May have to change bits to suit youFigueroa’s Framework. Professor Peter Figueroa developed a ‘framework that initially supported Figueroa’s research investigating racism, but it is a useful tool to investigate the ways in which inequities can be challenged in the area of exercise, sport and physical activity.’ (Amezdroz, Dickens, Hosford, Stewart, Davis, 2010, p. 461). Figueroa’s framework consists of 5 main levels: the Individual, Interpersonal, Structural, Institutional and Cultural, which can then be broken down even further. The Individual Level is about why individuals choose to participate in physical activity. The Interpersonal Level is described as the way relationships affect decisions. The Structural Level of Figueroa’s Framework is concerned with distributing resources and rewards and how it affects access and participation.
The Institutional Level is the fourth level of Figueroa’s framework and is about the institutions and organisations that establish ‘structures or mechanisms of social order, they govern the behaviour of a set of individuals within a given community.’ (Wikipedia, 2015). And finally, the Cultural Level is the level at which ‘societal norms’ and values impact the participation of people in society. Throughout the recent Squash unit, we have paid particular attention to access and equitable participation in a range of physical environments. In this research report, I discuss which levels of Figueroa’s Framework have had the most significant impact on my attitudes, behaviours, participation and progress in Squash over the term: the Individual Level and the Interpersonal Level.
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The first level of Figueroa’s Framework is the Individual Level. The individual level is important because it’s about the individual. It’s made of 5 factors; Personal Temperament; Individual Needs; Genetic Predisposition; Personal Beliefs, Values and Stereotypes; and finally, Self-concept and Self-esteem. Personal temperament consists of; Personality types, based on where you place your attention and draw your energy from, using the Myers-Briggs personality table; and temperament is your perception of the world and your reaction in any given situation. Individual needs are the Choice Theory. The ‘Choice Theory, developed by psychiatrist William Glasser, says that all of our behaviour is our best attempt, at any given time, to meet one or more of 5 genetically determined needs: survival, power and respect, freedom, fun, and love and belonging’(K. Justice, 2015).
Genetic predisposition determines peoples body type, muscle type and amount, as well as height and limb length, which may provide natural abilities in certain sports. ‘In an effort to understand the differences between body types, the physiologist William Sheldon worked out a classification system that is still widely used today. He sorted body types into three categories: endomorph (round and voluptuous), mesomorph (muscular with large bones) and ectomorph (thin and tall).’(Ruiz, Radziszewski and Fard, 2005). ‘Ectomorphs tend to do well in racquet sports, such as squash and tennis, where their long limbs can compensate for slower sprints and changes in direction.’(Ruiz, Radziszewski and Fard, 2005). Personal beliefs, values and stereotypes are based on the socialization that people have, causing the individual to pick up their values and beliefs.
And finally, an individual’s self-concept and self-esteem can affect the way people perceive themselves, which may make them uncomfortable in sport, and their views on sport. In Squash, the individual level has affected me through the choice theory and my genetic predisposition. I believe that playing Squash helps me fulfil three of my needs: freedom, power and respect, and fun. It’s also about my genetic predisposition, which is a mixture of mesomorph and endomorph, which affects my ability to play squash well, as it isn’t an equitable sport. The second level that’s affected me is the Interpersonal Level. This level’s based around people’s relationships and the way it affects participation and opportunities, positively or negatively. This level’s importance is that it outlines how relationships and socialization affect peoples feelings towards physical activity.
Socialization is significant for people to accept or reject beliefs, values, behaviours and attitudes. Individuals adopt this from a selection of role-models, including; parents and siblings; friends and peers; coaches and teachers; sporting and media personalities; and spectators, referees and club officials. Parents have great significance at this level, they organize opportunities for children to participate in physical activities, and provide financial and emotional support to encourage their involvement. Siblings playing other sports as you grow up can cause you to want to play or for parents to encourage you to as it is part of the ‘family tradition’ or it’s easier to stick to one venue for sports. Another aspect is friends and peers, who encourage or discourage you from particular sports that aren’t classified as the group’s sport type. For example; you may belong to the netball group, so they think that playing tennis is stupid and laugh at you for trying.
This is a perfect example of how this level affects people’s opportunities and participation in sports. Teachers and coaches play an influential role in generating interest in physical activities, as they’re important role-models in the lives of young people and the attitudes and behaviours that they display are crucial in shaping the younger players values, attitudes and self-concept. The media’s role in creating opportunities and access to sport is that the media broadcast what they believe is popular in sports and promote certain ‘personalities, and therefore, has a big impact on people’s beliefs, values, attitudes and behaviour. The interpersonal level has affected me in Squash through my parents and teachers. My parents believe that squash is neither good nor bad as it helps with my fitness but might cause injuries that may prevent me from doing Gymnastics, this also affects how I see squash and whether I’d play to the best of my ability or play with caution as to prevent injuries from occurring.
However, just as my parents have an opinion that affects me, so does my teacher; because he has shown me a positive attitude and behaviour towards Squash, therefore I’ve taken his attitude and behaviour. Figueroa’s Framework helps to identify inequity in sports and physical activities and is broken down into 5 main levels; the Individual level; the Interpersonal level; the Structural level; the Institutional level; and the Cultural level. These levels can then be broken down into many factors. From this, I have selected the 2 that have affected me the most throughout the recent unit of squash, which was the individual level and the interpersonal level. The individual-level affected my ability to play squash because of my body type and the way it makes me feel. Whereas the interpersonal level affected the way I viewed and played squash due to my parents and teachers. Overall, Figueroa’s Framework has shown inequities and inequalities in physical education, especially during the recent sporting unit of Squash.
- Amezdroz, G., Dickens, S., Hosford, G. and Stewart, T. (2010). Queensland senior physical education. South Yarra, Vic.: Macmillan Education, p.461.
- Ruiz, F., Radziszewski, N. and Fard, M. (2005). Just Your Type. [online] Experience Life. Available at: https://experiencelife.com/article/just-your-type/ [Accessed 8 Mar. 2015].
- Wikipedia, (2015). Institution. [online] Available at: http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki?curid=294833 [Accessed 10 Mar. 2015].
- Justice, L. K. (2015). Choice Theory Instruction. [online] Personal.kent.edu. Available at: http://www.personal.kent.edu/~lkjusti1/Choice_Theory/choice_theory_instruction.htm [Accessed 15 Mar. 2015].
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