development (Want, 2006). Many people who are constantly using the cell phone are unaware of the aftereffects of looking into the cell phone display for too long. It can partially or fully destroy the vision of some people. It actually affects the cornea of the eyes and the eyes gradually start to get dilated, which is a symptom of corneal contraction.
Nowadays, people cannot live without a mobile phone. The development of technology is not possible without mobile phones. Now people can take photos, videos, share chats and views, browse on high-speed internet and even face-to-face live interaction is now possible with the introduction of smartphones. The development in the communication sector has contributed a lot to the overall development of the world.
Today, the current generation is living in a world where they can access anything at their fingertips. Oftentimes, people perceived the inventions of these gadgets as both cause and effect of the continuous changing of culture (“Blackwell reference online”,2007). Cell phone companies are trying to create new technologies in smartphones in order to meet the growing demands of the human population.
In a nutshell, the invention of the cellular phone in the year 1973 by Martin Cooper made a change in the field of communication and within these few years, the cell phone industry has grown drastically and created many advancements in its technology. The modern development in cell phone technology is the invention of smartphones, which focus on the needs of the modern world. They run on high capacity processors and huge memory capacity than the old versions of them.
The performance of a smartphone depends on its RAM and operating system (OS). Basically, there are 4 types of OS and they are Android, IOS, Windows, and Java. Even though they are more useful for the people they have many adverse effects on society as well as for human health. The increasing number of smartphone users has also made the number of patients in society increased. The radiations emitted by these gadgets cannot be solved by humans and we will have to suffer its aftereffects. So, in total cell phones have both good and bad effects on society.
Many people don’t know the severity of talking on a cellular phone while driving down a road full of traffic. There are so many men and women that come across people’s path while driving, who is holding up a phone stuck to their ears. The careless drivers are usually the ones on the phone in which they take part in a business, and are on the phone trying t close off a sale or just someone who is having a normal conversation where they can’t wait until they get home to use the phone.
Accidents are prone to happen when we see people talking on the phone crossing an intersection or switching lanes from a usy expressway. Some lose their concentration when they end up in a heated conversation. Others can not handle doing two things at the same time. the concentration on the road is distracted and many dazes off and forget that they are on a busy road or highway. Cellular phones should be turned off while driving due to the fact that it causes drivers to get distracted and lose their concentration on the road.
Everybody likes to talk on the phone and everyone likes to drive, but that is not the problem. The major problem here is when both of these activities are combined, especially the activity where it engages the driver driving an automobile and a cellular phone causing trouble to arise. The cellular industry is on a rapid rise, there is no stopping anyone from not purchasing a cellular phone.
Nowadays, everyone has a phone, the NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) studies show that it is estimated by the year 2000, there will likely be about 80 million cellular telephone users in the United States. When people are on the road they usually engage themselves somehow in a conversation on the cell phone causing distractions to arise. There is a big chance where many of us had a close call or even been in an accident involving a driver who was distracted by his or her use of a cellular phone.
This is becoming an issue that brings out a variety of reactions. Reactions that are being brought out are from the anger of victims of inattentive drivers to the demands of researchers for more data on the issue to the denials that there is a problem from some members of the cellular phone industry.
Example #7 – Regulation Of Cell Phones: A Cell Phone
A cell phone according to “a portable telephone that uses wireless technology to send and receive a phone signal. The cell phone covers an unlimited geographical area that is constantly being upgraded every year. A cell phone has a lot of advantages and disadvantages. Cellphones should receive stronger regulations to prevent texting while driving.
They have been known to cause cancer and they may interfere with the functioning of aircraft. While operating a motor vehicle, cell phones should receive stronger regulation in order to prevent drivers from texting while operating a motor vehicle. According to statistics in the year 2013, a total of 3,154 people were killed in the motor while crashes involving distracted drivers using cell phones. This represents a 6.7 percent decrease in the number of fatalities recorded in 2012.
However, unfortunately, approximately 424,000 people were injured, which is an increase from the 421,000 people who were injured in 2012. Most people lost their families due to car accidents. I was also guilty of the same negative behavior, texting while driving. Recently, I was driving to a friend’s house using my navigation. I never knew there was a car in front of me and I accidentally hit the car. This was all due to my texting on my cell phone. This incident would not have happened on my way back from school if I had not been focused on texting while driving.
Example #8 – The Growth of Cell Phone Use
The growth of cell phone use among adults, teens, and children has grown so much so, that it has become American culture. Phones have become part of our everyday lives. Mobile phone ownership has increased tremendously. In a recent study, 95% of Americans have some kind of phone. And that 75% of Americans have a smartphone, up from just 35% in a survey in 2011. The popularity of these devices has affected modern life in many ways. Good and bad.
Through the use of cell phones, we can do so much. From talking with someone miles away, or entertaining yourself by watching videos. But the reason that most people have cell phones is that we can keep in touch with anybody we want. Whether it’s your neighbor or your great aunt who lives across the country. We can communicate with anybody. There is so much more we can do with it, for example, using GPS, entertainment, music, sending pictures, etc.
There is no doubt that these gadgets are very useful, and they do help our everyday lives. But like in most things, there are pros and cons to it. Some cons of using cell phones are that it can give you a lack of sleep, put you in dangerous situations, give you health risks, a distraction from the world, and more. With about 6.8 billion people with phones, this impacts our society a lot. Making our society rely on our phones 24/7. There was a clever experiment that MIT did with teens and adults.
Professors made giving up the smartphone for a day a requirement of the students in their courses. Most of the students, who could plan what day they’d give up their phones, felt some degree of anxiety. They didn’t know what to do with the extra time, from eating breakfast to riding on public transportation. One average American checks their phone about 80 times a day. Some even 300 times.
We hear a lot about screen time and how bad it is for us. But, at the end of the day, everybody needs them for their own use. What was on a desktop computer, is now in our pockets. But things still don’t change, phones are still bad. What we can do, is limit our use of using our phones. There are many different approaches to reducing our use. Some people actually take a method called digital detox. Which are just a number of days of a tech-free world.
A device holiday if you may call it. Others download apps to limit their use. These apps limit your use by blocking access to distracting applications like games or social media. But still, leave the necessary apps, and still give time to the other apps so you do have something to enjoy after a long day. But like most people, we don’t want to limit ourselves that much we are bored all day. Some tips on limit ourselves are; instead of using a phone as an alarm, use an alarm clock and charge your phone somewhere else before you go to sleep.
This will less tempt you to check your phone at night or in the morning. Next is not to check your phone at the table. This will make you more social and not look at your phone while talking to someone. And finally is that making plans in advance. Create a schedule about what you’re going to do and watch so you can better plan when you should study, and do your other important task.
Mobile phones are a vital piece of most children’s and adults’ lives. There are certainly many flaws and cons of having one but on the other hand, there are so many benefits of having one. In conclusion, there are pros to cons to having a mobile phone. Whether you use these facts to make your decision on getting one or buying a new one, is entirely up to the buyer. However you feel about these devices, they are always going to be here, and play a very prominent role in our daily lives.
Example #9 – Should drivers of automobiles be prohibited from using cellular phones?
The act of driving is an issue of life and death, both of which have an equal chance of happening. However, since none wishes to die, it suffices to declare anything that might result in death out of bounds. Communicating over the phone comes in as an experience that all people, both young and old, enjoy. Although all have the right to utilize the technology to the maximum, the situation, or the environment that one is in significantly determines whether he/she has the right to use it. Drivers of automobiles for instance have every reason to use cellular phones.
However, restrictions are equally important when put in place to check their use and to ensure that they use it appropriately. Many of the accidents and road carnages reported over the world result from reckless driving brought about by cellular phone use by drives when driving. The technology, which seeks to quicken and enhance the communication process, has deprived many innocent people of their lives.
It is all about cellular phones. Whether drivers should use cellular phones or not still rages with the majority suggesting the prohibition of their use of the phones while driving. Based on the working evidence that the paper tables, I too strongly support the prohibition of using cellular phones by automobiles drivers. The use of cell among drivers has been cited as one of the leading causes of accidents and highway carnages. Many drivers and commuters have succumbed to their lives because of cellular phone misuse by drivers.
For instance, schoolwork conducted by the University of South Carolina on the effects of chatting and listening on cell phones showing how it interferes with visual tasks like driving provides a good insight to understanding the dangers that drivers risk when they drive and use cellular phones simultaneously. Dr. Amit, the researcher, found out that speaking and planning to speak requires some concentration and therefore demands more brain resources to listen (University of South Carolina Para.3).
These experiments clearly suggest that the driver may be distracted and even lose control of the vehicle since the brain, and hence the eyes, will not be concentrating on the act of driving. Reports of the national highway traffic and safety administration also indicate that around 25 percent of the accidents caused on the roads is because of distractions. These statistics clearly speak for itself.
The use of cellular phones is one of the causes of distractions that have contributed to these accidents. Most people, drivers included, have access to cellular phones due to their affordability. However, while using them is not a problem, the circumstance that a driver finds him/her when his/her phone rings should largely determine whether to respond or not if at all the issue of road accidents has to be dealt with to the latter.
Drivers also concern the US Department of transportation about the ever-increasing usage of phones. The practice on the other hand exposes the passengers to much fear based on what can happen if the call carries away the minds of the driver. The Departments consider this act as one of the contributors to the increases in rates of accidents since it causes distractions on the passengers.
Therefore, the department also is worried about the trend putting in mind that many people have access to mobile phones. It is no doubt that this scenario presents an unquestionable issue in the fraternity of transportation. In order for drivers to use the phone, they are required to use their hands and eyes to do this.
This makes drivers lose concentration, as the control of vehicles may become a problem. Furthermore, the driver may be engrossed in the conversation based on its nature affecting his/her emotions leading to a loss of focus and control. For instance, drivers who engage in communication while driving may be angered or may receive sad information from the person they are communicating with which may anger or frustrate or excite them.
With such moods, the driver may lose his/her focus and concentration leading to an accident. Therefore, it is imperative that drivers be prohibited to use their cellular phones while driving. It should not be a matter of compromise but rather a practice worth avoiding if their safety, as well as that of the passengers and other road users, is to be achieved. Furthermore, results from a study on drivers conducted in Perth, Australia in July 2005 by the Insurance Institute for highway safety indicated that the use of cellular phones increases the chances of the occurrence of an accident by four times.
It further notes that the use of hands-free phones, or devices of such manner, does not improve the safety of driving (Young, and Schreiner 190). This assertion clearly demonstrates the dangers of driving while using cell phones and therefore the need for its prohibition. There is no convincing reason that a driver who uses his/her cellular phone while driving is safe as it distracts attention. This researches should be taken seriously if the rate of accidents and mischievous on our roads is to become outdated. People have continued to lose their lives due to the mistakes committed by drivers who are not concerned about other road users.
The numbers of cellular phones are increasing in their use and as a remedy, it is important for precautionary measures to be put in place to ensure that road accidents, caused by cellular phone distractions are contained. In an argument for the prohibition of driver’s use of cellular, I do concur with the study conducted by the government of the US during June 2005, which showed that the use of these cellular phones was more likely to contribute or result in accidents as opposed to any other forms of distraction (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 8).
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and Virginia tech transportation institute trailed 100 cars within a duration of one year with their findings showing that those drivers using handsets and hand free car kits brought or caused more crashes as opposed to other forms of distractions. This passes for evidence of the consequences of what cellular phones can bring on the users of roads. It is therefore imperative that strict measures be improvised to ensure that there is no use of cellular phones among drivers of the automobiles.
Even though various researches have proved the distractions the use of cellular phones can have on the drivers and other road users, several parallel studies have been conducted with some refuting the positions. It may not be true per se, that the use of cellular phones causes accidents. Various governments and legislations have not been put in place by various countries because they do not see this as a key cause of road carnages.
A study conducted by AAA Foundation for Traffic safety 2003 negated the previous researches by claiming that those drivers that use cellular phones while driving are more likely to reach their destinations safe as those who are distracted by other distractions were likely to cause accidents (Wilson, and Stimpson 2220). However, the report is so passive, as it does not see the need for the prohibition of drivers’ use of cellular phones while driving.
They believe that cellular phones do not distract the attention of drivers on their driving when compared to other distractions. This is a position that has also received support from those drivers or people or parties that are opposed to legislation that is intended to prohibit the use of cellular phones while driving. However, as Collet points out, based on the results on the grounds, it appears null and void (23). In conclusion, it is evident that the use of cellular phones among drivers of automobiles poses a danger not only to the driver but also to the passengers as well as other road users.
Though there are those who are opposed to this observation, the bottom line reveals most of the accidents as the resulting form of the distraction subjected to drivers when conversing over the phone. The debate has also resulted in the formulation of legislation concerning safety driving by prohibiting the use of cellular phones. Many governments have recognized it and always ensure that drivers do not risk using their mobile telephones. To ensure that there are fewer distractions, states for instance Illinois have banned the use of text messages by drivers while driving, one example of the measures that have been taken to curb instances of accidents.
I also strongly second the prohibition of the use of phones by automobile drivers based on the tabled repercussions that have arisen as a result ranging from early deaths of innocent people as well as massive destruction of other people’s property. If all these results from phone misuse by drivers, why then allow them to use the phones while driving? Does it cost anything to explain to your callers the risk they expose you to when they call you when driving?
Example #10 – The dangers of using a cell phone while driving
Cellular phones are currently very popular, with over 137 million subscribers in the United States by late 2002 (Strayer, Drews, and Johnston 23). The authors further note the subsequent increase in the count of persons conversing on cell phones while driving unaware of the risks they pose to themselves and their passengers. In fact, Laberge-Nadeau (5) asserts that an estimated 85% of the cell phone possessor utilizes their handset while driving.
According to tot the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)(1), in 2009, a total of 5,474 people died on the United States roadways and approximately an extra 448,000 were afflicted with injuries resulting from motor vehicles crashes that were an attribute of distracted driving. 995 deaths associated with distracted-driving–related accidents were attributed to cell phone use; representing 18% of the overall fatalities in distraction-related accidents.
Arguably, these cases are avoidable because they directly involve indiscipline by individuals. Live is a precious thing that cannot be replaced, such that anybody who acts in a way that he or she put life or lives at risk does not deserve the tiniest empathy with regard to penalties associated with violation of the relevant legislation. Because such ignorance has cost many lives very heavy penalties should be placed by the government to address cases of violation of these fundamental human rights. The thought of such penalties should serve to dissuade individuals from using their phones while driving.
From a personal perspective, life is a phenomenon that cannot be replaced once it is lost. Similarly, injuries cannot be reversed once they occur. Thus why should alive be lost, or a body function be lost because of a mere device. This is not comprehensible in the light of the sociological and psychological losses suffered by the casualty or their families or the people associated with them.
Think of the people who have been rendered psychotic because of the loss of loved ones, and of the children that have been rendered miserable because their breadwinner has been killed in a crash associated with cell phone destruction. This, in turn, has put a strain on the government health and social budget in an attempt to provide for such victims.
Surely, this behavior and subsequent death and injuries can be avoided. It takes just the tiniest exertion of discipline and concern for fellow humans. Some simple measures like stopping and parking the car appropriately off the road to make or receive the call can contribute enormously in curbing such unnecessary costly deaths.
Alternatively, the driver can set the cell phone on voice mail and postpone the call until she arrives at a safe place. Such and more simple measures are all that may take to keep all and sundry safe on the road. Nevertheless, this trend has raised safety concerns due to the high number of accidents attributed to the use of cell phones while driving. Because of such concerns, various legislative measures have been developed to curb cell phone use on the road.
Often, the legislation on cell phone uses and driving considers peripheral elements including holding the phone while talking or dialing. Indeed, in 2001, the state of New York enacted a law prohibiting the use of handled phones when driving, though it permitted the use of hands-free phones (Chapter 69 of the Laws of 2001, section 1225c State of New York).
Cell phones are a large part of our society in this day and age. Everyone from businessmen to country farmers has a cell phone. Cell phones may help in some situations, but are they really hindering more than helping? I admit that I am an avid user of my cellular phone. With the unlimited minutes that my cell phone comes with, I can’t help but use it for all of my calls. I also admit that I have caught myself using the phone while driving down the road.
After reading an article in the newspaper about New York banning the use of a cell phone while driving down the road, I questioned whether or not legal action was needed. New York had “talking and driving” banned because of the number of wrecks that people would cause while trying to hold a phone and steer a car. In New York, one would have to use a hands-free device in order to talk on the phone. However, studies have proven that this isn’t always an effective fight against the threats that cell phone uses while driving pose. A person, even while using a headset, would still be distracted.
“How is using a headset with a phone and talking to a passenger different,” some might ask. If a person were in a car as a passenger, he would sub-consciously see any hazard in the road ahead and thus pause the conversation to allow the driver to focus solely on the hazard ahead. A person on the other end of a phone call would not see the hazard, continue to talk, and turn the driver’s attention away from the road.
Although I do use my phone while driving, I often tell the person I am talking to, to hold while I assess an upcoming hazard. However, if I do find myself not paying as much attention to the road as I should be, I quickly end the phone call. I feel that as long as I am a cautious driver, and as long as it’s legal, I will continue to converse while driving.
Positive Effects of Cellular Phones in Society The cellular phone is perhaps one of the greatest innovations known to man. The cellular phone coupled with technological advancements has influenced the lives of people from all lifestyles globally. However, the cellular phone has undergone massive evolution over time from the bulky hand-held telephone at its beginning to the hand-held mobile devices it is today. Through evolution, the cellular phone has a positive effect on society.
The cellular phone, through GPS, may be used to track individuals and determine the location of a cell phone carrier. For example, parents can keep track of their children through this service (Goggin 136). This is especially useful when dealing with teenage children who may sometimes involve themselves in deviant behavior if not well supervised by the parents. In addition, if one is lost, one can determine the location by using the GPS service in the cellular phone (Stewart, 2008).
In fact, this service may also be used to track vehicles in case of a car robbery. This works by fitting a vehicle with a SIM card, which the vehicle owner can communicate with to determine the vehicle’s location. The cellular phone acts as a transmitter, which makes this kind of tracking possible (Unhelkar 36). This application has also gained prominence in the tracking of lost cellular phones even if they are switched off.
The Samsung Corporation presently has phone tracking as a standard feature in its cellular phone models, which makes it possible for a person to track a lost or stolen phone. Cellular phones have greatly reduced in size since their inception. This has made them become known as mobile devices meaning they can be easily be carried along, fitting in confined spaces like in the pocket of an individual. The miniaturization of this device has gained much from advancements in technology.
Cell phones are a wonderful thing. You can talk. Take pictures. Listen to music. Converse over email or text messaging, and browse the Internet among a handful of other things. I love to use my cell phone and actually use it more than any other phone at the office or at home. However, I use it with immense concern. I have a concern about the use of the phone causing health issues, like cancer and brain tumors over time. Are these concerns warranted?
I have studied technology and specifically wireless communications as a graduate student at Northwestern University. My professor had advanced scientific & wireless knowledge and advised us all to get headsets for our cell phones. The cellular network is set up in a hexagonal pattern that maps over the entire area you live in. As you move from one hexagonal cell to the next you are fairly close to the center of the cell at all times. Though I do not know what scientific evidence I can draw and quantify from this information in relation to health issues.
So after examining those three factors, it seems that much like cigarette smoking was accepted and not linked to illness until the appropriate medical and scientific knowledge was gathered to prove otherwise, it is possible that cell phone usage and exposure to RF energy on soft tissue could cause serious health issues. So in the meantime, there are a few options: Keep using my phone next to ear in hopes that this is just a scare. Take action! Use a headset connected to the headset jack (not a Bluetooth device) to get the handset away from the soft tissue of the brain.
Or get a cellphone with a speakerphone to get the handset further away from your skull. Since an inadequate length of time has passed to show evidence that there is no link between tumors and cell phones because right now the studies conducted on cell phones and health concerns have been performed with adequate duration to do otherwise.
Example #13 – Why Some People Choose Not to Carry Cellphones
A cellphone is a device used to make and receive phone calls. These devices enable you to communicate with anyone, any time no matter the distance and the place as long as there is network coverage in your area. It is due to cellphones that the world recently has turned into a global village, and this is a sharp contrast to the past when we did depend on telephone lines for communication. Although cellphones are advantageous and have made our life easier, people are still skeptical about carrying their cellphones everywhere due to their past experiences and fear of the unknown.
The most memorable experience while using my Android smartphone was the way it easily located my position. This happened since the phone was able to synchronize the goggle maps application on my phone. This made me phobic to carry my phone since I had given someone an incorrect address and the person was able to find out that I was lying. Cellphones pose security threats to many people since they attract thieves who are usually stealing smartphones.
Thus, most of the time people who do not want to be victims of robbery go about their daily activities without their cellphones in order to limit their vulnerability to robberies. This makes them feel safe as most people keep some valuable documents in their cellphones such as work memos, daily schedules, and their various personal identification numbers, thus by leaving phones at home or at their workplace they stand a lesser chance of losing the data.
Some people use their phones to access social sites and electronic mail, and in case they lose their cellphones most of their personal information is lost as well. This poses a security threat to them and those around them especially if they are distinguished persons in society. Cellphones ensure people are able to be reached at any time. Hence, when some people do not want to be contacted, they just want to have a peaceful time without interference. Therefore, they tend to leave their cellphones behind so that they are able to go about their daily activities without interference.
Carrying the cellphones is sometimes hectic for them too, since such people do not want to be reached at times, thus they will only ensure they carry their cellphones when they want to be reached. The new designs of the cellphone are also scary as some phones especially smartphones usually have a global positioning system. Hence, they can be traced in case of anything. Cellphones provide an easier avenue of tracing a person since if a phone is on, there is usually a way of tracing its owner through the use of internet protocol addresses.
More so, if it is used for internet access, this makes phones phobic due to the fear of being traced or followed by someone or even a stalker. Hence, by leaving the cellphone, they tend to be safe and confident that no one can follow them using their cellphones (Kang 6). In addition, carrying a cellphone around is usually a burden for some people who feel it is a burden since it is always in their pockets or their hands. This group or category of people is more prone to losing their phones because carrying the phones everywhere around increases the likelihood of forgetting one somewhere. Since they may forget or misplace the cellphone while undertaking their daily activities.
Thus, it seems to be wiser to leave the cellphone at home or in the office so that to make sure the phone is not lost or misplaced. Health factors and risks that are associated with cellphones are also a reason why many people prefer not to carry their cellphones around since recent research shows that the radiation from cellphones tend to cause chronic diseases and cancer that are still under research. Some people are scared of the effects of using their cellphones all the time.
This is most probably caused by various prejudices and stories that people hear about the consequences of using cellphones even though they might not have concrete evidence of whether all those diseases are caused by the radiation from the cellphone. People’s reasons are purely speculative but understandable since some people are usually ignorant of these facts, although these are not surefire reasons why some people are afraid of carrying their cellphones (Saylor 12).
Technophobic people do not carry their cellphones along when doing their normal duties, these people sometimes even do not have a cellphone since they are usually highly conservative by nature and ignorant of technology, they do not accept it, or they are not willing to learn more about it.
Such people think technology is not really significant for present-day society. They also are afraid of the costs that are associated with it such as the purchase of airtime, fees for internet, and email access. The ignorance is caused by the lack of proper understanding of how the technology works and the concept behind the operation of cellphones. This is the reason why people do not carry cellphones since they do not want to incur costs that they do not understand.
Example #14 – Can Cell Phones Close Digital Divide?
Cell phones are important gadgets in today’s communication industry. From business environments to office communication, cell phones have made life easier and more comfortable. With the wide application of cell phones, the world has now become a global village. Nevertheless, there are disadvantages associated with the use of mobile phones. For example, it is obvious cell phones emit radiofrequency energy- radio waves, dangerous to human bodies. Nonetheless, research carried out by scientists does indicate that the amount of radiofrequency energy radiated by cell phones is very insignificant to cause tissue heating or augment body temperature.
On the other hand, there has been a concern as to whether radiofrequency energy from cell phones poses a cancer risk to cell phone users. Currently, scientists all over the world are busy carrying out research to identify the effect of cell phones in brain tumors, the central nervous system, and other sites of the head and neck. This is because; these areas might be vulnerable to attack from radio waves as cell phone users hold cell phones, just below the head when communicating.
Interestingly a research study carried out by various bodies indicates that; although there are diverse cell phone radio wave effects in human bodies, radiation from a cell or mobile phone has no new effects excluding the most common brain, glioma, and meningioma. It, therefore, poses serious concerns regarding the friendliness of human bodies. Mobile phone use started in Europe in the 1980s and spread to the United States. At present, the number of people in possession of cell phones around the globe is by far very high.
Nevertheless, with so many people now owning and using mobile phones, there have been varied concerns about the dangers of cell and mobile phones to human bodies. It went down into historical books to note that, the number of mobile phone subscribers in the United States of America rose tremendously to reach 285 million people, in what the Cellular Telecommunication and Internet Association termed, tremendous growth. However, the high number of mobile subscribers need protection from radiofrequency energy radiated by cell phones although no research indicates whether it is harmful or not.
There is a concern as to whether cell and mobile telephones cause certain types of cancer or other health-related problems. Indeed, cell phones emit radio waves (radiofrequency energy), which are dangerous to human bodies. This form of radiation has been under study for years, and some research indicates that radiofrequency radiation has possible effects on exposed human bodies. Radio waves or radiofrequency energy is a type of electromagnetic emission characterized by a substantive amount of penetrative power. Electromagnetic radiations or emissions fall into two groups.
The first category of ionizing radiations comprises radiofrequency energies that penetrate into bodies with ease because of their high frequency. On the other hand, there are low-frequency radiations where radio waves fall and have low penetration power due to non-ionizing upshot. Owing to low spectrum frequency, radio waves fall under non-ionizing electromagnetic radiations.
Without question, radiations that cause ionization, for example, x-rays can sometimes be a source of cancer if there is direct exposure to such sources. However, this can take a different dimension in the case of radiofrequency. It is not yet clear as to whether radiofrequency radiations from mobile or cell cause health problems or cancer simply because, the penetrative power of this radiation is too low to cause such a big health effect.
Unfortunately, research indicates that radiofrequency radiations from mobile phones do not cause tissue heating nor do they increase body temperature. This is the reason why; researchers must carry out thorough research to identify the real effect of cell phone radiofrequency energy on human bodies. The antenna of the cell or mobile phone is the one responsible for radiofrequency emissions. What makes mobile or cell phone users more vulnerable to radio wave attack from cell phones is when using it. Normally, a user holds the cell or mobile telephone just against one side of the head just right at the ear.
Although with low frequency, if the device is placed very close to the human body, for example, the head, there is a high probability of the body interacting with emitted radiations. This means, although radio waves are low-ionizing radiations, they are powerful when the source of interaction is close. Placing a hand-held mobile or cell phone antenna close to the head exposes the head near to radiations hence; interactions leading to health problems or cancer.
On the other hand, if a person places the cell or mobile phone antenna far away from the body or head, the degree of radiofrequency energy absorption decreases. In essence, it is the strength of the signal that determines the concentration of the cell or mobile telephone’s radiofrequency energy. Many people wonder how a cell phone emits radiofrequency, which then make them vulnerable to radio wave attack. What happens is that, when a mobile or cell phone user decides to call another user, the mobile phone sends a signal to the available mobile base station via the antenna.
At the transceiver base station, routing takes place. The receiver takes the air signal and converts it into a digital form before sending it to the switching center. At this stage, it is now the role of the switch to connect another subscriber through the available system. It is advantageous to cell phone users who find themselves far away from the transceiver base station because; it is the distance that determines the radiofrequency energy exposure hence, the resultant effect on the user.
Other factors which determine cell phone user’s level of exposure include the intervals of picking or making calls, how far or near the user is from the base station, the strength of the signal transmitted, the bulkiness of the mobile handset, and in this case its antenna, and the availability of hand-held devices. Different firms, for example, Interphone under the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) consortium, carried out research to identify the extent of damage caused by malignant and benign brain tumors exposed to radiofrequency energy.
The results from Interphone did indicate that there is no increased malignant or benign brain tumor risk apart from the existing glioma and meningioma brain tumor effects. Furthermore, the research did not find substantive evidence linking lengthy calling time, very many calls, or many years with cell phones as risks to cell phone users. However, cell phone users who had spent a lot of time making phone calls through their cell phones risked glioma. This led many people to question the whole report.
In 2004, there were divergent views from countries that participated in the Interphone case study. For example, the Danish report cited acoustic neuroma as an effect resulting from exposure to radiofrequency energies for a period exceeding ten years as compared to short-term cell phone users. Additionally, the report indicates that there is no increased risk in places where users held their cell phones. On the other hand, the Swedish report, which examined short and long-term mobile users, cited that, there was an increased risk of acoustic neuroma only to long-term mobile phone users.
On the other hand, a data report compiled by Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom Denmark, and Finland went contrary to previous reports linking long time exposure to radiofrequency energy with acoustic neuroma. Instead, the report cited that, there is a high risk to the tumor exposed to the cell phone for over ten years. Interestingly, later studies and even the current one, cite similar findings as of these countries. Nevertheless, even with contradicting reports, cell phone users are greatly concerned whether the tumor of their head exposed to mobile phones will eventually have health problems.
Sometime later, Interphone Danish and Swedish researchers carried further research on the relationship between meningioma or glioma risk and mobile or cell phone use. However, in research carried on disease-free individuals, these researchers found that there is no link whatsoever, between cell phone use and meningioma or glioma. The United Kingdom and Nordic Countries released the same results that concurred with that of Swedish and Danish researchers although, for them, glioma can occur on the side of the head exposed to mobile handsets for a period of at least ten years.
It is evident that research carried by different counties gave varied results. In a calculated move aimed at curtailing biases resulting from case-control studies, a consortium of researchers identified 420,095 cell and mobile phone users in Denmark and then made a comparison with the Danish Cancer Registry in order to categorize the number of people suffering from brain tumors as a result of using cell phones.
Their research indicated that radiofrequency energy from cell phones has nothing to do with meningioma, acoustic neuroma, or glioma irrespective of whether the subscriber had used the cell phone for ten or more years. In other words, exposure to radiofrequency energy whether for a long or short time or high frequency does not necessarily lead to cancer or health problems.
With great concern among mobile phone users, more companies and consortium bodies continued to carry out related research. For example, between 1987 and 2002, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) under the umbrella of Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER) and the Surveillance Consortium, carried out cell phone risk research to identify the effects of radiofrequency energy emitted by cell phones to brain tumors and the nervous system. The results however indicated that there had been no damage to these areas notwithstanding, the increase in cell phone use. These two bodies continue to carry out periodic research to identify whether, cell or mobile telephones participate in the nervous system or brain tumor damage especially now, when mobile use is on the rise in the United States.
Given the above scenario, where different researches have different results and sometimes contradict each other, it is not apparent whether radiofrequency energy radiated from the antenna of cell phones has risks to human bodies especially the brain and nervous system. Nevertheless, mobile phone users should take necessary steps aimed at minimizing their exposure to radiofrequency energies coming from cell phones.
Perhaps, the first step cell phone subscribers should aim is to cut the lengthy time they engage with their cell phones. The second prevention method is to use a headset or a cell phone speaker mode aimed at maximizing the distance between the user’s head and the cell phone. The distance ensures minimal exposure area to radiofrequency radiation emanating from cell phones. On the other hand, cell phone firms can decide to introduce Bluetooth headsets or audio gadgets, which are free from radio wave emission. Cell phone users can wear some accessories like thick clothes, head scups, holsters aimed at absorbing any radiation emitted from the cell phone’s antenna.
Most importantly, if cell phone users can use headsets as a way of minimizing exposure to radiofrequency energy now that they hold cell phones around the head when communicating. Cell phone manufacturers and cell phones sold in the United States should comply with the laid measures of controlling exposure to radio waves. So far, no research links radiofrequency energy from cell phones with cancer or any other health complication. It is therefore unnecessary to apply hands-free kits in order to reduce the chances of radio wave attack.
Nevertheless, cell phone users can wear hands-free kits to induce conformability or expediency but not reduce the chances of radiofrequency attacks. Different countries have different laws on cell phone use. Nonetheless, these laws do not aim at reducing exposure to radiofrequency emissions to human bodies as there is no evidence that, these radiations cause harm to the exposed body.
Example #15 – interesting ideas
Need help on the following essay prompt what should I talk about in the body paragraph like what examples? Can students give up their cell phones and be OK? Is it even possible? Well, not really, if you are an American college student today. According to a new study by the International Center for Media & the Public Agenda (ICMPA), most college students are not just unwilling, but functionally unable to be without their media links to the world.
They don’t just enjoy using their cell phones and continually upgrading to newer, flashier models; they are clearly addicted and dependent. This addiction is doing enormous damage to young people’s lives and their ability to function in the real world. Young people need to be taught self-control and responsible use of cell phones, but as a society, we also need to take steps to limit their access to cell phones just as we control access to other addictive substances-alcohol, drugs, and tobacco. Explain Hamilton’s argument and discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with his analysis and conclusion. Support your position, providing reasons and examples from your own experience, observations, or reading.
Answer. This is absolutely true. Cell phones and technology in general are so crucial to our lives as young people today. Technology is our source for entertainment and information, and our link to society. Without technology, we are nothing. We are defined by it, and a cell phone is a manifestation of our personal lives. The model serves as an instant socioeconomic tag; for instance, if someone has a touchscreen or full keyboard phone he or she is considered financially superior to an individual with a simple flip phone.
Applications, style, and function are also important in a cell phone, with the general rule following the saying, “the more the better.” Phones with many functions, such as the Droid or iPhone, instantly show an individual’s personality (through what applications they have), popularity (through how many contacts they have), and financial security (through what generation phone they have). Cell phones are not only a useful technological tool; they are a means by which one can show power and influence.
Society’s basic values are based on information (who you know, what you know, how quickly you know it), and wealth (how much money you have, how much you earn annually, how much better you are than your peers). Cell phones are gateways into both of these values; one can send and receive information faster than past generations, and one can flaunt financial status (as well as an occupation; a businessman is more likely to own a blackberry than an entertainment phone) through cell phone models.
Unfortunately, cell phones are also addictive. I know this through my own pathetic experience. My mother confiscated my phone for 3 months, and for the first month, I went through a withdrawal. I printed out a picture of my phone so I could be more comfortable sleeping (I slept by it every night), and I felt depressed and sick for the first weeks without it.
Cell phones should be allowed if the first number in their contact list is an emergency one for the student. That way a student in trouble or ill or hurt is only a call away from a parent or guardian. Cell phones provide communications for emergency use by any other student or school staff member in a crisis. Cell phones provide easy communications before and after school for parent-to-student, student-to-parent, and student-to-student.
Some school districts even call students on their cell phones to inquire as to their whereabouts in an absence, to find a student who is out-of-place during the school day but on the campus, and to let them know of changes in the plan for a class or team. This is one area that schools have not fully explored as they continue to see possession as a “problem” and not a “solution” or “aid” to the educational process.
Messaging to cheat is always going to be a problem, but in my classes, cell phones stay face-up on desks during tests so I can monitor communications as I walk the aisles to check on student work. Every advantage also has disadvantages, so you must work to make these devices be the servants they were meant to be. Incidentally, any student who receives communications with another student during my tests gets their phone taken away for the balance of the day.
To make a comparison that might be appropriate, if we had treated the earliest automobiles as we currently treat cell phones in modern schools, we would still be riding horses and using carriages!! Cell phones, like all devices, are servants, not inherently evil unless we attempt to control them and make students want them all the more and use them inappropriately.
In airplanes and hospitals, cell phones can interfere with the functioning of delicate instruments, a serious consideration. Many states have banned cell use while driving, citing a relationship between phones and traffic accidents. A 1997 “New England Journal of Medicine” study found that talking on a phone while driving quadrupled the risk of an accident, nearly equal to the danger from driving drunk.
Many people go to places such as libraries specifically to focus and do work. Others attend church or religious services for time to worship and reflect. People who use their “cell yell” in such a setting distract others. When they have paid for a nice (or even a not-so-nice) restaurant meal, restaurant-goers feel entitled to the soft conversation and a relaxed atmosphere in which to unwind. Some cell phone chatter remains inappropriate for anyone to overhear, especially young children.
Often cell phone users will multitask, attempting to carry on a conversation while using an ATM, driving, or completing a store transaction. Their divided attention becomes an obstruction to the cashier and an inconvenience to those behind them, who must wait longer.
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