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The Recruitment and Selection Process Essay

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. With the ongoing war for talent, it is crucial to get the right people for the job and at the right time. To do so requires an effective recruitment and selection process. This essay focuses on the recruitment and selection process of Cameron Singapore Pte. Ltd. (Cameron).

Two occupations are chosen for discussion, one of which is the skilled worker; Machinist, another is management level; Plant Manager. It will discuss the various activities taken by Cameron in the recruitment and selection process for these two positions. The recruitment stages include online employee requisition, job analysis, job description, person specification, and finally attracting candidates through internal and external sources.

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The selection stages include receiving and reviewing resumes, preliminary screening by the HR department, testing, unstructured interview, final interview, pre-employment checkup and placement on the job. Due to the level and responsibilities of the position, recruitment and selection stages may differ. Apart from analyzing the effectiveness of the recruitment and selection process against staffing theories, advantages and disadvantages will also be discussed. Based on the analysis, improvement recommendations will be suggested to help improve the processes to increase the effectiveness of the processes.

INTRODUCTION. “Hiring a new employee is like a box of chocolates: you never know what you are going to get” (Frankenfield & Kleiner, p. 24). Hiring begins with the recruitment process, followed by the selection process. This essay will aid in understanding that there are various components involved in the two processes. The two processes include job analysis methods, job descriptions and person specifications; recruitment and attraction processes; selection interview and testing techniques; medical examinations and reference checks; and evaluation strategies. These are critical components as they ensure that the right people are placed at the right job and at the right time.

ORGANISATION PROFILE. Cameron Singapore Pte. Ltd. is a leading international manufacturer of pressure control equipment for oil and gas drilling and production in onshore, offshore and subsea equipment. Cameron’s products are the leaders in high-technology pressure control equipment for the oil and gas industry – from Blowout Preventers (BOP) and wellheads for land applications to complex subsea production and control systems. The company generates over $5 billion annual bookings with more than 16,000 employees at more than 250 locations worldwide.

Cameron is headquartered in Houston, Texas and derives approximately 2/3 of its business outside the United States. With an office based in Singapore, Cameron started operations in Singapore in the year 1973. From a humble start averaging about 150 employees, the workforce has gradually increased, and Cameron now employs about 700 persons ranging from professional, six sigma business leaders, technical specialists, and skilled artisans. Appendix A depicts Cameron’s mission and vision to be a world-class manufacturing organization providing excellent products and customer service.

CHOSEN OCCUPATIONS: MACHINIST AND PLANT MANAGER. Cameron is categorized under the manufacturing sector; therefore, it is necessary to have an adequate workforce to meet the market demand. Recruitment of candidates ranges from technicians such as Machinist, Welder, Assembler and Inspector to executive and management level. Recruitment methods used are either internally or externally depending on the organization’s requirements and types of positions to be recruited. The chosen occupations for discussion will be Machinist and Plant Manager.

STAGES OF RECRUITMENT. Firstly, Cameron realizes that there is a vacancy in the organizational hierarchy that needs to be filled. The reason could be due to dismissal, death, promotion or retirement. Next, the department head must gain authority to recruit by completing an online employee requisition stating the justification for recruiting. This also involves human resources management and the budget. Then, the company will have to consider if it is a new job.

If yes, there is a need to draw up a job description and specification. If it is not a new job, the company will review the existing job description and specifications. For example, Appendix B shows the job description and specifications for Machinist. However, as shown in Appendix C, a more detailed job description and specification for Plant Manager are essential as it is a management-level position that holds higher responsibilities. The next step is to agree on methods for attracting applicants; it will be either through internal or external sources—the decision on which sources depends on the job and people available.

For the Machinist position, the company might want to advertise in the newspaper as most applicants are less educated therefore tend to rely more on the traditional source. Also, it may advertise via an internal source such as job posting on notice boards for employees who wish to have a change in work scope. Alternatively, if it is a high-rank position on an excellent salary, such as Plant Manager, the company might seek assistance from headhunters.

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STAGES OF SELECTION. After all the recruitment process is completed and all the candidates have submitted their application forms or resumes, the selection process takes place. Start with shortlisting candidates by reviewing application forms and resumes received and decide which ones are the most suited to the job description and person specification. Those unsuitable candidates will be weed out so as not to waste time.

Next, the HR department will call up the chosen candidates and arrange for an interview. Before commencement of the preliminary screening by the HR department, candidates will be given intelligence tests and technical tests to measure their intelligence/’IQ’ and their technical knowledge of the machines and tools. Subsequently, an unstructured approach of the in-depth one-to-one interviews will be conducted by the supervisor. Finally, the final selection by the department head will be carried out based on the interview outcome and test results. Successful or unsuccessful candidates will receive phone calls from the HR department.

Successful candidates will then be required to go for pre-employment checkups, and it is the company’s responsibility to ensure compliance by adhering to the rules and regulations. Such as foreign workers must possess a valid work pass and be deemed fit for employment by the doctor before the appointment on the job. The above selection process is relatively similar for Plant Manager’s position; the differences are that intelligence tests and preliminary screening by the HR department are not required. Instead, the candidate will first be interviewed by the Operation Manager then proceed to the second interview with the Manufacturing Director and HR Director, and the remaining steps will follow.

ANALYSIS. Appendix D and E illustrate a strategic recruitment process and selection steps which involve seven components and ten steps, respectively. As analyzed in Appendix F, the recruitment process in Cameron does consist of the seven components as the organization finds it essential to use all these strategies, which help them select the best candidate from the rest for the job at hand. However, as analyzed in Appendix G, a background check is not implemented during the selection process. Therefore, we shall now analyze the advantages and disadvantages of the activities involved.

According to Compton, Morrissey and Nankervis (2009), employee requisition can help organizations determine the need of employees and as a means to control employees’ size. With the help of online employee requisition, Cameron can keep the information needed for filling the position and is a good planning sheet for the recruitment process. It allows recording the date/deadline for filling the position. In addition, it allows identifying the source for advertising and the desired budget.

A thorough, conducted job analysis benefits the human resource cycle and the organization as a whole (Aswathappa 2005). The advantage is that it improves the liaising between Cameron and recruitment agents by providing accurate information, thus more effectively selecting suitable job candidates. However, it may be time-consuming and requires expertise if a job is changed significantly due to the purchase of new machines or improved technology.

Advantages and disadvantages of using internal recruitment methods as stated by Mckenzie (2009) are shown in Appendix H. Cameron do finds that recruiting internally is a good source as candidates know the business and what will be expected of them, they can then become effective in the new job quickly. Recruiting from within also aid in lowering the recruitment cost if budget is the primary concern. The disadvantages are that the successful candidate may suffer role conflict in that they are now senior to the people with whom they previously worked on an equal level. Infighting occurs when only one employee is selected for the job; this will further lead to mistrust among those applying for the position.

Advantages of using external recruitment methods are that it provides a much more comprehensive range of people to choose from and prevents ripple effect (Sim 2002). Cameron observed that newcomers bring in new ideas which improve the business and are likely to be more mobile than existing staff. According to Sim (2002), the disadvantage is that it takes time for the newcomer to get used to his or her new employer, and therefore the newcomer will not be performing effectively for the initial period. Cameron does encounter such an issue whereby the newcomer leaves shortly after joining the organization, which causes loss in recruitment costs. Thus additional cost might incur due to replacement needed.

Appendix H illustrates a summary table on the advantages and disadvantages of external recruitment methods. Usage of application form and resumes are to shortlist all the candidates so as not to waste time with candidates who do not fit the job description and specification. This method is considered the most efficient in terms of time and money. However, some of the questions such as gender and age asked in the application form do not favour Equal Employment Opportunity. The use of tests assists in the selection process by eliminating unsuitable candidates and reducing the time taken for a large pool of candidates (Parus 2006).

Cameron uses IQ tests and technical tests during pre-interview short-listing of candidates for the position of machinist. The drawback is that it only ascertains that the person has that quality but does not determine that the person will use it on the job. Appendix I portrays the range of cost and validity for various testing techniques.

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According to Roberts (2004), open-ended questions allow the interviewer to probe deeper into the initial responses of the interviewee to gain a more detailed answer to the question. The richness of the data is therefore entirely dependent on the interviewer. Unstructured approach allows interviewee to talk about their experience freely and interviewee is able to have complete control over the content of the interview (Roberts 2004). Nevertheless, unstructured one-to-one approach may lead to bias due to inconsistency in the way interviewees are asked questions about certain issues and as only one person is on the panel (Rajendra Kumar 2008). It will be more time consuming as interviewees may take up too much time in expressing their thoughts.

Pre-employment checkup benefits both employer and prospective employee by making sure that employee is able to do the job safely without risking their life and others. Employer benefited by getting to know the health condition of prospective employee so as not to increase their liability on future medical costs. Controversy, organisation incurred higher cost by providing free pre-employment checkup and there are times that this cost is wasted when candidates rejected job offer after going through pre-employment checkup.

RECOMMENDATION

After reviewing Cameron’s recruitment and selection process, few recommendations for improvement are suggested according to their importance. There are some methods which can be used to measure the effectiveness of recruitment and selection, such as labour turnover, absenteeism and productivity.

To be effective, it has to attract a pool of candidates who are suitable for the job. There should be a low turnover and absenteeism rate which shows that employees are satisfied with their job and are willing to work for the organization.

  1. Firstly, I would suggest conducting an HR audit that covers the entire recruitment and selection process. This audit will bring out the existing positives and highlight areas for improvement within the organization’s recruitment cycle.
  2. Instead of a one-to-one interview, it will be good to have a panel of interviewers as interviewers are able to get valuable feedback from each other thus better decisions can be made. This will reduce the amount of time needed for the recruitment process and higher chances of getting the right candidate for the job.
  3. Other than having only unstructured interview questions, it is suggested to implement structured interview questions which can avoid favouritism. This makes the process more efficient by using up less time and only gathering relevant information.
  4. It is essential to conduct a reference check in order to know how the candidate was in his/her last job and if they have any bad records that might cause problems. It also provides further confidential information and ensures that the information provided by the applicant is accurate. Inaccurate information will lead to employing the wrong candidate.
  5. Cameron may consider making their application form available online and offline. This allows the HR department to receive and review the application instantly. It is also recommended to revise the current application form so as to align to the standard of Equal Employment Opportunity.

CONCLUSION. Effective management of the recruitment and selection process can ensure that the best candidate is chosen every time. By having the best quality of staff, Cameron will be able to provide the best quality of service to their customers. Through providing the best quality service to all their customers, Cameron will be able to achieve brand loyalty, which will add to the overall success of the company.

REFERENCES

  • Aswathappa, K 2005, Human resource and personnel management, 4th edn, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi.
  • Compton, R, Morrissey, W & Nankervis, A 2009, Effective Recruitment and selection practices,5th edn, CCH Australia Limited, Australia.
  • Frankenfield, G & Kleiner, BH 2000, ‘Effective employment screening practices’, Management Research News, 7 August, pg. 24
  • Mckenzie, B 2009, Australian Master Human Resources Guide, 7th edn, CCH Australia Limited, Australia.
  • Parus, B 2006, Cash Bonuses: Four ways to attract, retain and motivate employees, 2nd edn, WorldatWork, USA.
  • Rajendra Kumar, C 2008, Research methodology, APH Publishing Corporation, New Delhi.
  • Roberts, G 2004, Recruitment and selection (A competency approach), 1st edn, CIPD House, London.
  • Sim, RR 2002, Organizational success through effective human resources management, 1st edn, Greenwood Publishing Group, USA.

APPENDIXES

Appendix A

0.1 Mission Statement

It is the mission of the Cameron to provide products and customer service that meet or exceed customer requirements and expectations.

0.2 Vision

It is the vision of the Cameron facilities to be “World Class” manufacturing organizations. In order to become “World Class” we as a facility must believe in the following:

* Providing a safe and productive environment for all employees.

* Believe in the established quality management system.

* That the customer is the reason this facility is in existence.

* Supplying our customers with quality products that consistently meet their needs and expectations.

* Continuously improving our processes.

* Maintaining a skilled and motivated workforce.

* Providing our workforce with the necessary resources to be successful.

* Actively embracing change.

* Providing controls and improvements to protect the natural environments in which our facility and products interface.

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* Continually working with our suppliers to reduce costs.

Appendix B

Job description and person specification for the position of Machinist

Job Title

MACHINIST

Job Description

-Responsible for CNC machines operate and work pieces set-up.

-Responsible for machining tools, jigs and fixtures set-up.

-Responsible for job inspection and reporting.

-Maintaining good housekeeping and safety practices.

-Other duties as assigned.

Person Specification

-Minimum NTC-3 in Precision Machining or NITEC equivalent.

-Minimum 2 years’ experience in CNC machining of steel material.

-Able to read and interpret engineering drawings, manuals and work instructions.

-Experience with CNC Fanuc, Tosnuc or Mazatrol control.

-Experience in using various type of measuring gauges.

-Able to performance shift work.

Appendix C

Job description and person specification for the position of Plant Manager

Title

Plant Manager

Report to

Director of Manufacturing

Subordinate

Direct Reports

4 department mgrs (Assembly, Machining, Materials Management, Purchasing) and 1 section manager (Maintenance)

Indirect Reports

About 250 pax

Age

40 – 45 years old

Gender

Male

Nationality

Singapore Citizens preferred. If not, Permanent Residents or Asian returnees.

Responsibilities

Responsible for full plant operations functions:-

Materials Management

* Inventory control – key function of materials management

a) consignment program

b) Stocking program

Purchasing

* Local purchasing / sourcing functions (90% – 95%).

* Management of 7 buyers

* Writes and administer purchase contracts, price agreements, etc (a lot of transactions via internet but the manual system still applies for the smaller suppliers)

Production

2 shop mgrs + 1 section mgr

Section Mgr – responsible for the entire physical factory & equipment maintenance

a) Front end Shop Mgr – responsible for front-end mfg cycle – machining, welding, etc; from raw materials to finished unassembled raw materials.

b) b) Back end Shop Mgr- responsible for backend activities, such as assembly, test, box and shipment, etc. Also handle warehousing, shipping and receiving functions.

Immediate Task

Inventory

Mgt skills (50^%) + technical skills (50%)

– will often be approached for technical issues and has to make technical decisions which is usually mfg related and not hardcore engineering issues

Yrs. of Exp.

* At least 5 years of experience at higher management position in a manufacturing, preferably involved in metal machining, welding and assembly operations.

* Experience in materials management, purchasing functions and operations associated with factory management like production functions and facility maintenance.

* Experience in oilfield related industry

* Preferably exposed to managing companies with over 200 employees.

Educ. Qual.

Degree in Mechanical, Production, Industrial, Manufacturing Engineering. Additional qualification in industrial management will be an added advantage.

Attribute

* High degree of drive and energy, dynamic and a self starter because has to deal with young mgrs and long stayers. Has to keep pace with the demands of the organization

* Analytical

* Not afraid of hard work

* High integrity and commitment

* Can-do attitude

Management Style

Results oriented, focus on achievement

Appendix D

Strategic recruitment process

(Compton, Morrissey and Nankervis 2009)

Appendix E

SELECTION STEPS

1. Reception of applicant

2. Preliminary interview

3. Application form

4. Tests

5. Interviews

6. Background investigation

7. Preliminary screening by human resource department

8. Final selection by line managers

9. Medical examination

10. Placement on the job

Appendix F

Activities

Implemented?

Remarks

Recruitment requisition

V

Online employee requisition.

Competency or position analysis

V

Analysis carried out for new position and review for current position.

Position description

V

New job description and specification for new position.

Review of existing job description and specification for existing position.

Budget check

V

Checking of budget during requisition stage.

Sourcing

V

Internally and externally.

Pool of applicants

V

Resumes received.

Appendix G

Selection Step

Implemented?

1. Reception of applicant

V

2. Preliminary interview

V

3. Application form

V

4. Tests

V

5. Interviews

V

6. Background investigation

X

7. Preliminary screening by human resource department

V

8. Final selection by line managers

V

9. Medical examination

V

10. Placement on the job

V

Appendix H

Internal recruitment

External recruitment

Advantages

– Lower cost

– New blood and ideas brought into organisation

– Enhance employee morale

– Reduce favouritism

– Candidate is knowledgeable of the job requirements and the organisation

– Larger pool of candidates

– Shows as a reward for good performance

– Encourage current employees to stay competitive

Disadvantages

– Unsuccessful candidate maybe discontented

– Higher cost

– Can lead to jealousy

– Longer training and induction period

(Mckenzie 2009)

Appendix I

Selection technique

Cost

Validity

Behaviourally-based interview

Low

Very good

Assessment centre

High

Very good

Cognitive ability test

Medium – low

Very good

Aptitude test

Medium – low

Good

Work sample test

Low

Good

Standard interview

Low

Low

Personality test

High

Low – medium

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