Science is one of the important things in our life. There are basically 3 scientific methods to know and learn something. Those scientific methods are called “The Basic Scientific Method”, “Falsificationism” and the “Scientific Revolution”. Each of these scientific methods has their own benefits and problems.
First, I will talk about “The Basic Scientific Method”. It is a popular way to accept knowledge. We observe something first, then we make some generalizations and theories. Then finally we explain based on information that we collected from observations. For example, Isaac Newton found the law of universal gravitation by saw an apple dropping from a tree.
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The Basic Scientific Method is a simple and good way to understand many things but on the other hand, this scientific method has several problems. In those problems, one of the serious problems is the perceptional problem. Human’s senses often deceive us. Our sense of seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting and touching are not perfect. If we can’t collect true information from our observations, future steps become meaningless. Therefore we have to be careful when we observe something using our senses.
Next, I will introduce the second scientific method called “Falsificationism”. This method is exactly the opposite with “The Basic Scientific Method”. In “Falsificationism”, we state hypothesis first, then we try to prove our statement by observations. If we can prove it, we can accept the statement but if we couldn’t prove it, that means the hypothesis is false. As a result, “Falsificationism” creates more certainty than “The Basic Scientific Method”.
For example, first I will state that the human can breathe in underwater. Then I need to prove or explain my hypothesis. Therefore maybe we can bring a wide range of people and make them try to breathe in underwater. Then we observed that the human couldn’t breathe in underwater. So, this means my statement is false.
The “Falsificationism” provides high certainty but this scientific method also has problem. The problem about this method is the difficulty of observation. It’s easy to make any kind of hypothesis or theories. However, to prove and observe the hypothesis, we need a long time to test the experiment and lots of materials to do the experiment. And also, there are many things that we can’t test so easily. For example, if that hypothesis or theories are related to some kind of astronomy, it’s impossible to test that hypothesis unless you try to become an astronomer.
Finally, I will talk about the third scientific method which known as the “Scientific Revolution”. This method is simply we replace the old system with completely new or fixed system. There are already normal science paradigm exists. Then if someone brings up the new paradigm and if that new paradigm accepted, from now on, that new paradigm become as the normal science paradigm. For example, in the ancient time, people thought that the earth is flat but the Copernicus said that the earth is round. This is a good example of paradigm shift.
Many sciences developed using this method, but this method also have one problem. That is the difficulty of persuading people. Everyone accepted and believing present paradigm. It’s extremely difficult to shift old paradigm to a new paradigm. To do this, you need very strong evidence and a power of persuasion.
In conclusion, all of these 3 scientific methods have many advantages but I will recommend the “Falsificationism”, because I think the science is the repetition of trial and error. If we try to make hypothesis, then try to prove it, maybe it takes a long time but I think the problem will solve someday.
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