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Poverty In Africa Essay

Example #1

Poverty is the condition of ignorance, disease, high children death rate, low life level, and Malnutrition which Shorten people’s lives and closes minds and locks the future of the country, diseases attack children, dirt and pollution surround the environment. The poor are not only lacking in money and material wealth, but suffering from a low level of income, and hence consumption, and a weak share of educational services, health, and security, due to economic fluctuations, as well as the weakness of the chances of political participation. Africa is one of the most countries in the world that suffers from poverty and low living conditions.

Under these circumstances, the Poverty Reduction Strategic Papers, which provide the basis for international financial institutions to provide loans to poor countries, has emerged as an opportunity to increase popular participation in decision-making and give borrowers the opportunity to formulate a self-reduction strategy Poverty, commensurate with their internal conditions and conditions. Poverty in Africa does not mean deprivation of money and wealth which is measured by the concept of income and consumption but extends to include the decline of per capita revenue of economic development of basic services, education, and health care. One-third of Africa population is starving and about one-sixth of the children die before the age of five, despite the continued population increase in many of Africa’s countries.

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Example #2

Poverty in Africa. Most people heard the word “poverty in Africa.” It is an issue that many countries, other countries, wanted to help out with Some charities every year to help the African countries that are in need. However, the amount of poverty in Africa rose 44% from 1994 to 2005, and the numbers keep rising. Also, 32 of the 49 least-wealthy countries are in Africa. the questions are, why are many Africa country is poor. Conflict. In the past 50 years, there are more than 20 major civil wars in Africa. At least 15 African countries are involved in a civil or border war. There are a couple of reasons why this conflict is a cause of poverty in Africa.

For example, farming is nearly impossible in conflict-ridden areas, often causing problems. It does not matter how fertile the land is if the farmers are concentrating on fighting a war or militia groups destroy the land. The war refugees can cause an economic problem as well. Refugees are those that are forced out of their homes and ways of life either by violence or by military force. These refugees need to find a new place to live. However, these refugees can economically and socially strain other countries. Not only does their presence make it seem like the other country is voluntarily housing the refugees (which could be especially dangerous in cases such as Darfur, where the government is involved in the conflict).

 

Example #3

In recent years the international community has shown increasing concern with poverty in the developing world. At the Social Summit in Copenhagen, the issue was placed at the top of the agenda and more recently the Millennium Summit set a target to halve poverty by the year 2015. While the United Nations, including UNCTAD, had for many years drawn the attention of the international community to the need to address the plight of the poorest and the least developed countries. Despite resource-rich African countries, it’s hardly possible to accept that Africa is poor. But the question remains, if they are not, why the vast majority of African countries are clustered at or near the bottom of the United Nations Human Development Index.

While economic growth is considered essential for poverty reduction, it is also recognized that growth may not automatically trickle down to the poor. Thus, the current approach emphasizes policies that facilitate the access of the poor to human, physical, and financial assets to improve their earning capacity. While macroeconomic stability and structural reforms continue to be considered to hold the key to sustained and rapid growth, it is also recognized that stabilization and structural adjustment policies may exert a temporary adverse impact on the poor. Thus, it is advocated that such policies should be accompanied by safety nets and targeted spending programs to mitigate their possible adverse consequences for poverty.

“Africa is not poor; it is poorly managed” This statement was made by Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, President of Liberia. She stated it in August 2009 during her interview with the BBC radio documentary series, to answer the question in similar circumstances. It was aimed against corruption and she meant to assert that if corrupt officials mismanaged public funds or property, then countries are poor. But with good quality of government under the rule of law is already a fine predictive for wealth. Another key factor is the lack of technology, Africa is very rich with natural resources such as fertile soil, enough rain, and sunshine for cultivation, raw materials, oil, gold, and many other major resources but lacking ways of exploiting them. No advanced technology or industrial infrastructure to channel these resources through real incentives to accelerate the development.

Insufficient education is another significant factor contributing to the poverty high level. It can never be overemphasized because education can make changes about everything. Today African children do not have access to education which is required to let them gain knowledge and skills, to equip them to have better ideas and opportunities for employment. Other correlated problems as well, for example, lack of skills and strong policies, and that is a low economic performance with high inflation, let alone unproductive attitudes towards globalization. The trade situation is quite unfair in addition to tariffs and subsidies, which drive prices down and make it harder for African countries to sell agricultural goods at global markets. Still, there should be a movement in the industrialized world to recognize this unfairness and get the system changed, though it is somewhat complex, economically to explain how it is going to happen.

African politics are usually based on violence, instead of building and fix the future they destroy everything, and use natural resources for the short term gain of those in power. Another problem is that African countries still trade with their colonial masters at a loss instead of trading with each other. poverty reduction strategies cannot succeed if they are not accompanied by policies to sustain rapid growth and improve income distribution. Why almost all fifty-three African countries are considered poor? Poverty has many dimensions and causes, and it is clear that different kinds of action are needed at different levels (international, regional, national, and sub-national) if it is to be significantly reduced. Africa is the world’s second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia.

Africa is the world’s poorest inhabited continent. Though parts of the continent have made significant gains over the last few years, of the 175 countries reviewed in the United Nations’ Human Development Report 2003, 25 African nations ranked lowest amongst the nations of the world. This is partly due to its turbulent history. The geo-historical situations of African people should be examined while addressing poverty. Same like inhabitants in other continents, the African people were and up to today are mostly dependent on agriculture, therefore they were needed to live in the regions where they have located nearby the river in Nile Valley, on the coasts of North and West Africa, along the Niger, in the eastern highlands, and in South Africa.

They were living in traditional rustic lifestyle and could manage their requirement by hunting and farming in the green areas during the history, but gradually due to tropical climate situation and high temperature in their living environment, decreasing the water recourses, increasing the number of people in living areas and reduction of their agricultural resources, because of weather fluctuations within the recent centuries, the problem of African people started. The impacts of climate change are likely to be considerable in tropical regions. Developing countries are generally considered more vulnerable to the effects of climate change than more developed countries, largely attributed to a low capacity to adapt in the developing world. Of the developing countries, many in Africa are seen as being the most vulnerable to climate variability and change.

High levels of vulnerability and low adaptive capacity in the developing world have been linked to factors such as a high reliance on natural resources, limited ability to adapt financially and institutionally, low per capita GDP and high poverty, and a lack of safety nets. The challenges for development are considerable, not least because the impacts are complex and highly uncertain. Fighting for water and food made them busy with themselves so that they neglected to communicate with people who were living in other parts of the world. They didn’t know how to sail and could not travel overseas and therefore they could not prepare their requirement by trading with other nations and therefore, they were isolated from the rest of the world in the recent centuries.

Such isolation as well as the ignorance and illiteracy of African people, their fast-growing population, their sectarian conflicts from one side, and the arrival of non-African adventurers to this rich continent and starting the slavery were all imposed on the people who were not deserved and lead them to a new era of poverty. Africa is still grappling to undo a legacy dominated by trade with their former colonial rulers. For instance, Senegal’s biggest trading partner is France, while the Gambia trades extensively with the United Kingdom. [2] Although Senegal surrounds the Gambia, trade between the two neighbors is minimal. Worse enough the continent’s railways and roads often lead to ports rather than link countries across regions. Many dependencies on aid and reluctance of solving problems don’t help Africa to emerge out from being considered a poor continent.

Lack of sufficient infrastructure. More than two-thirds of countries in Sub-Saharan Africa are currently experiencing a debilitating power crisis. The crisis is the result of many factors: strong economic growth, which has, in turn, led to the rapid increase in electricity consumption and urbanization; and poor planning for boosting generation and distribution capacity and maintaining infrastructure. The human and economic consequences are significant. There is an urgent need to address the problems plaguing the power sector, but a large gap exists between infrastructure needs and the availability of resources. An estimated USD 40.8 billion a year in investments are needed for Africa’s power sector, but ODA and funding from the public sector are not sufficient to meet this need. Consequently, the private sector will need to play a significant role in closing the demand-resources gap by providing funds and expertise.

The need for at least a basic level of infrastructure in Africa is quite critical in all sectors and because of its missing in %75 of African residential areas, millions of lives are threatened every day for lack of clean water or safe sanitation. In recent years the continent’s development objectives are badly affected by poor infrastructure. There is very little investment made by developing countries in improving the infrastructure conditions in Africa and even most of this small quantity of investment (roughly two-thirds) has been focused on the telecommunications sector which has no relativity with other major sectors i.e. health care and education. Due to personal experience of my father in Nigeria as one of the richest African country, the majority of people even in some big cities like Port Harcourt in river state which is considered as one of the richest oil production centers in Delta Niger, are suffering from lack of access to basic infrastructures like electricity, hygienic freshwater & piping network, sanitary and drainage systems, suitable domestic transportation and well-constructed roads & railway at their home.

Political instability. Although the leadership issue is considered as one of the major problems in the world but its horrible condition in many African states made their political situation quite unstable. Most of the African governors are busy with their own business and hand in hand with foreigners are draining the public resources out in favor of their overseas partners. Majority of African leaders are dictating those policies which are just matched with their own privacy and not the public interests. The consequence of such kind of leadership leads the African people to sectarian conflicts and creates Political instability for the country. In most cases the African leaders try to run the country by copying the modern western state systems at the domestic level and neglect the tradition and culture of their own people. With such negligence, the political atmosphere in most African states is not well enough for safe investment and its level has been restricted to the sectors for washing out their resources in favor of western countries.

As a result of political leadership of the current governors, the economic condition of African people has gone under dominant of prescribed economical policies of western companies which play a significant role in the deprivation of African populations of the essential key services in development. Some of political economists are in this belief that the foreign investors are not responsible for improvement of the living standards of the people in the regions where they make profits. Although this concept is commented by some others but even if there was no argue in this belief, no one may disagree with the role of African political leaders in organizing the consequence of their leadership and management on economic conditions in Africa which has obviously had serious affections in provision of essential services such as health, education and infrastructure and there is no doubt that in absence of these fundamental services, the productive potentiality of people in their own societies will be decreased and they go through deprivation and poverty more and more.

Main effects of poverty in Africa and its consequences: Poverty can have a devastating effect, such as lack of food, improper healthcare; homelessness and lack of jobs all play a role in the effects of poverty. [3] A recorded number of people die each day in Africa due to extreme poverty. 14% of children in Sub Saharan African countries alone are estimated to be underweight, out of 28% of children who are underweight in all poorer nations of the world. And it will increase because of low progress in the development and miss the Millennium Development Goals target of halving the proportion of underweight children. [4] Food and water are in low supply because of nonexistent infrastructure. As a result, poverty effects can easily cause inability to develop, afford modern technology, provides basic services and access, mistrust of governments- leading to revolutions which will paralyze the governmental system and more rivalry over few resources.

However, the significant consequences of poverty in Africa are more closely connected with uneven economic growth. More than a half of the population lives in extreme poverty, which is defined as subsisting on less than $1 a day by the World Bank. The huge waste of human resources, others are mainly on human suffering and death, high mortality rate, epidemic diseases, high illiteracy, ignorance of problems and poor hygiene, water, and sanitation. If the current trend of poverty continues, then no hope to alleviate the poverty. Lack of sufficient health care and education. In 2008 around 1.4 million people died from AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa and 1.9 million people became infected with HIV.

Due to lack of standard levels of educations in little academic training, lack of medical centers and facilities in the training of physicians, few numbers of hospitals, insufficient medicines, and medical equipment, lack of suitable nursing care and many other interrelated medical issues, result to a bad health condition in African countries. Although some activities have been done by International Health Organization under U.N. supervision they can temporarily figure out the health problems of about %25 of Africans who are living in urban areas and the major remaining population of the continent who are living in rural areas and villages are almost deprived of this small medical services provided by international society.

To sort out the African’s health and medical care, the three principle health system inputs should be seriously noted and provided by the global society. Training of human resources as the clinical and non-clinical staff who are responsible for delivering health services, is considered as one these three which requires comprehensive programming and establishment of colleges and universities, forwarding the motivated skillful & educated missions as well as the required tools and equipment. The budget elements of physical capital are considered as the third dependent direct principle in the improvement of health care in Africa.

In the absence of massively expanded prevention, treatment and care efforts, it is expected that the AIDS death toll in sub-Saharan Africa will continue to rise. This means the impact of the AIDS epidemic on these societies will be felt most strongly in the course of the next ten years and beyond. Its social and economic consequences are already widely felt, not only in the health sector but also in education, industry, agriculture, transport, human resources and the economy in general. The AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa threatens to devastate whole communities, rolling back decades of development progress.

Political instability and Corruption. Good governance alone will not end poverty, but we cannot significantly reduce poverty, especially within a human rights approach, without good governance. Good governance is necessary at all levels, from the global to the local, but it is also necessary to identify those levels of governance requiring special attention, and this may vary from country to country: it is not always the case that governance at the national level is the central problem as far as poverty alleviation is concerned. There are problems in Africa for several decades even after many countries in the continent went through transitions from colonialism to independence, is not a deniable fact. In terms of political instability in Africa, it is also undeniable that the continent has had some difficult moments during the last fifty years or so. But what is still unexplained in the many analyses that have been looking at events in Africa is the fact that in almost all the cases of political instability in Africa, it is evident that the major problem is leadership.

In this context, Africa has seen its freedom heroes turn into dictators, while plunder of natural resources, politics of exclusion, and deprivation to tilt the balance of power continues to dominate the public sphere. Moreover, these problems have been pointed out and fought gallantly by ordinary Africans who have over the years, expressed their discontent with regimes imposed upon them, through the complicity of the international community. It’s strongly believed that most of the major problems in Africa are rooted in the corruption of the leaders and governors who have sat on the throne of dictatorship and oppress their people and make them more miserable. It’s quite obvious they never let the people have an acceptable standard of social rights for the election of their nominated candidates as their leaders. Although it’s a long way and bumpy road to achieve their goal for making a democratic society they have no chance and must go straight forward. They should pay its worth and pave the path toward democracy peacefully.

In an actual democratic system, all decisions of the governors will be checked, debated, revised and ultimately approved by the people’s representatives. The national recourses and assets will be managed to be spent for the provision of the vital and ordinary requirements of people like health care, training, and infrastructural welfare. If you go through the governing systems in African countries, you will find an apparent frame of democratic system but in most cases, you will come to know that majority of the people have no chance to vote for the key policies in the management of their country. The corrupted high officials have direct control on all centers of political and economical power and never let them to be supervised by the people’s actual representatives. They have even enough influence in the selection of the parliament members.

We should never forget the significant role of western companies and investors in the mastery of such dictators who have been elected and supported by them in a so-called democratic way. How African countries can build solutions to solve those problems? The deepest challenge for countries in the poorest parts of the world, especially Africa, is governance. The African continent has been ravaged both by civil war and conflict and by rapacious leaders who have plundered the natural wealth of their nations. Corrupt rulers and their weak regimes have arguably been the single most important drag on African development. The steps are to focus on good governance, social responsibility and elimination of corruption. Developed their educational systems, their infrastructure, and their labor markets which will able them to exploit their resources in the global markets. Increase economic input on national income through the important exports of major resources such as oil, gold, raw materials, timbers, fishers etc.

In many instances, capitalism can generate adequate resources to eradicate extreme poverty, but it is continually undermined by corruption and self-interests. It is an unfortunate truth that the poorer the country, the more difficult it is to put aside these unwanted programs by-products of economic and social growth. [5] Encourage agriculture sectors, proper management of resources, and foreign investment. This can be met through the demand for trade reform that will help small scale farmers and enriching their agriculture and other sectors like services and labor. In other words, governments should target the extremely poor people and enabled them to contribute to development by improving their health, education, provide agriculture subsidies instead of wasting expenditures all will lead to economic growth. There is a need to educate the population and motivated them to maintain it. Donations can help as well to build basic infrastructure. The African nations need political and economic policies that will aid their growth and lessen their dependence on outside charity.

In order to eliminate poverty is to be stabilized in peace and maybe reduce the population to have access to more food instead of more people with less food. Even few African countries that have experienced sustained high growth over the last few decades are now reported to have reduced their absolute poverty levels, but the important aspect is that the gains of economic growth should be distributed fairly to reach the poor people in the country [6]  Democratization. Making money and profitable business is the major task of international investors and companies. It’s quite understandable that they are not responsible for social welfare and improvements in the host country but we should never forget that in most cases, many of them and even their investment policies are controlled and supported by western countries in Europe and America.

The democratization of African countries is not only beneficial for the people but also it may secure the investment and business of foreign companies and even increase their profit. In this view, I believe the western countries and the U.S.A can play a considerable role in the settlement of democracy in this rich continent through the European Union and the United Nation organization. As long as the African governors are just sticking to power and do not care about their national interests, this is the international responsibility to warn them in political congregations for their misbehaviors and isolate their administrations through intelligent sanctions from one side and practically protect the people by the promotion of their living standards through dictating policies to their citizen companies and investors for win-win business in favor of African people as well as themselves.

Will Money Solve Africa’s problems? Some of the economical experts are in believe that investment in Africa may promote the level of knowledge and create prosperity and stability and will improve the capabilities of the people to integrate their continent into global networks of trade. In this way, the existence of three failures of corruption and abuse of power by African governments, the exploiting policies of extractive industries, and the waste of resources by an ineffective aid system will be likely impossible. Some of the proponents of this belief are saying that the key solution in Africa’s development problems is to support the African local entrepreneurs by invested capital. As an opponent of the above ideas it’s believed as long as the prolonged violent conflicts, bad governance, excessive external interference, and lack of an independent policy, money cannot sort out Africa’s development problems. The matter in Africa has not been ever lack of money because this continent is quite rich and full of resources with fertile soil for agricultural productions and potentially has the key elements for progress and as initial steps; investment may facilitate the process of economical improvement.

Massive food production will solve Africa’s poverty problem. Hunger is a horrible phenomenon which is considered as a critical issue in Africa. Among five continents, Africa is the only one that cannot to feed itself. Because of the fast-growing of population, the shortages in agricultural productions is leading the continent to new potential conflicts and the peace situation in many African nations is fragile. Around 300 million people will not have enough to eat today. Despite millions of hectares of unused cultivated land, more than $19 billion is spent in Africa for buying food each year. Donation or import of agricultural products is like a sedative for the illness and for actual treatment of hunger and poverty; African countries should focus their efforts on investment policies in agricultural sectors and training programs for more efficient water management, new techniques of cultivation, irrigation and harvesting. In addition of these issues and to rapidly increase productivity, fertilizers, as well as sufficient suitable machinery and equipment for the conservation of agricultural products, should be provided for the African farmers.

The EU strategy for supporting Africa. Witnessing the case of Mexico, it has the advantage of sharing a 2,000-mile border with the world’s greatest economic power. Since the North American Free Trade Agreement went into effect in 1994, the United States has given Mexican goods duty-free access to its markets, has made huge investments in the Mexican economy, and has continued to absorb millions of Mexican laborers. During the 1994-95 peso crisis, the U.S. Treasury even underwrote Mexico’s financial stability. Outside economic help does not get much better. But since 1992, Mexico’s economy has grown at an annual average rate of barely more than one percent per capita. This figure is far less than the rates of the Asian growth superstars. It is also a fraction of Mexico’s own growth of 3.6 percent per year in the two decades that preceded its 1982 debt crisis.

Access to external markets and resources has not been able to make up for Mexico’s internal problems. A notable exception to the limitations of outside assistance is European Union membership. By offering its poorer eastern and southern neighbors not just aid transfers and market access but the prospect of joining the union, the EU has stimulated deep policy and institutional changes and impressive growth in about 20 countries. But the exception proves the rule: the EU is not just an economic arrangement; it is also a political system in which member states transfer extensive legal powers to the central authority. In return, the center shoulders significant responsibilities for the economic well-being of each member.

Unfortunately, accession to the EU or to any other major power is not an option for most of the poorest parts of the world and increasing the financial resources and trading opportunities for the poorest countries is not a sufficient substitute. Although there is a long way towards sustainable development in Africa within the frame of the African Union, the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), and international organizations, the EU members have tried to equip the African states with political and economic roadmaps and provide them with a vision for better future. Regardless of existing different historical attitudes, cultures, religions, and traditions as well as different geographical and economical conditions with various political regimes in Africa, there are some African countries who are experiencing sustained periods of peace, security, economic and political stability and democratic methods of peaceful life but at the same time many of African people are suffering from long-term conflicts in their lands.

One of the major roles of the European Union in the assistance of African people is to support them in human development and economic growth programs. Highly unequal distribution of income has an excessive impact on poverty levels among the people and such programs will be very helpful in the democratization of Africa. To reduce the rate of poverty, Job creation and social development as major challenges shall be considered as other solutions that should be included in the EU strategy for supporting Africa. To achieve these and due to the close relation of employment to education and training, working on eradication of illiteracy is quite important especially for women and ethnic minorities. Improving the health care and hygiene conditions in African states, in particular controlling and treatment of HIV/AIDS as a very serious pandemic disease inside the whole of Africa shall be considered as another supporting program that should be included in the European Union’s strategy in Africa.

Climate change is something that may badly affect the life situation of African people and increase the level of poverty among them. When the air temperature is going up, it affects more to the climate in Africa because the continent is environmentally very diverse. The shortages in water resources, increasing desertification, flooding and drought are all the common consequences of climate change and as a result of them, the food security and health of all human beings in the world and particularly in Africa will worsen. The process of Increasing the desert lands in almost half of Africa especially in areas being located along desert margins and lack of compensation of water resources because of little raining fall below the world average are the two threatening factors of the humans’ lives and due to these concerns, many conflicts can be potentially created.

About 17% of the world’s forests are located in Africa, and deforestation and because of shortages in earning and food resources, they are changing to dessert by the poor people. Therefore climate change adaptation program is another urgent necessity for Africa’s development and should be noted and attended well by the European Union. European Union help Africa by preventing or settling ongoing conflicts towards peace and security aims to establish the necessary framework for development base on their partnership. [7] Sustainable development in Africa requires a safe and secure environment. Peace is therefore an essential way of progress. The Partnership is a better key component than without for Africa’s future inside and outside its borders. Democracy and respect for human rights are shared values between Europe and Africa.

They are also critical issues to the development of any society. With the Joint Africa-EU Strategy, the two sides have committed to conduct an in-depth dialogue on human rights and democratic governance, to promote these values on a global level, and to strengthen their cooperation in this field. From this dialogue and cooperation comes understanding, cooperation, and programs that bond leaders, civil society, and citizens in the pursuit of governance and human rights. EU has also enhanced trade and deeper regional integration as essential contributions to development, economic growth and employment, and ultimately the eradication of poverty in Africa. [8] As it believed that European Union has undergone a successful process of integration, it can share its experiences with Africa in a good faith.

EU conditionality for donations and economic reforms to Africa should not ignore the poverty alleviation programs and should focus on helping the poor in Africa by getting the benefits of globalization through the national-level economic reforms. At the domestic level, Africa/EU should have stronger safety nets in macroeconomic management which could benefit the poor people and more investment in proper healthcare, education, technology, basic infrastructure, and many other things. Recommendation and conclusion. For the solutions to overcome or to reduce extreme poverty in Africa, the key points are good policies and prope.

 

Example #4

Poverty is a dangerous weapon that can hinder the growth and development of any society, where it is prevalent. Poverty in Africa has contributed to the spread of preventable diseases, the exploitation of woman and children, violent conflict over scarce resources and political instability. It is important that the world community not only acknowledges the reality of poverty in Africa, but nations and individuals should focus their energy and resources to do something about it. With poverty being so high in Africa it is hindering production and economic development.

Africa is the world’s second-largest and second most populous continent. As well as the world’s poorest inhabited continent, as measured by GDP per capita It accounts for about 14.72% of the world’s human population. In 2006, 34 of the 50 nations on the United Nations list of least developed countries are in Africa. Many nations in Africa, GDP per capita is less than $200 per year, with a majority of the population living on much less. There is 64% population live in rural areas, and a 2.5% annual population growth. Because of the poverty in Africa it is causing a chain reaction, which is hindering Africa’s productivity and economic development. One of those chains being health, 90% of all malaria cases are in sub-Saharan Africa.

3,000 children under the age of five die each day from malaria in Africa. 1-5% of GDP in Africa covers costs of malaria control and lost labor days. 17 million people in Africa have died of aids. Incidents of malaria, cholera and even polio are on the rise in Africa, all undermining social and economic development on the globes most impoverished continent. Along with health being part of the chain comes education. 62% of children in Africa do not complete primary school. 19 nations in Africa are under 50% literacy rate. Illiteracy is said to be one of the many causes of poverty in Africa. This graph shows the economic growth that africa has been having over the past couple decadeds. Africas economic growth has been low for many years and is show a little progress, but very little. Africa has stayed below $5,000, and continues to show little promise for economic growth if something doesn’t change.

Health. Poverty creates ill-health because it forces people to live in environments that make them sick, without decent shelter, clean water or adequate sanitation. Some illnesses which have been eradicated from the developed world and others parts of the globe keep recurring in this continent. Rates of HIV/AIDS, malaria, polio and various other diseases are highest in this region(Cooper, 2012). About 34% of the population in Africa suffer from malnutrition. 1 in every 6 children dies before turning 5 due to malnutrition and starvation. With those statistics Africa is going to continue to suffer in poverty.

With people Africa dying it is causing productivity to slow down due to some many deaths. The people of Africa are not able to afford the proper healthcare needed to stay alive, which is hurting not only the economy, but the families that are continualy losing their loved ones to disease that can be preventable. The spread of diseases like HIV/AIDS, malaria, etc keep increasing in Africa as a result of poor health facilities that are put in place for the control of such diseases. Most families are poor, and cannot afford going to good hospitals where there are better drugs and equipment that will help to improve their health condition.

Inability of getting proper healthcare lead to premature deaths in Africa on a daily basis. With health being so bad in Africa it is preventing the increase of production. With people out sick and/dying productivity goes down as well as worker per capita. By the governenment improving healthcare and maiking it more accessable to more people who can’t afford healthcare could help improve their productivity and increase development. (poverty, 2009) By eraticating poverty it will help increase the health of the people in poverty which will intern increase the productive and economic development. Its not onlt health that is preventing Africa from overcoming poverty, education has a huge part to do with it as well.

Education. This graph shows the large differences in school attendance between rich countries and the countries in Africa. How can we expect Africa to escape from poverty if this doesn’t change? But of course, this is a vicious circle the main reason for children not going to school is precisely poverty. The poverty of the families in those countries is making it impossible for them to send their children to school, and the poverty of the state as the authority responsible for providing education. (spangnoll, 2008). With those numbers being so low economic development and productivity will never increase. The government needs to start providing funds to not only increase the number of students in primary school, but secondary and post secondary school.

Although many African leaders have stated that there are limited resources to educate their people, Dambisa Moyo has stated that “there is more than $1 trillion in development aid that has been transferred from rich countries to Africa over the past 50 years, then this money, coupled with the continent’s own resources, leave no reason for Africa to remain one of the most illiterate continents.” The African leaders recognize that education is important, but things remain the same, especially for girls in Africa who are often denied education altogether. If education continues to be put on the back burner the continent will continue to lag behind in human development. To fix this this problem all African countries must provide free and compulsory education at least at the elementary and fundamental stages, as required by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights also known as the UN (Kaifala,2011).

Eradication of Poverty. The first thing that needs to be done to eradicate poverty in Africa to increase production and economic development is to one achieve universal primary education. By at least offering universal primary education will kids an opportunity to learn and receive an education could potentially encourage the kids further their education in secondary school or post-secondary school. Another thing that needs to be accomplished to reduce the poverty rate in Africa is reducing the child mortality. Thirty years ago, one in five children in the world died before their fifth birthday. Now it is less than one in ten. Better access to vaccinations and other basic health services and improved living standards have contributed to a steep decline in global deaths among infants and children over the past 30 years.

By reducing the child mortality it would increase productivity and increase economic development. As long as Africa continues to offer vaccinations and other basic health services they will continually be contributing in the plan to eradicate poverty. Ensuring environmental sustainability is another way to eradicate poverty in Africa. Some of the poorest people in Africa depend on Natural resources for a healthy diet, water, shelter, and medicines. This means these people are often more vulnerable to disasters and hazards such as flooding, landslides and pollution brought about or exacerbated by environmental degradation. By ensuring environmental sustainability it ensures that the government will help the people out in coming up with ways to avoid damages and losses during an environmental degradation.

The next thing that Africa needs to do to eradicate poverty out of Africa is to develop a global partnership for development. “The targets in the global partnership for development millennium development goal include a fairer trading and financial system. Getting rid of barriers to trade could lift almost 300 million people in the developing world out of poverty (poverty, 2012). By accomplishing these things it will not only help to eradicate poverty, but to also increase economic development.

Achieving these goals doesn’t just happen over night it takes time, and the participation of the communities as well as the government in Africa. Although there is a lot that needs to change in Africa to eradicate poverty to increase productivity and economic development Africa has already begun to try and make a change. With programs like the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, which aims to cut poverty statistics in half by the year 2015, Africa is headed on the right track to come out of poverty.

Progress So Far/ Conclusion. Over the years there has been some great progress to eradicate poverty, which is helping productivity and economic development in Africa. Although it has been small changes everything adds up. IN the last five years, Mozambique has reduced poverty from 70% to 55% and has doubled the number of children in school. Kenya has introduced free primary education, which has brought 1.2 million children back into school. Along with those accomplishments Uganda has reduced HIV from 20% in 1991 to around 6.5% in 2001. As well as 1,000 new schools have been built and 18,000 teachers recruited to teach in Tanzania. With this accomplishments so far there is no telling how much better Africa will get with the continued work that is being done to eradicate poverty in Africa to increase productivity, and economic development.

 

Example #5

People can become poor due to ignorance, extreme whether conditions that result into draught, wars and conflicts, poor governance and exploitation. The above pictures do not offer much evidence as to what might be the real cause of poverty. However, the crowding might indicate that these are refugees fleeing from a conflict zone or trapped in remote place with no food water and other basic needs. This do not come as a shock to fellow Africans or even people from other societies. The entire world knows that poverty as a disease affects Africa many times more than other regions of the world. African countries always come at the bottom of any indices that measure quality of life. The pictures only confirm what is already known the world over.

The world also knows that Africans are responsible for their own poverty. The above pictures may get people talking about how African governments are not doing much for their people. But it’s not the failure of African governments that precipitates these extreme cases of starvation. The African problem is much bigger than just governance. Indeed corruption and other vices seen in most African governments are things that should not be encouraged at any time. However, it should be appreciated that there are other causes of poverty that are much bigger and difficult to tackle. The biggest of them all is the issue of land. Sub Saharan Africa has enough arable land that can feed many more people however. However, land has been a thorn in the flesh since the scramble and partition of Africa and the subsequent colonial rule. Many African communities were pushed away from arable land to pave way for large scale farming by colonial governments.

At the time of independence the lands were shared among few privileged Africans or retained by white settlers who wished to remain. This led to millions of people becoming landless or squatters. Most of these large tracts of land are currently held as ranches or horticultural farms that grow crops for export. The other portions are largely underdeveloped but owned by influential Africans or settlers who have several other means of generating their income. Majority of the population are trapped in endless conflicts. Others fighting to retain their communal land and others fighting as squatters who were brought there during the colonial period. There are several guerilla wars that are sponsored by foreign governments competing for African resources. This guerilla wars that are disguised as liberations movements displace millions of people leaving them vulnerable to poverty.

African governments are in most cases poor and cannot contain the guerilla conflicts because they are sponsored by rich foreign governments with interests in African resources. There are also several other African problems that precipitate the above poverty conditions. The refusal to change from the traditional ways of farming makes the population to be vulnerable to the effects of drought. Poor land legislations and high illiteracy levels are other issues that contribute to this kin of situation.It’s therefore important for any viewer or reader to identify the other aspects that may be creating the situation depicted in the pictures rather just to simply blame Africans for their problems.

 

Example #6 – interesting ideas

Why is there starvation/poverty in sub saharan Africa? Are they under capitalism or socialism? ( my opinion is socialism is better when government isn’t corrupt and truly democratic, but capitalism is better hwen govenrment is corrupt) Is it a dictatorship? What can be done to change sub saharan africa into a true democracy?

Answer. “Why is there starvation/poverty in sub Saharan Africa” There are many reasons. But the two biggest ones. I believe, are drought and IMF/World Bank imposed free market/free trade “reforms.” Since the late 70s, Sub Saharan African countries have been forced to adopt free-market and free-trade policies through conditions imposed on it by so called Structural adjustment Programs. Institutions like the IMF and World Bank and others encourage the rich and powerful Sub Saharan Africa and other poor countries to take on mountains of debt. The risky loans yield high returns, and when the system crashes, structural adjustment programs transfer the costs to the poor, who never borrowed the money to begin with, and gained little from it.

The IMF routinely works with finance ministers of impoverished countries to set budget ceilings on things like helth, education, water, sanitation, agricultural infrastructure, etc, in full knowledge that the consequences could be mass suffering and death, which they try to ofset with aid money. But when the aid money isn’t enough, it results in a human catastrophe with deaths from hunger, disease, and unsafe water on the scale of world war. “Are they under capitalism or socialism?” Again, most African countries have had free market and free trade reforms imposed on them by institutions like the IMF, World Bank, and GATT, much to the continents detriment. Capitalist exploitation, with its monopolies and cartels, are the enemy of the underdeveloped world. There’s a better choice of a socialist system, a system devoted to the people, based on the belief that man is the most precious asset. It will allow them to progress faster, ruling out the possibility of a caricature society where a privilleged few hold the reigns of political and economic power.

“What can be done to change sub saharan africa into a true democracy?” There will have to be a multi-level system of democratic governance. People in those countries will have to organize to raise their standard of living. Democracy means far more than simply periodic elections. It requires empowering collective action, and eliminating the hold of unaccountable global institutions like the World Bank and IMF on Sub Saharan Africa’s economies. It means creating vehicles through which people can act in their common interests. For example, in Mali, a cooperative formed by a group of women in the 70s in the small town of Markala became the nucleus for a woman and development program that spread to more than 30 village groups. The women conduct such income generating activities as soapmaking, small animal raising, cloth dying, and raising vegetables. They also receive training in how to manage the co-ops. Such programs give ordinary people to control and benefit from local economic activity.


Why should i go and experience poverty in africa? What skills and qualities do i need? Why should i go? Will i make a difference? Ideas for fundraising?

Answer. As others have said, you do not need to go to africa to experience poverty. Every country in the world, including yours, has people living in poverty, communities that are worse off than the average citizen of any specific town or city. You should be compassionate without taking pity on the people. They need help and support to get on with their lives and to improve their situation. That includes education. Lack of education is often the main cause of poverty. You should be able to improvise, come up with practical solutions that cost little or no money. And, you should be able to live with the people in their squalor to experience what they go through, and this will give you ideas about how to help them. Every sensible person who genuinely wants to roll up his sleeves and knuckle down to work on this problem, is welcome, and will make a difference. But, such help does not achieve anything overnight. It takes a lot of determined hard perseverance to achieve a miracle. But, each little step in the right direction helps.

Fundraising can be done on all levels. If you are still in school, start by selling small bakes at schools, collect metals or papers and sell to a recycling depot. Make a point of depositing the money in a separate account. Look on the internet for charities that use the donations wisely, some like unicef are very good, and the main interest is education of the children who need it most. If you have like-minded friends, you could start a little fundraising committee, and once a month have a stand at a local market, and above all, tell everyone that you are fundraising for a good cause so that they can support you. Once people start taking your project for serious, you may find the people will help you in many ways. Even try to get this project into your local newspaper. Above all, perseverance and determination. Never lose sight of your goals, even if the beginning is slow.


Will the poverty in Africa ever end? It is our moral obligation as human beings to help those less fortanite then us, but do we really have the capiblity to stop the cycle of poverty in Africa? We can stop the bleeding by feeding people and keeping them alive, but I don’t think we can close the wound and stop the cycle. This sad but realistic reality is based on several things, the continent has limited amounts of natural resources and its population is huge and continues to explode. Many countries are locked in perpetial civil war which destroys any hope of economic or social stability. There is also constant violence between ethnic and religous groups. How can this be stopped?

Answer. Well, Africa’s problems are multi-fold. There is no quick answer to it and the first world’s response to simply throw money at the problem just doesn’t work. It’s also important to remember that Africa is a continent, not a country. The problems in one region (like Darfur’s ethnic cleansing) does not necessarily extend to another (like conflict diamonds in Liberia and Sierra Leone). It inevitably comes down to empowering the people of the countries of Africa to determine their own fates and address the causes of strife themselves. In the short term, the poverty needs to be addressed. Even if it is a matter of airlifting the food, it feeds the hungry in the short term. But we can’t worry about anything else: education, healthcare, diplomacy, unless bellies are full.


Why is Poverty mostly only found in Africa? And not in Europe, Latin America nor Asia. Is it because that Blacks are lesser intelligent compared to other races?

Answer. My guess, for what it’s worth, is that black Africans lack the entrepreneurial spirit that is found in Europe. Have you noticed that no major inventions or scientific discoveries have been made in Africa by black Africans? Africans have been sitting on mineral wealth for aeons, but it took European know-how to make use of it. Maybe it’s the climate. In hot regions, people are more likely to sit around in the shade than to go and dig for minerals, or to invent things in a laboratory. But it’s more likely that it’s in the Africans’ nature, not to make any more effort than the absolute minimum that is needed to keep body and soul together. I heard a similar sentiment from a white farmer when I was in East Africa in the 1960’s. He grew (among other crops) sisal on his farm, and he said that the Africans couldn’t be bothered to grow it, because they had to wait for (I think) six or seven years before they got a cash crop. Maybe these few comments have thrown some light on why there is great poverty in Africa.

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