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Comparison Of A Plant And Animal Cell

Every single living thing in the world is made up of cells. They are the basis for life and are made up of microscopic components called organelles, which carry out specific tasks. All cells differ from one to the other. There are two main groups of cells – Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells. The two types of Eukaryotic cells are plant and animal cells. There are many common elements between a plant and animal cell, but also some differences. In this essay, I am going to explore these similarities and differences and find out why they contain different organelles.

Similarities between plants and animal cells are that they are both Eukaryotic. This means that they both have a nucleus. They need this nucleus, as the brain of the cell, to help decide what comes in and out of it, and to hold all the genetic codes within it. To help the nucleus function properly, both the animal and plant cell have a cell membrane that covers the whole of the outside of the cell, and the nucleus tells it what to do. The membrane also allows cell identification and helps it to join itself to other things. To keep the shape of the cell membrane, animal and plant cells both have cytoplasm, which is made up of 90% water. This is what all the other organelles are held in, but which are free to move around in. Within this, both cells have Mitochondria. Mitochondria are needed for respiration, to create energy so they can carry out their duties.

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Other things that they have in common are Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough E R). The Rough E R is a membrane within the cell that is covered in Ribosomes. Some ribosomes are free to move around in the cytoplasm. The Rough E R makes proteins and sends them to the Golgi apparatus to be packaged. Both animal and plant cells contain the Golgi apparatus, which is made of Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum and modifies the proteins and packages them. When it has released them, they are known as Vesicles, which float in the cell ready for endocytosis and exocytosis. The Golgi apparatus also makes lysosomes, which contain hydrolytic enzymes, which kill infections in the cell, and are the self-destruct button for the whole cell. Both cells also contain a Centrosome, inside which are spindles of chromosomes.

There are a few differences between an animal cell and a plant cell. An animal cell has microfilaments, which are made of a protein called tubulin, and this floats around in the cytoplasm. Both have a Centrosome, but within the animal, Centrosome is a Centriole, this is used to help in cell division. Plants do not need this Centriole, as they do not use cell division in this way. Differences in a plant cell are they have a cell wall, whereas an animal cell does not. The cell wall is made of cellulose and is freely permeable. The plant cell needs this cell wall, to stop it from exploding when in water, and also to make the cell turgid, to help it keep its shape. An animal cell does not need a cell wall as it does not need to be turgid and keep its shape.

A plant cell has a Vacuole to help provide some structural support for the cell. Although an animal cell does have a vacuole, it is not needed for the same reason. It uses its vacuole to help with intracellular digestion and the release of cellular waste products, and, in comparison to a plant vacuole, it is very small. Plant cells have Chloroplast to absorb sunlight and combine it with carbon dioxide and water. This then photosynthesizes so that they can produce starch for the rest of the plant, for it to use as energy. Animal cells do not need to photosynthesize, so they do not have chloroplasts.

From this, I can tell that the plant and animal cells are very similar, but also have a few differences that they need to survive in their own way. Each organelle within each cell has very specific tasks that it needs in order to survive. An animal cell needs to carry out many functions such as respiration, cell division and having the ability to kill bacteria. A plant cell also needs to respire and kill infections, but it needs to be able to photosynthesize and keep turgor pressure as well. This is why they have many components that are the same, but they also have differences.

References

  • AS AQA Biology Specification A By Bill Indge, Martin Rowland & Margaret Baker
  • Internet: www.bbc.co.uk/ASguru www.google.com Emma Walters

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Comparison Of A Plant And Animal Cell. (2021, Apr 10). Retrieved May 5, 2021, from https://essayscollector.com/essays/comparison-of-a-plant-and-animal-cell/