All the French monarchies lived a rich and luxurious life; for instance, king Louis XIV was a wealthy king, he ordered a bedchamber to be built which was made of gold, which must have cost a fortune, he then died leaving France in financial ruin because of his extravagance at court and his costly wars, the next king was his son, Louis XV, he was a much weaker king and, instead of fixing the problem, he made it worse.
The next king in line was Luis XVI; he was married to Marie Antoinette, he built her a castle called Trianon, where she spent a huge amount of money, the garden alone costs 150 million livers, in addition to that she spent more and more money in jewelry and card playing. The king was close to the members of the 1st and 2nd estate; they had an influence on the king and always gave his advice and helped him rule the country; in return, the king gave them privileges.
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However, the king wasn’t close to the members of the 1st estates; they were treated badly and had many taxes, they didn’t have privileges and sometimes paid 3/4 of their yearly income in taxes. The French revolution had both short-term causes and long-term causes, the long-term causes were Economic, political and social, an example of a long-term economic cause is starvation, and that there is too much poverty and people unemployed.
The political cause is that Louis XV was a weak king who caused Frances’s financial crisis to slide further into chaos, this caused France to face a financial crisis for centuries. A social cause is that the French had a strict society before the revolution; rich people owned all the land and had privileges and paid little taxes, while peasants had to pay any taxes and had only a little power; this lasted for many centuries. Some examples of short-term causes are the attack on the Bastille prison, declaration of the rights of man, and peasants uprisings.
The national convention gave its powers to the Committee of Public Safety, the Jacobins controlled it, and the leading figure of this Committee was Maximilien Robespierre. They ruled and enforced the law during the reign of terror by Issuing several laws and rules, these were the Law of Prairial, by this law, juries were allowed to convict people without hearing any evidence, and the Law of Suspects, by this law, people could be put in prison without trial. They aimed to destroy the royalists.
At the end of the reign of terror, 8 of every ten killed were poor people, not wealthy nobles; it had spread fear all over France, everyone was sick of the killing and fishing was contaminated, that fishing was the band. In France, both the King and the members of the 1st and 2nd estates were against the revolution; this is because that the revolution meant that the king and the people had to obey these rules, many of these rules are opposed by the king and the wealthiest members of the 1st the 2nd estates. The revolution also meant that the special privileges of the 1st the 2nd estate members would be abolished and that they could no longer control the members of the 3rd estate and collect taxes from them.
The other kings and royal families outside France weren’t very worried about the revolution because the assembly said war wasn’t one of its aims. The emperor of Austria, Francis II, wanted to fight the French people in defence of their king and queen because the queen, Marie Antoinette, also came from the Austrian royal family. The 1st estate comprised most of the population of France, ranging from wealthy business people and professionals to poor peasants; the middle-class people made the poor people aware of their rights, because of the lousy harvest food prices skyrockets, so they wanted more action in their lives, and began to take action themselves, they were encouraged of what the middle-class people had got away with.
It all started when the king called a meeting of the Estates Generals to tax the people, the 3rd estates people wanted a share of power, they wanted a constitution, these are a set of rules which said how the country was run, it was opposed by the king and the members of the 1st the 2nd estates, when the king tried to break the meeting, members of the 3rd estates met in a nearby tennis court and pledged not to go home until France had a written constitution, the National Assembly couldn’t control the working people who were keen to fight for their rights, they broke into a building called the Invalides and took weapons, then captured Bastille, the army refused to stop this attack, this met that the army was no longer in control, too.
The 1st estate was made up of people of the church; they were essential in the time where people believed in heaven and hell, so, in return for prayers for the king and people, they had privileges like that they didn’t have to pay the taille (the central tax). The 2nd estates were made up of nobles who helped the king for centuries; in battle at court and government jobs, they were expected to serve the king in war; in return, they had privileges.
The 3rd estate is the most hard-working estate; they are all the other people other than the nobles and the clergy, they are treated unfairly and badly and had no privileges. When the economic crises occurred, there was less money and the process of food rises, and it was for fair for the 3rd estate as they don’t have enough money. Because of this, there was famine and members of the 3rd estates had to fight for their rights before they die from starvation, so there were violent moves by these people and the French revolution begun.