Change in Europe from 1815 to 1971
From 1815 until 1871, Europe underwent a great change. As the revolution of the 1830s showed, the Vienna Settlement did not last, even though the great European powers were able for a while to take the situation under control with brutal repression. However, it was impossible to stop the liberal revolution, which led to important political events and deep social changes.
In the political field, there are three major events: the rise of Napoleon III, the unification of Germany and the Italian Risorgimento. In the field of social changes, there are the extraordinary doubling of the population, the new technologies, which made possible the development of communication and transportation, and the important consequences of the industrial revolution.
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Louis Napoleon Bonaparte came to power on the 2nd of December 1852. With him, the Second Empire started. Years before, he was expelled to America, but with the fall of the July Monarchy in February 1848, he returned to France to reassert his claim to being Napoleon Bonaparte’s legitimate heir, and to take advantage of the new opportunities that suddenly presented themselves. To obtain what he wanted, Bonaparte used the army and police to arrest his principal political opponents and to occupy the Assembly. After this, he announced his assumption of power and proclaimed a new constitution, to be subjected to an immediate plebiscite, where Napoleon obtained a huge majority and became president of France. But one year later, in another plebiscite, Napoleon received popular ratification of his assumption of the title of Emperor, as Napoleon III. Many observers saw this “meteoric rise”, as the beginning of a new era of absolutism.
However, public opinion never considered Napoleon as a tyrant, as electoral statistics show. They trusted him, who did not disappoint their expectations. Napoleon’s agenda concerned the reorganization of the State, a new economical policy and a great program of public works. During Napoleon’s government, France underwent a deep change. After a long period of disorder, society found its stability, both on the political and economical side. In fact, Napoleon helped to foster an economic boom, which provided ample employment for the urban poor as well as for the young people, ambitious and well prepared. He mobilized all the resources of the State to give a new aspect to his nation, which was developing a new urban dimension. The railroads, from the 3,600 km of 1850, passed to 18,000 km in 1870. The number of streets and navigable canals doubled and the merchant navy was improved. These changes were essential to guarantee market growth.
The State’s resources were mobilized for the massive rebuilding of Paris too. Boulevards, great squares and great buildings took the place of the old slums, and new sewers allowed the improvement of hygienical conditions. All the expenses for these works were divided between the imperial government and the City of Paris.
After having consolidated his regime in France, Napoleon turned his attention to his position in Europe. His aim was to gain a new position of prestige for France, which was lost with the defeat of Napoleon I. He decided to conduct a strong foreign policy and to take sides with all the countries claiming their independence. Napoleon III helped Italy to reach his unification and to obtain from Austria that part of Italy they occupied for a long time. The figure of Napoleon III was very important for France, also if his attitude could seem sometimes despotic.
Another important event, which occurred in Europe in the 19th century, was the reunification of Germany. As for France, the long struggle started in 1848. After several decades of repression, a strong desire for reform had developed among the educated and wealthy bourgeoisie. In March 1848 the German liberals started to push for their claims. The princes of the several little states belonging to the German Confederation were obliged to grant constitutions and parliamentary assemblies and appointed liberal ministries all over Germany.
At the same time, the German nationalists called a National Assembly in Frankfurt to prepare the unification of Germany as a liberal, constitutional state. However, they found several problems, most of all they did not know what should become part of United Germany. In the end, they advocated the exclusion of Austria from the German nation-state and the foundation of a smaller empire under Prussian leadership. The deliberations of the National Assembly, however, soon became irrelevant because they were unable to face the growing reaction all over the German Confederation. The European Monarchs provided troops for bloody repression of the liberals, and the Prussian army helped crush democrats in South Germany. In an act of desperation, the National Assembly tried to save national unity by offering a German crown to the Prussian king. However, he refused to accept a crown from the revolutionaries.
The revolution of 1848 was a bloody failure, but the ideals did not disappear from the hearts of the Germans. To help the situation very soon arrived the industrial revolution, which allowed Germany to reach an economical unification and later the final and real unification on the geographic chart of Europe. As for France, the social revolution in Germany was really rapid, that in just two decades they reach the same level of industrialization of many other European nations. New factories were built, the production of textiles and iron increased, railroads grew and started to connect many distant regions, and coal production grew year by year reaching surprising levels. At this point, the Confederation was ready to be unified and the situation was caught by Otto Von Bismarck, who became Prussian Minister-President in 1862.
He accepted the necessity of national unification, but under the hegemony of the conservative, anti-liberal Prussian monarchy. Bismarck was a conservative landlord and not a German nationalist; moreover, he hated liberalism, democracy and socialism. However, he believed that charismatic leaders could become popular among the industrial and rural masses. In his policy, he acted as a liberal, but without believing in this ideology. In fact, he did not want to give the liberals an important role in government, he wanted just to conquer the popular favour. He was a very strong figure in this part of History. He made possible the unification of Germany, even though his attitude was impetuous.
He always insisted on the importance of power: unification would not come about through speeches and declarations but by “iron and blood”. When it was the moment for Germany to start the political unification, they have to face the problem of their neighbours. In 1863 the Danish government, which had constitutional rights on many two regions of the Confederation, Schleswig and Holstein, proceed to make Schleswig an integral part of Denmark.
The Germans did not accept this act, and so they declared war on the peninsula, with the help of the Prussian army. After a quick victory over the Danishes, Prussia signs a treaty that let Prussia govern the two regions. Two years later the Confederation has to face the Austrian threat. The Prussian army was defeated and Austria annexed many German states.
Prussia formed a new union, The North German Confederation (because they annexed those states located the north of the main river), Bismarck drafted a constitution that granted universal suffrage. In spite of the defeat, Germany became a strong power, and this alarmed France, which for centuries had tried to keep it divided and weak (during Napoleon’s wars, the Confederation was considered a buffer state between France and the rest of Europe).
Napoleon, in 1870, declared war to Prussia. The French army was defeat by a well-organized Prussian army, while Bismarck worked to obtain the consent of other princes of the Confederation for a united Germany. At Versailles on 18th of January 1871, Bismarck proclaimed the king of Prussia, king of Germany.
The third important event of this period was the unification of Italy. A sense of national unity began to take root despite the restoration imposed by the Vienna Congress. This feeling was supported, like in Germany and France, by the intellectual and the middle-class in all the Italian States and by numerous patriotic associations, as the “Young Italy” of Giuseppe Mazzini. They profoundly influenced society, even though their message often was unable to reach all the Italian population. The congress of Vienna followed in Italy, as in the rest of Europe by many insurrections, always repressed by the army. After the insurrection of Paris, in 1848 the region of the North decided to go against the Austrian empire, which had the control of Lombardy and Veneto. Encouraged by the uprising of Milan and Venice, the king of Sardinia Carlo Alberto intervened against Austria with the help of volunteers from various parts of Italy.
The Italian army was defeated not only now, but also in another attempt the following year. Carlo Alberto was obliged to abdicate in favor of Victor Emanuel II. In a852 Count, Camillo Benso Di Cavour became the prime minister of the king. He played an important role in the unification of Italy. He based all his work on diplomacy. At the congress of Paris in 1856, concluding the Crimean War, fought by the army of Piedmont in a coalition with France and England against Russia and Turkey, Cavour made the possible to raise the Italian question. He made a secret alliance with Napoleon III, which accepted to intervention in favour of Italy when Austria would have declared war on it. Italy provokes Austria, which declared war, and with the help of the French army, the Austrian empire was obliged to sign the armistice of Villafranca, which concerned the cession of Lombardy.
At the same time, all Central Italy and Romagna rebelled, overturning the old regimes. Following the plebiscite that voted in favour of annexation to Piedmont (1860), there then began the construction, together with the territory of Southern Italy that had been taken by Garibaldi’s expedition of `The Thousand’, of the United Kingdom Of Italy. This was to be proclaimed at Turin on 17 March 1861, though the acquisition of Rome and Venice were still outstanding.
The latter was added five years later (1866) following an unfortunate conflict with Austria, which was resolved in Italy’s favour thanks to the intervention of Prussia; Rome was conquered by force, on the 20th September 1870. With these events, the territorial unity of the Italian nation was almost complete and it was now necessary to construct its own social, economic and cultural image.
From 1815 many things changed, but the most important is that Europe changed from a rural society to an urban one. Thanks to the industrial revolution the aspect, the economy and the social situation of many countries changed.
As a consequence of this revolution, the European population in 50 years doubled and London, one of the biggest European cities, reached one million and a half of inhabitants. In the century between 1750 and 1850, the population of Europe passed from 150 million to about 270 million, and between 1850 and 1900 the population grew to 420 million. Existing statistics indicate that from 1750 there was a steady decline in the death rate, due to the improvement of hygienical conditions and advances in medicine.
A great contribution to the medical advance were the discoveries of Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch, who after many years proved that germs were not spontaneously generated, but reproduced themselves through breeding and were the major causes of diseases. Those kinds of discoveries were an impulse for the developments of medical technologies. The life condition was improved also by the efforts of many cities to improve their urbanization. In fact, as in France, great relevancy was given to the sewer. In the past, especially in the slums, the majority of the infections were generated by stagnant water. All these factors contributed to the rise of life expectancy, and that’s why the population in Europe doubled.
With the demographic revolution, the cities must enlarge themselves to host all their inhabitants. The cities became bigger and all the resources of the states were mobilized to realize new buildings, streets and services for the population. An important role in this period is occupied by the railroads.
Transportation, thanks to the invention of the locomotive, became easier. The railroads became the backbone of Europe’s inland transportation system. The construction of the railway provided a new and powerful stimulus to the industries. In fact, the demand for iron and coal increased and so the work of many industries. Overseas as overland, people and goods moved faster and farther.
In communication as in transport, a lot of inventions brought many European closes to each other. The postal service was more efficient and faster thanks to the railroad. Then, in 1844, the electric telegraph was invented, and due in part to its importance for the railroads, a network of telegraph lines spread all over Europe. In 1851 the first submarine cable was installed between Dover and Calais, in 1866 between Europe and USA, in 1870 and 1872 many cables were installed from Europe to India, and from Europe to Honk Kong.
Also press improved a lot, and the production of paper became cheaper. This meant that newspapers could be produced cheaply and in great numbers. This allowed all the inhabitants to be aware of what was happening around them.
“Anonymous”; “Herpes”;”Herpes is one of the common of more than 30 different sexually transmitted diseases (STD’s) in America today. Herpes is an infection that is caused by one of two closely related viruses, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Both of which are very easily caught, have similar symptoms and can occur on different parts of the body. Even though it is most common to see the virus HSV-1 appear as oral herpes and to see the virus HSV-2 appear as genital herpes.
Most often herpes is a relatively harmless disease that is rarely life-threatening. The most common form of herpes is oral herpes and usually shows up on the lips or inside of the mouth as “cold sores” or “fever blisters”. Cold sores are common in young children who acquire them from being exposed to active cold sores of adults and other children.
This form of herpes is annoying but harmless in both children and adult but is however very harmful to a newborn. It can sometimes be difficult to distinguish whether or not someone has been exposed to the other form of herpes, genital herpes. This is because there are very often no symptoms that go along with the virus. This is not always the case though and when symptoms do occur they are often seen as a cluster of blister sores, usually on the vagina, vulva, cervix, penis, or anus.
For genital herpes, symptoms may last several weeks, go away but only to return again weeks, months, or even years later. Symptoms may also include pain in the infected area, itching, burning feeling if urine flows over sores, and possibly an inability to urinate if severely swollen from many sores. Very severe outbreaks may have symptoms that include swollen and tender lymph glands in the groin, throat, or under the arms, and even flu-like feelings such as fever, chills, headache, and a general run-down feeling.
The spread of herpes may be attributed to a variety of activities ranging from touching and kissing to more intimate activities such as vaginal, anal, or oral intercourse. The time when the virus is most likely to be spread is when the sores, such as cold sores or fever blisters, are open and weeping, during this time the virus may be spread from one partner to another or from one part of the body to another. Although the chance of getting genital herpes from an infected partner who has no symptoms is only about 10 out of every hundred or 10 percent. It is unlikely, however, that contact with toilet seats, moist towels or similar objects spread herpes. The most commonly infected areas are moist areas of the mouth, anus, vulva, vagina, penis, or eyes.
Even though herpes in many cases is easily spread between two individuals, it is definitely possible to prevent the spreading of herpes to others. There are usually early warning signs before a breakout occurs such as tingling, burning, and itching where sores were before. These warning signs may start a few hours or even a day before the sores flare-up.
At first sight of any warning signs, all sexual contact should be stopped and should avoid sexual contact until all sores and scabs are gone. People who have herpes can use condoms to try and reduce the risk of spreading it to their partners when they are no symptoms present, but condoms do not offer complete protection when sores are present.
Touching the sores may spread herpes to other parts of the body, to prevent spreading wash hands with soap and water after touching the sores, after going to the bathroom, before rubbing your eyes when you wake up, or before touching a contact lens. Also if cold sores are present do not kiss anyone, especially infants, children, or pregnant women.
Even though herpes is not a deadly disease, it is still very annoying and may become a great inconvenience if the person infected is sexually active. There is also hope for relieving symptoms related to herpes such as taking a warm bath or using non-herbal tea bags on sores. Loose clothing may also help and because moisture can slow the healing process it is recommended to keep the sores dry by sprinkling cornstarch directly on sores.
Those people who have more than six outbreaks a year may be prescribed a daily dosage of acyclovir, famciclovir, or valacyclovir, which may reduce the frequency of recurrences or weaken the virus. At least one out of four Americans between 15 and 55 will get at least one sexually transmitted disease, so be prepared!
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