The Human Genome Project is a 15-year international research program to find the estimated 80,000 human genes and determine the sequence of the three billion DNA building blocks that underlie all of human biology and its diversity. The purpose of The Human Genome Project will characterize the genomes of human and selected model organisms through complete mapping and sequencing of their DNA. It will also develop technologies for genomic analysis and examine the ethical, legal, and social implications of human genetics research. Finally, it will train scientists who will be able to utilize the tools and resources developed through the HGP to pursue biological studies that will improve human health. The Human Genome Project has several goals including mapping, sequencing, storing and analyzing data, identifying genes, and addressing the ethical, legal, and social issues that may turn out from the availability of personal genetic information. The absolute goal of the Human Genome Project is to procure the DNA sequence of the three billion DNA subunits present in human DNA.
The Human Genome Project started in October 1990 to discover all the estimated 100,000 human genes and make them accessible for further biological study. In 1992 a low-resolution genetic linkage map of the entire human genome was published. In 1995, the genetic-mapping 5 year-goal achieved 1 year ahead of schedule. In 1997, high-resolution physical maps of chromosomes X and Y were completed. Then on December 1, 1999, researchers in the Human Genome Project announced the complete sequencing of the DNA making up human chromosome 22. Chromosome 22 is the first Human chromosome completed. These dates were just a few of the important events that have going on throughout the Human Genome Project. The process of the project has gone far in many years. Since technology is advancing the scientists will be able to speed up their work and complete the project sooner than scheduled. The progress toward the Human Genome Project sequencing goals is thirty-six per cent of 3 billion DNA base pairs.
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Chromosome 1 consists of 839 genes. Chromosome 1 also consists of 34 pseudogenes. Some of the diseases associated with chromosome 1 are Alzheimer’s disease and Gaucher disease.
Alzheimer’s disease is named after a German neurologist Alois Alzheimer. Alzheimer’s disease is the fourth leading cause of death in adults. Alzheimer’s disease is twice as common in women than in men. The circumstances of the disease worsen with age. The most common symptoms of the disease include incompetence to remember events and facts, and later on in the disease, it can cause the inability to recognize friends and family. Mutations of four genes, chromosomes 1, 14, 19 and 21 believed to take part in the disease. A characteristic of the disease is the formation of lesions or wounds made of fragmented brain cells surrounded by amyloid-family proteins.
The lesions and their associated proteins are closely related to similar structures found in Down’s Syndrome. At this time, scientists are researching the interrelationship between the various gene loci (particularly the mutation on chromosome 21), and how environmental factors could affect a person’s sensitivity to Alzheimer’s disease. Scientists may have identified an enzyme that may be responsible for the increase in amyloid production characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease from the use of a mouse model. Alzheimer’s disease can be slowed of halted in some people is scientists find a way to regulate this enzyme.
Gaucher’s disease is named after a French physician named Phillippe Gaucher. Gaucher disease is an inherited illness caused by a gene mutation. Gaucher disease affects approximately 1 in 100,000 persons. People with Gaucher disease can not properly produce an enzyme called glucocerebrosidase. The body uses this enzyme to break down a special kind of fat called glicocerebroside. If people can not produce glucocerebrosidase, then the fat can not be broken down. The disease can result in severe pain, jaundice, fatigue, anaemia, bone damage and even death. Recently, scientists discovered the first effective treatment for Gaucher disease that consisted of an enzyme replacement therapy. The treatment modifies the form of glucoverebrosidase enzyme intravenously. The treatment can take form one to two hours and is given every two weeks. On the contrary, enzyme replacement therapy can stop or reverse the symptoms of Gaucher disease.
The Human Genome Project in my opinion is a fascinating element that scientists are trying to figure out. Scientists who are trying the construct detailed genetic and physical genomes of humans over such a short period of time must be given a lot of credit. In 2003 or whenever the project is finished, this will continue a whole New World of science. New cures and vaccines may be able to be found because scientists know all the genomes in the human body. Hopefully, the Human Genome Project is completed and success for future science.
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