Thematic Analysis of All Quiet on the Western Front
Have you ever wondered what the actual horrors of WWI are like? Erich Maria Remarque depicts these horrors through the eyes of a soldier named Paul Bäumer. Paul Bäumer, the narrator and protagonist in All Quiet on the Western Front, is a character who develops extensively within the course of the novel. As a young man, he is persuaded to join the German Army during World War I. Paul quickly learns that it is not as glorious as the military leader says it is. This three-year ordeal is marked by Paul’s short, but tragic trek into adulthood as he learns to cope with the trials and tribulations of war. In the wake of a struggle, which claims millions, Paul loses his precious innocence as he is further isolated from society and engulfed by bloodshed. Sadly, the book ends with the death of Paul, but not before he witnesses the painful death of his entire classmates who enlisted with him. Paul’s evolution throughout Remarque’s novel is a result of Man’s ability to adapt through the most horrific experiences.
Paul’s experiences in combat shatter his former misconceptions of war; consequently, he gains the ability to reflect on events of his own accord. His naive ideas are severely challenged when he first witnesses the ugly truth of war. “The first bombardment showed us our mistake, and under it, the world as they had taught it to us broke in pieces”(13). Paul’s first engagement in combat reveals that everything he was taught as a young recruit was lies; consequently, he can now form his own conclusions. Through the ongoing course of the war, Paul comes to grips with the reality of the situation. “They are strong and our desire is strong but they are unattainable, and we know it”(121). Paul realizes that the soldiers’ former lives are all but distant memories. His maturing personality gives him the insight to see past the facade of war and expose it for what it truly is.
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Paul loses his innocence and childhood during the war; as a result, he becomes a man. When Paul and his companions encounter some French women, they exchange food for sexual intercourse. “We unwrap our parcels and hand them over to the women. Their eyes shine, it is obvious they are hungry”(148). Through this transaction, Paul uses the women as an outlet for his sexual urges. Shortly after this rendezvous, Paul receives a leave of absence; however, he finds it difficult to leave the war behind. “Speak to me – take me up – take me, Life of my Youth – you who are care-free, beautiful – receive me again – “(172). Paul can no longer conjure up the feelings of happiness that accompanied his youth, in essence, his childhood is lost. The war has stripped Paul of his innocence and taken away everything that he treasured.
The war has immersed Paul completely and he can no longer survive without it as it becomes the focus of his entire life. When Paul is still on leave, he feels alienated from society. “I find I do not belong here anymore, it is a foreign world”(168). Paul’s further involvement in war separates him from the life that he cherished so greatly. When Paul returns to the trenches from leave, he finds great tranquillity among his companions. “They are more to me than life, these voices, they are more than motherliness and more than fear: they are the strongest, most comforting thing there is anywhere: they are the voices of my comrades”(212). Paul’s friends give a new meaning to his life and the role of his family shifts to that of his friends. War has claimed Paul Bäumer’s soul and he can no longer function without it.
Paul Bäumer’s experiences in war cause him to develop and change throughout the novel, his stance on many issues change as a result. He has torn away from a sheltered childhood and placed in a devastating war that causes him to see through the illusion of a society created by his superiors. This revelation is evidence that Paul has become a man; however, with this new maturity comes a loss of his purity of heart. Paul can no longer distinguish himself from society; instead, he is perverted by war and becomes its victim as he slowly subsides to its rule. Paul Bäumer’s enduring spirit causes him to adapt in order to survive an abyss of death. Knowing about the horrors these soldiers went through in WWI should enlighten you about the true aspects of war, but we all hope to never experience the terror of man’s most horrendous acts of hatred.
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