The aim of this investigation is to investigate the rate of reaction of magnesium (mg) with Hydrochloric acid (HCl). After studying the availability of equipment I have chosen to investigate how concentration can affect the rate of reaction. Other variables that affect this investigation are:
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– Concentration of solution
– Surface area of a solid
– Pressure of a gas
I predict that when changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid and water, the slower the rate of reaction will be. I think this because when observing a previous experiment, it showed the less Hydrochloric acid and the more water used in a test tube, the rate of reaction is slow.
To help me gain better knowledge about the investigation I have found out some scientific information relating to the experiment of ‘rates and reaction’. The main areas I have covered are concentration of solution, temperature and catalyst.
After researching my scientific evidence I have found out that depending on collisions in particles will depend on the reaction being faster or slower. This happens if the reacting particles collide with each other, or there is sufficient energy in the collision to overcome the activation energy.
To increase the rate of reaction, the concentration of the reaction needs to increase this is by the
Hydrogen and magnesium ribbon being added to the solution of Hydrochloric acid. The following reaction occurs:
If temperature is increased the rate of reaction also increase. This is by the chemical particles receiving kinetic energy. If more kinetic energy is present in the particles, the particles move faster, this also means the particles will be colliding with each other often.
A catalyst is a substance that changes the rate of reaction but remains unchanged itself therefore it is an element that changes the rate of a chemical reaction without being used up. For example, iron speeds up the reaction between nitrogen and hydrogen to make ammonia.
- Test Tube Rack
- 2 Measuring Cylinders
- 5 Magnesium Strip
- Hydrochloric Acid
- Test Tubes
- Sand Paper
- Stop Clock
1. Collect all equipment; cut 5 magnesium strips (10cm) the same size. After that, using the sandpaper, sand any Magnesium Oxide layer (rust) off the magnesium strips.
2. Collect the hydrochloric acid and measure out 10ml in the measuring cylinder, pour in the test tube. Put test tube in the test tube rack.
3. Measure 8ml of hydrochloric acid and 2ml of water in the other measuring cylinder, and then pour in another test tube, again place in the test tube rack.
4. Measure 7ml of hydrochloric acid and 3ml of water and pour into another test tube. Place tube in test tube rack.
5. Measure 6ml of hydrochloric acid and 4ml of water and pour into another test tube and then place in the test tube rack.
6. Finally measure 5ml of hydrochloric acid and then 5ml of water and pour it into the last clean test tube, and then place in the test tube rack.
7. By using the stop clock, collect one strip of magnesium and drop it in the first test tube. As soon as the strip touches the acid start the stop clock. Observe what happens to the strip and note down any observations you can see. As soon as the strip is invisible stop the stop clock, and note down the time. Do the same with the four concentrations.
8. To make the experiment a fair test repeat two times. Collect observations/results.
To make sure my experiment was a fair test, I double-checked the measurements of all my solutions. To gain a set of accurate results I did the experiment again. I assured that the volume of the concentration was always the same-10ml. By carrying out the following my experiment was fair.
Below are my tables of results.
HCL (ml) H20 (ml) Time (minutes:seconds) Brief description
10ml 0ml 00:12 Exothermic, smoke, rapid, lots of fizzing
8ml 2ml 00:16 Exothermic, smoke, quickly fizzing
7ml 3ml 00:21 Exothermic, slower fizzing, slight smoke
6ml 4ml 01:00 Exothermic, slow fizz
5ml 5ml 01:05 Slow fizz
HCL (ml) H20 (ml) Time (minutes:seconds) Brief description
10ml 0ml 00:14 Exothermic, smoke. Rapid, lots of fizzing
8ml 2ml 00:18 Exothermic, smoke, quickly fizzing
7ml 3ml 00:35 Exothermic, slower fizzing, slight smoke
6ml 4ml 01:09 Exothermic, slow fizz
5ml 5ml 01:16 Slow fizz
HCL (ml) H20 (ml) Concentration (m) Time Experiment 1 Time
Experiment 2 Average time (seconds) 1/average time
10ml 0ml 2 00:15 00:19 00:17 5.88
8ml 2ml 1.6 00:19 00:33 00:26 2.84
7ml 3ml 1.4 00:25 00:42 00:33½ 2.98
6ml 4ml 1.2 01:02 01:05 01.03½ 0.96
5ml 5ml 1.0 01:08 01:12 01:10 0.90
From observing my results and studying my graphs, I have found out that the more hydrochloric acid you have in the concentration then the higher the rate of reaction will be. To decide which concentrations I will be using for my experiment,
After deciding to investigate a range of different types of concentrations between 10mls of hydrochloric acid to 5mls of hydrochloric acid, and 5mls of water. I found out that the more water added to concentrations, the reactions slowed down. In conclusion, my prediction was right. I predicted that the more water added to concentrations, the slower the rate of reaction.
My method helped me make my experiment successful. Without it I would be confused and lost, it helped me make sure my experiment was carried out to my best ability. My experiment that I carried out was fair. All my measurements were accurate, as I doubled-checked them.
If I could do this experiment again, I would do the experiment again, this should hopefully give me an extra set of results that prove my results are reliable and my prediction is right. This all depends if I have more time to do so.
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